2021ACCA/CAT考试题目下载8篇 第1篇

(ii) Evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of Chen’s risk management committee being

non-executive rather than executive in nature. (7 marks)

(ii) Advantages and disadvantages of being non-executive rather than executive
The UK Combined Code, for example, allows for risk committees to be made up of either executive or non-executive
Advantages of non-executive membership
Separation and detachment from the content being discussed is more likely to bring independent scrutiny.
Sensitive issues relating to one or more areas of executive oversight can be aired without vested interests being present.
Non-executive directors often bring specific expertise that will be more relevant to a risk problem than more
operationally-minded executive directors will have.
Chen’s four members, being from different backgrounds, are likely to bring a range of perspectives and suggested
strategies which may enrich the options open to the committee when considering specific risks.
Disadvantages of non-executive membership (advantages of executive membership)
Direct input and relevant information would be available from executives working directly with the products, systems
and procedures being discussed if they were on the committee. Non-executives are less likely to have specialist
knowledge of products, systems and procedures being discussed and will therefore be less likely to be able to comment
intelligently during meetings.
The membership, of four people, none of whom ‘had direct experience of Chen’s industry or products’ could produce
decisions taken without relevant information that an executive member could provide.
Non-executive directors will need to report their findings to the executive board. This reporting stage slows down the
process, thus requiring more time before actions can be implemented, and introducing the possibility of some

2 (a) Explain the term ‘backflush accounting’ and the circumstances in which its use would be appropriate.

(6 marks)

(a) Backflush accounting focuses upon output of an organisation and then works backwards when allocating costs between cost
of goods sold and inventories. It can be argued that backflush accounting simplifies costing since it ignores both labour
variances and work-in-progress. Whilst in a perfect just-in-time environment there would be no work-in-progress at all, there
will in practice be a small amount of work-in-progress in the system at any point in time. This amount, however, is likely to
be negligible in quantity and therefore not significant in terms of value. Thus, a backflush accounting system simplifies the
accounting records by avoiding the need to follow the movement of materials and work-in-progress through the manufacturing
process within the organisation.
The backflush accounting system is likely to involve the maintenance of a raw materials and work-in–progress account
together with a finished goods account. The use of standard costs and variances is likely to be incorporated into the
accounting entries. Transfers from raw materials and work-in-progress account to finished goods (or cost of sales) will probably
be made at standard cost. The difference between the actual inputs and the standard charges from the raw materials and
work-in-progress account will be recorded as a residual variance, which will be recorded in the profit and loss account. Thus,
it is essential that standard costs are a good surrogate for actual costs if large variances are to be avoided. Backflush
accounting is ideally suited to a just-in-time philosophy and is employed where the overall cycle time is relatively short and
inventory levels are low. Naturally, management will still be eager to ascertain the cause of any variances that arise from the
inefficient usage of materials, labour and overhead. However investigations are far more likely to be undertaken using nonfinancial
performance indicators as opposed to detailed cost variances.

(c) Prepare brief notes for the proposed meeting with Charles and Jane. Clearly identify the further information

you would need in order to advise them more fully and suggest appropriate personal financial planning

protection products, in respect of both death and serious illness. (9 marks)

You should assume that the income tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 and the corporation tax

rates for the financial year 2005 apply throughout this question.



When considering the shortfall
– The family’s expenditure is likely to increase as the children get older, particularly if there is a need for school fees.
– There will be a need for some cash immediately to pay for the cost of the funeral.
– It is assumed that the whole of Jane’s estate has been left to Charles such that there will be no inheritance tax on her
– The shortfall may be reduced by:
(i) State benefits and tax credits.
(ii) Expenditure on non-essential items, e.g. holidays and entertainment included in the annual expenditure of
(iii) The income generated by Charles if he were to return to work.
– The shortfall may be increased by additional child-care costs due to Charles being a single parent, particularly if he
returns to work full-time.
Further information required
– The level of state benefits and tax credits available to Charles.
– The current level of expenditure on non-essential items.
– The costs of child-care if Charles were to return to work.
– Details of any wills made by Charles or Jane.
– Whether Charles’ investment properties could be sold and the proceeds invested in assets with a higher annual return.
– Whether there is any value in Speak Write Ltd independent of Jane, such that the company could be sold after Jane’s
Other related issues
– The couple should consider making provision for their retirement via pension contributions or some other form. of long
term investment plan.
– The couple should recognise that there would be significant financial problems if Jane were to become seriously ill. In
addition to the family’s income falling as set out above, its expenditure would probably increase.
Protection products
– Term life assurance
A qualifying life policy would pay out a tax-free lump sum on Jane’s death.
– Permanent health insurance
Would provide a regular income if Jane were unable to work due to illness.
– Critical illness insurance
Would provide a capital sum in the event of Jane being diagnosed with an insured illness.

A company predicted that the learning rate for production of a new product would be 80%. The actual learning rate was 75%. The following possible reasons were stated for this:

(i) The number of new employees recruited was lower than expected

(ii) Unexpected problems were encountered with production

(iii) Unexpected changes to Health and Safety laws meant that the company had to increase the number of breaks during production for employees

Which of the above reasons could have caused the difference between the expected rate of learning and the actual rate of learning?

A.All of the above

B.(ii) and (iii) only

C.(i) only

D.None of the above


The learning rate was actually better than expected and only (i) could cause it to improve.

(c) Explain the capital gains tax (CGT) and income tax (IT) issues Paul and Sharon should consider in deciding

which form. of trust to set up for Gisella and Gavin. You are not required to consider inheritance tax (IHT) or

stamp duty land tax (SDLT) issues. (10 marks)

You should assume that the tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 apply throughout this question.

(c) As the trust is created in the settlors’ (Paul and Sharon’s) lifetime its creation will constitute a chargeable disposal for capital
gains tax. Also, as the settlors and trustees are connected persons, the disposal will be deemed to be at market value, resulting
in a chargeable gain of £80,000 (160,000 – 80,000). No taper relief will be available as the property is a non-business
asset, and has been held for less than three years, but annual exemptions of £17,000 (2 x £8,500) will be available.
However, in the case of a discretionary trust, gift hold over relief will be available. This is because the gift will constitute a
chargeable lifetime transfer and because there is an immediate charge to inheritance tax (even though no tax is payable due
to the nil rate band) relief is available if a specific accumulation and maintenance trust is used, as in this case the gift will
qualify as a potentially exempt transfer and so gift relief would only be available in respect of business assets. The use of a
basic discretionary trust will thus facilitate the deferral of an immediate capital gains tax charge of £25,200 (63,000 x 40%).
If/when the property is disposed of, however, the trustees will pay capital gains tax on the deferred gain at the trust income
tax rate of 40%, and have an annual exemption of only £4,250 (50% of the normal individual rate) available to them. The
40% rate of tax and lower annual exemption rate also apply to chargeable gains arising in a specific accumulation and
maintenance trust, as well as a basic discretionary trust.
A chargeable disposal between connected persons will also arise for the purposes of capital gains tax if/when the property
vests in a beneficiary, i.e. one or more of the beneficiaries becomes absolutely entitled to all or part of the income or capital
of the trust. Gift hold over relief will again be available on all assets in the case of a discretionary trust, but only on business
assets in the case of an accumulation and maintenance trust, except where a beneficiary becomes entitled to both income
and capital at the same time.
The trust will have taxable property income in the form. of net rents from its creation and in future years is also likely to have
other investment income, probably in the form. of interest, to the extent that monies are retained in the trust. Whichever form
of trust is used, the trustees will pay tax at the standard trust rate of 40% on income other than dividend income (32·5%),
except to the extent of (1) the first £500 of taxable income, which is taxed at the rate that would otherwise apply to such
income (i.e. 22% for non-savings (rental) income, 20% for savings income (interest) and 10% for dividends) but, only to the
extent that it is not distributed; and (2) the legitimate trust management expenses, which are offsettable for the purposes of
the higher trust tax rates against the income with the lowest rate(s) of normal tax and so bear tax only at that rate. The higher
trust tax rate always applies to income that is distributed, other than to the extent that it has been treated as the settlor’s
income, and taxed at that settlor’s marginal tax rate.
As Paul and Sharon intend to create a trust for their unmarried minor (under 18) children, then even if the trust specifically
excludes them from any benefit under the trust, the trust income will be treated as theirs for income tax purposes to the extent
that it constitutes income paid for on behalf (including maintenance payments) of Gisella and Gavin; except where (1) the
total income arising does not exceed £100 gross per annum, and (2) income is held for the benefit of a child under an
accumulation and maintenance settlement, to the extent that it is not paid out.

(ii) Assuming the new structure is implemented with effect from 1 August 2006, calculate the level of

management charge that should be made by Bold plc to Linden Limited for the year ended 31 July

2007, so as to minimise the group’s overall corporation tax (CT) liability for that year. (2 marks)

(ii) For the year ended 31 July 2007, there will be two associated companies in the group. Bold plc will count as an
associated company as it is not dormant throughout the period in question. As a result, the corporation tax limits will be
divided by two (i.e. the number of associates) giving an upper limit of £750,000 (£1·5 million/2). As Linden Limited
is anticipated to make profits of £1·4 million in the year to 31 July 2007 it will pay corporation tax at the rate of 30%.
Bold plc can earn trading profits up to £150,000 (£300,000/2) and pay tax at the rate of 19%. It will therefore
minimise the group’s corporation tax liability if maximum use is made of this small companies rate band, as it will save
£16,500 (150,000 x (30% – 19%)) of corporation tax for the year to 31 July 2007. Bold plc should therefore make
a management charge of sufficient size to give it profits for that year equal to £150,000.
While the transfer pricing legislation no longer applies to small and medium sized enterprises, Bold plc should
nevertheless ensure that there is evidence to support the actual charge made in terms of the services provided.

2021ACCA/CAT考试题目下载8篇 第2篇

(ii) Identify and explain the principal audit procedures to be performed on the valuation of the investment

properties. (6 marks)

(ii) Additional audit procedures
Audit procedures should focus on the appraisal of the work of the expert valuer. Procedures could include the following:
– Inspection of the written instructions provided by Poppy Co to the valuer, which should include matters such as
the objective and scope of the valuer’s work, the extent of the valuer’s access to relevant records and files, and
clarification of the intended use by the auditor of their work.
– Evaluation, using the valuation report, that any assumptions used by the valuer are in line with the auditor’s
knowledge and understanding of Poppy Co. Any documentation supporting assumptions used by the valuer should
be reviewed for consistency with the auditor’s business understanding, and also for consistency with any other
audit evidence.
– Assessment of the methodology used to arrive at the fair value and confirmation that the method is consistent with
that required by IAS 40.
– The auditor should confirm, using the valuation report, that a consistent method has been used to value each
– It should also be confirmed that the date of the valuation report is reasonably close to the year end of Poppy Co.
– Physical inspection of the investment properties to determine the physical condition of the properties supports the
– Inspect the purchase documentation of each investment property to ascertain the cost of each building. As the
properties were acquired during this accounting period, it would be reasonable to expect that the fair value at the
year end is not substantially different to the purchase price. Any significant increase or decrease in value should
alert the auditor to possible misstatement, and lead to further audit procedures.
– Review of forecasts of rental income from the properties – supporting evidence of the valuation.
– Subsequent events should be monitored for any additional evidence provided on the valuation of the properties.
For example, the sale of an investment property shortly after the year end may provide additional evidence relating
to the fair value measurement.
– Obtain a management representation regarding the reasonableness of any significant assumptions, where relevant,
to fair value measurements or disclosures.

(b) How could pursuing a corporate environmental strategy both add to CFS’s competitive advantage and be

socially responsible? (5 marks)

(b) Increasingly, firms are becoming aware of their social responsibility and their need to develop strategies that are designed to
meet this responsibility. Such responsibility can take many forms and is not a new phenomenon – many 19th century firms
looked after the housing, education and health needs of the communities where they were located. Michael Porter and Claas
van der Linde in their article ‘Green and competitive’ show how the traditional view that there is ‘an inherent and fixed tradeoff:
ecology versus economy’ is incorrect. This traditional view sees the benefits of government imposed environmental
standards, causing industry’s private costs of prevention and clean up – ‘costs that cause higher prices and reduced
competitiveness’. Porter and Linde argue that with properly designed and implemented environmental standards, firms will
be encouraged to produce innovations that use a range of inputs more efficiently, e.g. energy, labour, raw materials, and in
so doing increase resource productivity and in offsetting the costs of environmental improvement make industry more not less
competitive. All too often in their opinion, companies resort to fighting environmental control through the courts rather than
using innovation to increase resource productivity and meet environmental standards – ‘environmental strategies must
become an issue for general managers’.
CFS are, therefore, correct in seeing environmental standards as a positive step towards becoming more not less competitive.
Key stakeholders in the form. of both government and customers are looking to their suppliers to become more ‘green’. These
challenges are increasingly international and global. Building in positive environmental strategies can help CFS differentiate
itself and through improved resource productivity become more competitive. Clearly, they will need the environmental
scanning devices to become aware of environmental legislation and change. Awareness then can lead to analysis in the
monitoring of macro environmental challenges and the development of a SWOT analysis to match the company’s strengths
and weaknesses against the threats and opportunities created by environmental standards. Tools of strategic analysis such as
PEST, five forces and value chain analysis lend themselves to understanding the significance of the environmental change
and how it can stimulate innovation and, through innovation, competitive advantage.

(b) Explain what is meant by McGregor’s

(i) Theory X; (5 marks)

(b) Douglas McGregor has suggested that the managers’ view of the individuals’ attitude to work can be divided into two categories, which he called Theory X and Theory Y. The style. of management adopted will stem from the view taken as to how subordinates behave. However, these two typologies are not distinct; they do in fact represent the two ends of a continuum.
(i) Theory X is based on traditional organisational thinking. It assumes that the average person is basically indolent and has an inherent dislike of work which should be avoided at all costs. The individual lacks ambition, shuns responsibility, has no ambition and is resistant to change. This theory holds that the individual seeks only security and is driven solely by self-interest. It follows that because of this dislike of work, most have to be directed, controlled, organised or coerced. Management is based on fear and punishment and will have an exploitative or authoritarian style. This reflects the thinking of the classical school of management, based on a scientific approach, specialisation, standardisation and obedience to superiors.

4 (a) The purpose of ISA 510 ‘Initial Engagements – Opening Balances’ is to establish standards and provide guidance

regarding opening balances when the financial statements are audited for the first time or when the financial

statements for the prior period were audited by another auditor.


Explain the auditor’s reporting responsibilities that are specific to initial engagements. (5 marks)

(a) Reporting responsibilities specific to initial engagements
For initial audit engagements, the auditor should obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence that:
■ the opening balances do not contain misstatements that materially affect the current period’s financial statements;
■ the prior period’s closing balances have been correctly brought forward to the current period (or, where appropriate, have
been restated); and
■ appropriate accounting policies are consistently applied or changes in accounting policies have been properly accounted
for (and adequately presented and disclosed).
If the auditor is unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence concerning opening balances there will be a limitation
on the scope of the audit. The auditor’s report should include:
■ a qualified (‘except for’) opinion;
■ a disclaimer of opinion; or
■ in those jurisdictions where it is permitted, an opinion which is:
– qualified (or disclaimed) regarding the results of operations (i.e. on the income statement); and
– unqualified regarding financial position (i.e. on the balance sheet).
If the effect of a misstatement in the opening balances is not properly accounted for and adequately presented and disclosed,
the auditor should express a qualified (‘except for’ disagreement) opinion or an adverse opinion, as appropriate.
If the current period’s accounting policies have not been consistently applied in relation to opening balances and if the change
has not been properly accounted for and adequately presented and disclosed, the auditor should similarly express
disagreement (‘except for’ or adverse opinion as appropriate).
However, if a modification regarding the prior period’s financial statements remains relevant and material to the current
period’s financial statements, the auditor should modify the current auditor’s report accordingly.

(c) Lamont owns a residential apartment above its head office. Until 31 December 2006 it was let for $3,000 a

month. Since 1 January 2007 it has been occupied rent-free by the senior sales executive. (6 marks)


For each of the above issues:

(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and

(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,

in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Lamont Co for the year ended

31 March 2007.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

(c) Rent-free accommodation
(i) Matters
■ The senior sales executive is a member of Lamont’s key management personnel and is therefore a related party.
■ The occupation of Lamont’s residential apartment by the senior sales executive is therefore a related party
transaction, even though no price is charged (IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures).
■ Related party transactions are material by nature and information about them should be disclosed so that users of
financial statements understand the potential effect of related party relationships on the financial statements.
■ The provision of ‘housing’ is a non-monetary benefit that should be included in the disclosure of key management
personnel compensation (within the category of short-term employee benefits).
■ The financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2007 should disclose the arrangement for providing the
senior sales executive with rent-free accommodation and its fair value (i.e. $3,000 per month).
Tutorial note: Since no price is charged for the transaction, rote-learned disclosures such as ‘the amount of outstanding
balances’ and ‘expense recognised in respect of bad debts’ are irrelevant.
(ii) Audit evidence
■ Physical inspection of the apartment to confirm that it is occupied.
■ Written representation from the senior sales executive that he is occupying the apartment free of charge.
■ Written representation from the management board confirming that there are no related party transactions requiring
disclosure other than those that have been disclosed.
■ Inspection of the lease agreement with (or payments received from) the previous tenant to confirm the $3,000
monthly rental value.

You are an audit manager at Rockwell & Co, a firm of Chartered Certified Accountants. You are responsible for the audit of the Hopper Group, a listed audit client which supplies ingredients to the food and beverage industry worldwide.

The audit work for the year ended 30 June 2015 is nearly complete, and you are reviewing the draft audit report which has been prepared by the audit senior. During the year the Hopper Group purchased a new subsidiary company, Seurat Sweeteners Co, which has expertise in the research and design of sugar alternatives. The draft financial statements of the Hopper Group for the year ended 30 June 2015 recognise profit before tax of $495 million (2014 – $462 million) and total assets of $4,617 million (2014: $4,751 million). An extract from the draft audit report is shown below:

Basis of modified opinion (extract)

In their calculation of goodwill on the acquisition of the new subsidiary, the directors have failed to recognise consideration which is contingent upon meeting certain development targets. The directors believe that it is unlikely that these targets will be met by the subsidiary company and, therefore, have not recorded the contingent consideration in the cost of the acquisition. They have disclosed this contingent liability fully in the notes to the financial statements. We do not feel that the directors’ treatment of the contingent consideration is correct and, therefore, do not believe that the criteria of the relevant standard have been met. If this is the case, it would be appropriate to adjust the goodwill balance in the statement of financial position.

We believe that any required adjustment may materially affect the goodwill balance in the statement of financial position. Therefore, in our opinion, the financial statements do not give a true and fair view of the financial position of the Hopper Group and of the Hopper Group’s financial performance and cash flows for the year then ended in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards.

Emphasis of Matter Paragraph

We draw attention to the note to the financial statements which describes the uncertainty relating to the contingent consideration described above. The note provides further information necessary to understand the potential implications of the contingency.


(a) Critically appraise the draft audit report of the Hopper Group for the year ended 30 June 2015, prepared by the audit senior.

Note: You are NOT required to re-draft the extracts from the audit report. (10 marks)

(b) The audit of the new subsidiary, Seurat Sweeteners Co, was performed by a different firm of auditors, Fish Associates. During your review of the communication from Fish Associates, you note that they were unable to obtain sufficient appropriate evidence with regard to the breakdown of research expenses. The total of research costs expensed by Seurat Sweeteners Co during the year was $1·2 million. Fish Associates has issued a qualified audit opinion on the financial statements of Seurat Sweeteners Co due to this inability to obtain sufficient appropriate evidence.


Comment on the actions which Rockwell & Co should take as the auditor of the Hopper Group, and the implications for the auditor’s report on the Hopper Group financial statements. (6 marks)

(c) Discuss the quality control procedures which should be carried out by Rockwell & Co prior to the audit report on the Hopper Group being issued. (4 marks)


(a) Critical appraisal of the draft audit report

Type of opinion

When an auditor issues an opinion expressing that the financial statements ‘do not give a true and fair view’, this represents an adverse opinion. The paragraph explaining the modification should, therefore, be titled ‘Basis of Adverse Opinion’ rather than simply ‘Basis of Modified Opinion’.

An adverse opinion means that the auditor considers the misstatement to be material and pervasive to the financial statements of the Hopper Group. According to ISA 705 Modifications to Opinions in the Independent Auditor’s Report, pervasive matters are those which affect a substantial proportion of the financial statements or fundamentally affect the users’ understanding of the financial statements. It is unlikely that the failure to recognise contingent consideration is pervasive; the main effect would be to understate goodwill and liabilities. This would not be considered a substantial proportion of the financial statements, neither would it be fundamental to understanding the Hopper Group’s performance and position.

However, there is also some uncertainty as to whether the matter is even material. If the matter is determined to be material but not pervasive, then a qualified opinion would be appropriate on the basis of a material misstatement. If the matter is not material, then no modification would be necessary to the audit opinion.

Wording of opinion/report

The auditor’s reference to ‘the acquisition of the new subsidiary’ is too vague; the Hopper Group may have purchased a number of subsidiaries which this phrase could relate to. It is important that the auditor provides adequate description of the event and in these circumstances it would be appropriate to name the subsidiary referred to.

The auditor has not quantified the amount of the contingent element of the consideration. For the users to understand the potential implications of any necessary adjustments, they need to know how much the contingent consideration will be if it becomes payable. It is a requirement of ISA 705 that the auditor quantifies the financial effects of any misstatements, unless it is impracticable to do so.

In addition to the above point, the auditor should provide more description of the financial effects of the misstatement, including full quantification of the effect of the required adjustment to the assets, liabilities, incomes, revenues and equity of the Hopper Group.

The auditor should identify the note to the financial statements relevant to the contingent liability disclosure rather than just stating ‘in the note’. This will improve the understandability and usefulness of the contents of the audit report.

The use of the term ‘we do not feel that the treatment is correct’ is too vague and not professional. While there may be some interpretation necessary when trying to apply financial reporting standards to unique circumstances, the expression used is ambiguous and may be interpreted as some form. of disclaimer by the auditor with regard to the correct accounting treatment. The auditor should clearly explain how the treatment applied in the financial statements has departed from the requirements of the relevant standard.

Tutorial note: As an illustration to the above point, an appropriate wording would be: ‘Management has not recognised the acquisition-date fair value of contingent consideration as part of the consideration transferred in exchange for the acquiree, which constitutes a departure from International Financial Reporting Standards.’

The ambiguity is compounded by the use of the phrase ‘if this is the case, it would be appropriate to adjust the goodwill’. This once again suggests that the correct treatment is uncertain and perhaps open to interpretation.

If the auditor wishes to refer to a specific accounting standard they should refer to its full title. Therefore instead of referring to ‘the relevant standard’ they should refer to International Financial Reporting Standard 3 Business Combinations.

The opinion paragraph requires an appropriate heading. In this case the auditors have issued an adverse opinion and the paragraph should be headed ‘Adverse Opinion’.

As with the basis paragraph, the opinion paragraph lacks authority; suggesting that the required adjustments ‘may’ materially affect the financial statements implies that there is a degree of uncertainty. This is not the case; the amount of the contingent consideration will be disclosed in the relevant purchase agreement, so the auditor should be able to determine whether the required adjustments are material or not. Regardless, the sentence discussing whether the balance is material or not is not required in the audit report as to warrant inclusion in the report the matter must be considered material. The disclosure of the nature and financial effect of the misstatement in the basis paragraph is sufficient.

Finally, the emphasis of matter paragraph should not be included in the audit report. An emphasis of matter paragraph is only used to draw attention to an uncertainty/matter of fundamental importance which is correctly accounted for and disclosed in the financial statements. An emphasis of matter is not required in this case for the following reasons:

– Emphasis of matter is only required to highlight matters which the auditor believes are fundamental to the users’ understanding of the business. An example may be where a contingent liability exists which is so significant it could lead to the closure of the reporting entity. That is not the case with the Hopper Group; the contingent liability does not appear to be fundamental.

– Emphasis of matter is only used for matters where the auditor has obtained sufficient appropriate evidence that the matter is not materially misstated in the financial statements. If the financial statements are materially misstated, in this regard the matter would be fully disclosed by the auditor in the basis of qualified/adverse opinion paragraph and no emphasis of matter is necessary.

(b) Communication from the component auditor

The qualified opinion due to insufficient evidence may be a significant matter for the Hopper Group audit. While the possible adjustments relating to the current year may not be material to the Hopper Group, the inability to obtain sufficient appropriate evidence with regard to a material matter in Seurat Sweeteners Co’s financial statements may indicate a control deficiency which the auditor was not aware of at the planning stage and it could indicate potential problems with regard to the integrity of management, which could also indicate a potential fraud. It could also indicate an unwillingness of management to provide information, which could create problems for future audits, particularly if research and development costs increase in future years. If the group auditor suspects that any of these possibilities are true, they may need to reconsider their risk assessment and whether the audit procedures performed are still appropriate.

If the detail provided in the communication from the component auditor is insufficient, the group auditor should first discuss the matter with the component auditor to see whether any further information can be provided. The group auditor can request further working papers from the component auditor if this is necessary. However, if Seurat Sweeteners has not been able to provide sufficient appropriate evidence, it is unlikely that this will be effective.

If the discussions with the component auditor do not provide satisfactory responses to evaluate the potential impact on the Hopper Group, the group auditor may need to communicate with either the management of Seurat Sweeteners or the Hopper Group to obtain necessary clarification with regard to the matter.

Following these procedures, the group auditor needs to determine whether they have sufficient appropriate evidence to draw reasonable conclusions on the Hopper Group’s financial statements. If they believe the lack of information presents a risk of material misstatement in the group financial statements, they can request that further audit procedures be performed, either by the component auditor or by themselves.

Ultimately the group engagement partner has to evaluate the effect of the inability to obtain sufficient appropriate evidence on the audit opinion of the Hopper Group. The matter relates to research expenses totalling $1·2 million, which represents 0·2% of the profit for the year and 0·03% of the total assets of the Hopper Group. It is therefore not material to the Hopper Group’s financial statements. For this reason no modification to the audit report of the Hopper Group would be required as this does not represent a lack of sufficient appropriate evidence with regard to a matter which is material to the Group financial statements.

Although this may not have an impact on the Hopper Group audit opinion, this may be something the group auditor wishes to bring to the attention of those charged with governance. This would be particularly likely if the group auditor believed that this could indicate some form. of fraud in Seurat Sweeteners Co, a serious deficiency in financial reporting controls or if this could create problems for accepting future audits due to management’s unwillingness to provide access to accounting records.

(c) Quality control procedures prior to issuing the audit report

ISA 220 Quality Control for an Audit of Financial Statements and ISQC 1 Quality Control for Firms that Perform. Audits and Reviews of Historical Financial Information, and Other Assurance and Related Services Agreements require that an engagement quality control reviewer shall be appointed for audits of financial statements of listed entities. The audit engagement partner then discusses significant matters arising during the audit engagement with the engagement quality control reviewer.

The engagement quality control reviewer and the engagement partner should discuss the failure to recognise the contingent consideration and its impact on the auditor’s report. The engagement quality control reviewer must review the financial statements and the proposed auditor’s report, in particular focusing on the conclusions reached in formulating the auditor’s report and consideration of whether the proposed auditor’s opinion is appropriate. The audit documentation relating to the acquisition of Seurat Sweeteners Co will be carefully reviewed, and the reviewer is likely to consider whether procedures performed in relation to these balances were appropriate.

Given the listed status of the Hopper Group, any modification to the auditor’s report will be scrutinised, and the firm must be sure of any decision to modify the report, and the type of modification made. Once the engagement quality control reviewer has considered the necessity of a modification, they should consider whether a qualified or an adverse opinion is appropriate in the circumstances. This is an important issue, given that it requires judgement as to whether the matters would be material or pervasive to the financial statements.

The engagement quality control reviewer should ensure that there is adequate documentation regarding the judgements used in forming the final audit opinion, and that all necessary matters have been brought to the attention of those charged with governance.

The auditor’s report must not be signed and dated until the completion of the engagement quality control review.

Tutorial note: In the case of the Hopper Group’s audit, the lack of evidence in respect of research costs is unlikely to be discussed unless the audit engagement partner believes that the matter could be significant, for example, if they suspected the lack of evidence is being used to cover up a financial statements fraud.

2021ACCA/CAT考试题目下载8篇 第3篇

(b) Advise Maureen on deregistration for the purposes of value added tax (VAT) and any possible alternative

strategy. (8 marks)

An additional mark will be awarded for the effectiveness with which the information is communicated.

(1 mark)

(b) Advice on Maureen’s VAT position
In order to voluntarily deregister for VAT you must satisfy HMRC that the value of your taxable supplies in the next twelve
months will not exceed £62,000. You will then be deregistered with effect from the date of your request or a later date as
agreed with HMRC.
On deregistering you are regarded as making a supply of all stocks and equipment in respect of which input tax has been
claimed. However, the VAT on this deemed supply need only be paid to HMRC if it exceeds £1,000.
Once you have deregistered, you must no longer charge VAT on your sales. You will also be unable to recover the input tax
on the costs incurred by your business. Instead, the VAT you pay on your costs will be allowable when computing your taxable
You should monitor your sales on a monthly basis; if your sales in a twelve-month period exceed £64,000 you must notify
HMRC within the 30 days following the end of the twelve-month period. You will be registered from the end of the month
following the end of the twelve-month period.
Flat rate scheme
Rather than deregistering you may wish to consider operating the flat rate scheme. This would reduce the amount of
administration as you would no longer need to record and claim input tax in respect of the costs incurred by your business.
Under the flat rate scheme you would continue to charge your customers VAT in the way that you do at the moment. You
would then pay HMRC a fixed percentage of your VAT inclusive turnover each quarter rather than calculating output tax less
input tax. This may be financially advantageous as compared with deregistering; I would be happy to prepare calculations for
you if you wish.

(d) Advise on any lifetime inheritance tax (IHT) planning that could be undertaken in respect of both Stuart and

Rebecca to help reduce the potential inheritance tax (IHT) liability calculated in (c) above. (7 marks)

Relevant retail price index figures are:

May 1994 144·7

April 1998 162·6

(d) Stuart is not making use of his nil rate band, as all assets are transferred, exempt from inheritance tax (IHT), to Rebecca (as
spouse) on death. He should consider altering his will to transfer an amount equivalent to the nil rate band to his son, Sam.
If Stuart dies before altering his will, Rebecca can elect to make a Deed of Variation in favour of Sam instead. This will have
the same effect as the above.
Care should be taken in determining which assets are subject to this legacy. The Omega plc shares should not be transferred
to Sam as they currently attract 50% BPR. Instead, assets not subject to any reliefs (such as the insurance payout or cash
deposits) should be used instead. By doing this, IHT of £105,200 (£263,000 x 40%) could be saved on the ultimate death
of Rebecca.
It is too late for Stuart to make use of potentially exempt transfers (PETs) as no relief is obtained until three years have passed,
and full relief only occurs seven years after making the gifts. The same would also apply to Rebecca if she were to die on 1
March 2008. However, as she is currently in good health, she may decide to make lifetime gifts, although she should also
not gift the Omega plc shares for the reasons stated above as any gift other than of the entire holding will result in the loss
of BPR on the remainder.
Both individuals should make use of their annual exemptions (£3,000 per person per year). The annual exemptions not used
up in the previous year can be used in this current year. This would give a saving of £2,400 each (3,000 x 2 x 40%).
Exemptions for items such as small gifts (£250 per donee per year) are also available.
Gifts out of normal income should also be considered. After making such gifts, the individual should be left with sufficient
income to maintain their usual standard of living. To obtain the exemption, it is usually necessary to demonstrate general
evidence of a prior commitment to make the gifts, or a settled pattern of expenditure.
While there are no details of income, both Stuart and Rebecca are wealthy in their own right, and are likely to earn reasonable
sums from their investments. They should therefore be able to satisfy the conditions on that basis.
If Rebecca were to make substantial lifetime gifts, the donees would be advised to consider taking out insurance policies on
Rebecca’s life to cover the potential tax liabilities that may arise on any PETs in the event of her early death.
Tutorial note: the answer has assumed that the shares could be bought for £2·10, their value for IHT.

(ii) ‘job description’. (4 marks)

(ii) On the other hand, the job description is based on information gathered from a job analysis and defines the position and role
that has to be fulfilled. It is a statement of the component tasks, duties, objectives and standards. It describes the purpose
and relationships of the specific job together with the physical, social and economic factors which affect it. Fundamentally, it
describes the job to be done.

(b) A sale of industrial equipment to Deakin Co in May 2005 resulted in a loss on disposal of $0·3 million that has

been separately disclosed on the face of the income statement. The equipment cost $1·2 million when it was

purchased in April 1996 and was being depreciated on a straight-line basis over 20 years. (6 marks)


For each of the above issues:

(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and

(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,

in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Keffler Co for the year ended

31 March 2006.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

(b) Sale of industrial equipment
(i) Matters
■ The industrial equipment was in use for nine years (from April 1996) and would have had a carrying value of
$660,000 at 31 March 2005 (11/20 × $1·2m – assuming nil residual value and a full year’s depreciation charge
in the year of acquisition and none in the year of disposal). Disposal proceeds were therefore only $360,000.
■ The $0·3m loss represents 15% of PBT (for the year to 31 March 2006) and is therefore material. The equipment
was material to the balance sheet at 31 March 2005 representing 2·6% of total assets ($0·66/$25·7 × 100).
■ Separate disclosure, of a material loss on disposal, on the face of the income statement is in accordance with
IAS 16 ‘Property, Plant and Equipment’. However, in accordance with IAS 1 ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’,
it should not be captioned in any way that might suggest that it is not part of normal operating activities (i.e. not
‘extraordinary’, ‘exceptional’, etc).
Tutorial note: However, note that if there is a prior period error to be accounted for (see later), there would be
no impact on the current period income statement requiring consideration of any disclosure.
■ The reason for the sale. For example, whether the equipment was:
– surplus to operating requirements (i.e. not being replaced); or
– being replaced with newer equipment (thereby contributing to the $8·1m increase (33·8 – 25·7) in total
■ The reason for the loss on sale. For example, whether:
– the sale was at an under-value (e.g. to a related party);
– the equipment had a bad maintenance history (or was otherwise impaired);
– the useful life of the equipment is less than 20 years;
– there is any deferred consideration not yet recorded;
– any non-cash disposal proceeds have been overlooked (e.g. if another asset was acquired in a part-exchange).
■ If the useful life was less than 20 years, tangible non-current assets may be materially overstated in respect of other
items of equipment that are still in use and being depreciated on the same basis.
■ If the sale was to a related party then additional disclosure should be required in a note to the financial statements
for the year to 31 March 2006 (IAS 24 ‘Related Party Disclosures’).
Tutorial note: Since there are no specific pointers to a related party transaction (RPT), this point is not expanded
■ Whether the sale was identified in the prior year audit’s post balance sheet event review. If so:
– the disclosure made in the prior year’s financial statements (IAS 10 ‘Events After the Balance Sheet Date’);
– whether an impairment loss was recognised at 31 March 2005.
■ If not, and the equipment was impaired at 31 March 2005, a prior period error should be accounted for (IAS 8
‘Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors’). An impairment loss of $0·3m would have
been material to prior year profit (12·5%).
Tutorial note: Unless this was a RPT or the impairment arose after 31 March 2005 a prior period adjustment
should be made.
■ Failure to account for a prior period error (if any) would result in modification of the audit opinion ‘except for’ noncompliance
with IAS 8 (in the current year) and IAS 36 (in the prior period).
(ii) Audit evidence
■ Carrying amount ($0·66m as above) agreed to the non-current asset register balances at 31 March 2005 and
recalculation of the loss on disposal.
■ Cost and accumulated depreciation removed from the asset register in the year to 31 March 2006.
■ Receipt of proceeds per cash book agreed to bank statement.
■ Sales invoice transferring title to Deakin.
■ A review of maintenance expenses and records (e.g. to confirm reason for loss on sale).
■ Post balance sheet event review on prior year audit working papers file.
■ Management representation confirming that Deakin is not a related party (provided that there is no evidence to
suggest otherwise).

(ii) Any increase or decrease in the group’s budgeted corporation tax liability for the year ending 30 June

2008 due to the restructuring on the assumption that trading losses will be used as efficiently as

possible. (8 marks)


(ii) The budgeted corporation tax liability for the year ending 30 June 2008
Following the proposed restructuring, Rapier Ltd will be carrying on four separate trades. The current year loss arising
in the Dirk trade can be offset against its total profits. Its three subsidiaries will be dormant and will not be associates
for the purpose of determining the rate of corporation tax.

(b) You are the audit manager of Jinack Co, a private limited liability company. You are currently reviewing two

matters that have been left for your attention on the audit working paper file for the year ended 30 September


(i) Jinack holds an extensive range of inventory and keeps perpetual inventory records. There was no full

physical inventory count at 30 September 2005 as a system of continuous stock checking is operated by

warehouse personnel under the supervision of an internal audit department.

A major systems failure in October 2005 caused the perpetual inventory records to be corrupted before the

year-end inventory position was determined. As data recovery procedures were found to be inadequate,

Jinack is reconstructing the year-end quantities through a physical count and ‘rollback’. The reconstruction

exercise is expected to be completed in January 2006. (6 marks)


Identify and comment on the implications of the above matters for the auditor’s report on the financial

statements of Jinack Co for the year ended 30 September 2005 and, where appropriate, the year ending

30 September 2006.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the matters.

(b) Implications for the auditor’s report
(i) Corruption of perpetual inventory records
■ The loss of data (of physical inventory quantities at the balance sheet date) gives rise to a limitation on scope.
Tutorial note: It is the records of the asset that have been destroyed – not the physical asset.
■ The systems failure in October 2005 is clearly a non-adjusting post balance sheet event (IAS 10). If it is material
(such that non-disclosure could influence the economic decisions of users) Jinack should disclose:
– the nature of the event (i.e. systems failure); and
– an estimate of its financial effect (i.e. the cost of disruption and reconstruction of data to the extent that it is
not covered by insurance).
Tutorial note: The event has no financial effect on the realisability of inventory, only on its measurement for the
purpose of reporting it in the financial statements.
■ If material this disclosure could be made in the context of explaining how inventory has been estimated at
30 September 2005 (see later). If such disclosure, that the auditor considers to be necessary, is not made, the
audit opinion should be qualified ‘except for’ disagreement (over lack of disclosure).
Tutorial note: Such qualifications are extremely rare since management should be persuaded to make necessary
disclosure in the notes to the financial statements rather than have users’ attention drawn to the matter through
a qualification of the audit opinion.
■ The limitation on scope of the auditor’s work has been imposed by circumstances. Jinack’s accounting records
(for inventory) are inadequate (non-existent) for the auditor to perform. tests on them.
■ An alternative procedure to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence of inventory quantities at a year end is
subsequent count and ‘rollback’. However, the extent of ‘roll back’ testing is limited as records are still under
■ The auditor may be able to obtain sufficient evidence that there is no material misstatement through a combination
of procedures:
– testing management’s controls over counting inventory after the balance sheet date and recording inventory
movements (e.g. sales and goods received);
– reperforming the reconstruction for significant items on a sample basis;
– analytical procedures such as a review of profit margins by inventory category.
■ ‘An extensive range of inventory’ is clearly material. The matter (i.e. systems failure) is not however pervasive, as
only inventory is affected.
■ Unless the reconstruction is substantially completed (i.e. inventory items not accounted for are insignificant) the
auditor cannot determine what adjustment, if any, might be determined to be necessary. The auditor’s report
should then be modified, ‘except for’, limitation on scope.
■ However, if sufficient evidence is obtained the auditor’s report should be unmodified.
■ An ‘emphasis of matter’ paragraph would not be appropriate because this matter is not one of significant
Tutorial note: An uncertainty in this context is a matter whose outcome depends on future actions or events not
under the direct control of Jinack.
■ If the 2005 auditor’s report is qualified ‘except for’ on grounds of limitation on scope there are two possibilities for
the inventory figure as at 30 September 2005 determined on completion of the reconstruction exercise:
(1) it is not materially different from the inventory figure reported; or
(2) it is materially different.
■ In (1), with the limitation now removed, the need for qualification is removed and the 2006 auditor’s report would
be unmodified (in respect of this matter).
■ In (2) the opening position should be restated and the comparatives adjusted in accordance with IAS 8 ‘Accounting
Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors’. The 2006 auditor’s report would again be unmodified.
Tutorial note: If the error was not corrected in accordance with IAS 8 it would be a different matter and the
auditor’s report would be modified (‘except for’ qualification) disagreement on accounting treatment.

2021ACCA/CAT考试题目下载8篇 第4篇

(iii) Explain the potential corporation tax (CT) implications of Tay Limited transferring work to Trent Limited,

and suggest how these can be minimised or eliminated. (3 marks)

(iii) Trading losses may not be carried forward where, within a period of three years there is both a change in the ownership
of a company and a major change in the nature or conduct of its trade. The transfer of work from Tay Limited to Trent
Limited is likely to constitute a major change in the nature or conduct of the latter’s trade. As a consequence, any tax
losses at the date of acquisition will be forfeited. Assuming losses were incurred uniformly in 2005, the tax losses at the
date of acquisition were £380,000 (300,000 + 2/3 x 120,000)). This is worth £114,000 assuming a corporation tax
rate of 30%.
Thus, Tay Limited should not consider transferring any trade to Trent Limited until after the third anniversary of the date
of the change of ownership i.e. not before 1 September 2008. As the trades are similar, there should be little problem
in transferring work from that date onwards.

(ii) Can we entertain our clients as a gesture of goodwill or is corporate hospitality ruled out? (3 marks)


For EACH of the three FAQs, explain the threats to objectivity that may arise and the safeguards that should

be available to manage them to an acceptable level.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three questions.

(ii) Corporate hospitality
A partner in an audit firm is obviously in a position to influence the conduct and outcome of an audit. Therefore a
partner being on ‘too friendly’ terms with an audit client creates a familiarity threat. Other members of the audit team
may not exert as much influence on the audit.
A self-interest threat may also be perceived (e.g. if corporate hospitality is provided to keep a prestigious client).
There is no absolute prohibition against corporate hospitality provided:
■ the value attached to such hospitality is ‘insignificant’; and
■ the ‘frequency, nature and cost’ of the hospitality is reasonable.
Thus, flying the directors of an audit client for weekends away could be seen as significant. Similarly, entertaining an
audit client on a regular basis could be seen as unacceptable.
Partners and staff of Boleyn will need to be objective in their assessments of the significance or reasonableness of the
hospitality offered. (Would ‘a reasonable and informed third party’ conclude that the hospitality will or is likely to be
seen to impair your objectivity?)
If they have any doubts they should discuss the matter in the first instance with the audit engagement partner, who
should refer the matter to the ethics partner if in doubt.

4 Global Imaging is a fast growing high tech company with some 100 employees which aims to double in size over the

next three years. The company was set up as a spin out company by two research professors from a major university

hospital who now act as joint managing directors. They are likely to leave the company once the growth objective is


Global Imaging’s products are sophisticated imaging devices facing a growing demand from the defence and health

industries. These two markets are very different in terms of customer requirements but share a related technology.

Over 90% of sales are from exports and the current strategic plan anticipates a foreign manufacturing plant being set

up during the existing three-year strategic plan. Current management positions are largely filled by staff who joined in

the early years of the company and reflect the heavy reliance on research and development to generate the products

to grow the business. Further growth will require additional staff in all parts of the business, particularly in

manufacturing and sales and marketing.

Paul Simpson, HR manager at Global Imaging is annoyed. This stems from the fact that HR is the one management

function not involved in the strategic planning process shaping the future growth and direction of the company. He

feels trapped in a role traditionally given to HR specialists, that of simply reacting to the staffing needs brought about

by strategic decisions taken by other parts of the business. He feels even more threatened by one of the joint managing

directors arguing that HR issues should be the responsibility of the line managers and not a specialist HR staff

function. Even worse, Paul has become aware of the increasing number of companies looking to outsource some or

all of their HR activities.

Paul wants to develop a convincing case why HR should not only be retained as a core function in Global Imaging’s

activities, but also be directly involved in the development of the current growth strategy.


Paul has asked you to prepare a short report to present to Global Imaging’s board of directors:

(a) Write a short report for Paul Simpson on the way a Human Resource Plan could link effectively with Global

Imaging’s growth strategy. (12 marks)

(a) To: Paul Simpson – HR Manager
Human Resource Planning and Global Imaging’s future growth
I will use this report to highlight the main phases in HR (human resource) planning and then deal with the specific HR
activities, which will be needed to support the achievement of the growth strategy.
There are four major stages in creating a human resource plan. Firstly, auditing the current HR resources in Global Imaging,
as a relatively young company one could anticipate it having a relatively young labour force many of whom will be
professionally qualified. Secondly, the planned growth will require a forecast of both the number and type of people who will
be needed to implement the strategy. Thirdly, planning will be needed on how to meet the needs identified in the forecast –
how do we fill the gap in between the human reources we currently have and those needed to fulfil the plan? Finally, there
will be the need to control those resources in terms of measuring performance against the goals set.
The key activities to achieve the growth goals will be:
Recruitment, selection and staffing – here the key issues will be to recruit the necessary additional staff and mix of suitably
qualified workers. The growth of the company will create management succession issues including the two managing
directors, who are looking to exit the business in the foreseeable future. The rate of growth will also make it necessary to
manage significant internal transfers of people in the company as new positions and promotion opportunities are created.
Compensation and benefits – the start up phase of a company’s life is often a stage where a formal reward structure has not
been created. It also may be necessary to meet or exceed the labour market rates in order to attract the necessary talent. As
the firm grows there will be a need to ensure that the firm is competitive in terms of the rewards offered, but there is an
increasing need to ensure equity between newcomers and staff already employed in the firm. These pressures will normally
lead to the creation of a formal compensation structure.
Employee training and development – here there is a need to create an effective management team through management
development and organisational development.

Global stability
Free trade
No wars
High disposable incomes
Stable fuel prices
Low inflation
No tax increases
More travel
Pensioners living longer
– travelling more
More working abroad
More second homes
Engines more efficent
Larger aircraft
Less pollution
No global emission policy
No global warming threat
Free trade
No emission controls
No wars
Labour employee relations – here there is a need to establish harmonious labour relations and employee motivation and
Overall, the HR implications of the proposed growth strategy are profound and there is a significant danger that failure to linkstrategy and the consequent HR needs will act as a major constraint on achieving the strategy.

(d) Sirus raised a loan with a bank of $2 million on 1 May 2007. The market interest rate of 8% per annum is to

be paid annually in arrears and the principal is to be repaid in 10 years time. The terms of the loan allow Sirus

to redeem the loan after seven years by paying the full amount of the interest to be charged over the ten year

period, plus a penalty of $200,000 and the principal of $2 million. The effective interest rate of the repayment

option is 9·1%. The directors of Sirus are currently restructuring the funding of the company and are in initial

discussions with the bank about the possibility of repaying the loan within the next financial year. Sirus is

uncertain about the accounting treatment for the current loan agreement and whether the loan can be shown as

a current liability because of the discussions with the bank. (6 marks)

Appropriateness of the format and presentation of the report and quality of discussion (2 marks)


Draft a report to the directors of Sirus which discusses the principles and nature of the accounting treatment of

the above elements under International Financial Reporting Standards in the financial statements for the year

ended 30 April 2008.

(d) Repayment of the loan
If at the beginning of the loan agreement, it was expected that the repayment option would not be exercised, then the effective
interest rate would be 8% and at 30 April 2008, the loan would be stated at $2 million in the statement of financial position
with interest of $160,000 having been paid and accounted for. If, however, at 1 May 2007, the option was expected to be
exercised, then the effective interest rate would be 9·1% and at 30 April 2008, the cash interest paid would have been
$160,000 and the interest charged to the income statement would have been (9·1% x $2 million) $182,000, giving a
statement of financial position figure of $2,022,000 for the amount of the financial liability. However, IAS39 requires the
carrying amount of the financial instrument to be adjusted to reflect actual and revised estimated cash flows. Thus, even if
the option was not expected to be exercised at the outset but at a later date exercise became likely, then the carrying amount
would be revised so that it represented the expected future cash flows using the effective interest rate. As regards the
discussions with the bank over repayment in the next financial year, if the loan was shown as current, then the requirements
of IAS1 ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’ would not be met. Sirus has an unconditional right to defer settlement for longer
than twelve months and the liability is not due to be legally settled in 12 months. Sirus’s discussions should not be considered
when determining the loan’s classification.
It is hoped that the above report clarifies matters.

(ii) equipment used in the manufacture of Bachas Blue; and (4 marks)

(ii) Equipment used in the manufacture of Bachas Blue
Tutorial note: In the context of GVF, the principal issue to be addressed is whether or not the impairment loss previously
recognised should be reversed (by considering the determination of value in use). Marks will also be awarded for
consideration of depreciation, additions etc made specific to this equipment.
■ Agree cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses at the beginning of the year to prior year working
papers (and/or last year’s published financial statements).
■ Recalculate the current year depreciation charge based on the carrying amount (as reduced by the impairment
■ Calculate the carrying amount of the equipment as at 30 September 2005 without deduction of the impairment
Tutorial note: The equipment cannot be written back up to above this amount (IAS 36 ‘Impairment of Assets’).
■ Agree management’s schedule of future cash flows estimated to be attributable to the equipment for a period of up
to five years (unless a longer period can be justified) to approved budgets and forecasts.
■ Recalculate:
– on a sample basis, the make up of the cash flows included in the forecast;
– GVF’s weighted average cost of capital.
■ Review production records and sales orders for the year, as compared with the prior period, to confirm a ‘steady
■ Compare sales volume at 30 September 2005 with the pre-‘scare’ level to assess how much of the previously
recognised impairment loss it would be prudent to write back (if any).
■ Scrutinize sales orders in the post balance sheet event period. Sales of such produce can be very volatile and
another ‘incident’ could have sales plummeting again – in which case the impairment loss should not be reversed.

(b) While the refrigeration units were undergoing modernisation Lamont outsourced all its cold storage requirements

to Hogg Warehousing Services. At 31 March 2007 it was not possible to physically inspect Lamont’s inventory

held by Hogg due to health and safety requirements preventing unauthorised access to cold storage areas.

Lamont’s management has provided written representation that inventory held at 31 March 2007 was

$10·1 million (2006 – $6·7 million). This amount has been agreed to a costing of Hogg’s monthly return of

quantities held at 31 March 2007. (7 marks)


For each of the above issues:

(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and

(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,

in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Lamont Co for the year ended

31 March 2007.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

(b) Outsourced cold storage
(i) Matters
■ Inventory at 31 March 2007 represents 21% of total assets (10·1/48·0) and is therefore a very material item in the
balance sheet.
■ The value of inventory has increased by 50% though revenue has increased by only 7·5%. Inventory may be
overvalued if no allowance has been made for slow-moving/perished items in accordance with IAS 2 Inventories.
■ Inventory turnover has fallen to 6·6 times per annum (2006 – 9·3 times). This may indicate a build up of
unsaleable items.
Tutorial note: In the absence of cost of sales information, this is calculated on revenue. It may also be expressed
as the number of days sales in inventory, having increased from 39 to 55 days.
■ Inability to inspect inventory may amount to a limitation in scope if the auditor cannot obtain sufficient audit
evidence regarding quantity and its condition. This would result in an ‘except for’ opinion.
■ Although Hogg’s monthly return provides third party documentary evidence concerning the quantity of inventory it
does not provide sufficient evidence with regard to its valuation. Inventory will need to be written down if, for
example, it was contaminated by the leakage (before being moved to Hogg’s cold storage) or defrosted during
■ Lamont’s written representation does not provide sufficient evidence regarding the valuation of inventory as
presumably Lamont’s management did not have access to physically inspect it either. If this is the case this may
call into question the value of any other representations made by management.
■ Whether, since the balance sheet date, inventory has been moved back from Hogg’s cold storage to Lamont’s
refrigeration units. If so, a physical inspection and roll-back of the most significant fish lines should have been
Tutorial note: Credit will be awarded for other relevant accounting issues. For example a candidate may question
whether, for example, cold storage costs have been capitalised into the cost of inventory. Or whether inventory moves
on a FIFO basis in deep storage (rather than LIFO).
(ii) Audit evidence
■ A copy of the health and safety regulation preventing the auditor from gaining access to Hogg’s cold storage to
inspect Lamont’s inventory.
■ Analysis of Hogg’s monthly returns and agreement of significant movements to purchase/sales invoices.
■ Analytical procedures such as month-on-month comparison of gross profit percentage and inventory turnover to
identify any trend that may account for the increase in inventory valuation (e.g. if Lamont has purchased
replacement inventory but spoiled items have not been written off).
■ Physical inspection of any inventory in Lamont’s refrigeration units after the balance sheet date to confirm its
■ An aged-inventory analysis and recalculation of any allowance for slow-moving items.
■ A review of after-date sales invoices for large quantities of fish to confirm that fair value (less costs to sell) exceed
carrying amount.
■ A review of after-date credit notes for any returns of contaminated/perished or otherwise substandard fish.

2021ACCA/CAT考试题目下载8篇 第5篇

(b) The marketing director of CTC has suggested the introduction of a new toy ‘Nellie the Elephant’ for which the

following estimated information is available:

1. Sales volumes and selling prices per unit

Year ending, 31 May 2009 2010 2011

Sales units (000) 80 180 100

Selling price per unit ($) 50 50 50

2. Nellie will generate a contribution to sales ratio of 50% throughout the three year period.

3. Product specific fixed overheads during the year ending 31 May 2009 are estimated to be $1·6 million. It

is anticipated that these fixed overheads would decrease by 10% per annum during each of the years ending

31 May 2010 and 31 May 2011.

4. Capital investment amounting to $3·9 million would be required in June 2008. The investment would have

no residual value at 31 May 2011.

5. Additional working capital of $500,000 would be required in June 2008. A further $200,000 would be

required on 31 May 2009. These amounts would be recovered in full at the end of the three year period.

6. The cost of capital is expected to be 12% per annum.

Assume all cash flows (other than where stated) arise at the end of the year.


(i) Determine whether the new product is viable purely on financial grounds. (4 marks)



(iii) State the value added tax (VAT) and stamp duty (SD) issues arising as a result of inserting Bold plc as

a holding company and identify any planning actions that can be taken to defer or minimise these tax

costs. (4 marks)

You should assume that the corporation tax rates for the financial year 2005 and the income tax rates

and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 apply throughout this question.

(iii) Bold plc will be making a taxable supply of services, likely to exceed the VAT threshold. It should therefore consider
registering for VAT – either immediately on a voluntary basis, or when its cumulative taxable supplies in the previous
twelve months exceed £60,000.
As an alternative, the new group can apply for a group VAT registration. This will simplify its VAT administration as intragroup
transactions are broadly disregarded for VAT purposes, and only one VAT return is required for the group as a
Stamp duty normally applies at 0·5% on the consideration payable in respect of transactions in shares. However, an
exemption is available in the case of a takeover, reconstruction or amalgamation where there is no real change in
ownership, i.e. the new shareholdings mirror the old shareholdings, and the transaction is for commercial purposes. The
insertion of a new holding company over an existing company, as proposed here, would qualify for this exemption.
There is no VAT on transactions in shares.

(c) Calculate the expected corporation tax liability of Dovedale Ltd for the year ending 31 March 2007 on the

assumption that all available reliefs are claimed by Dovedale Ltd but that Hira Ltd will not claim any capital

allowances in that year. (4 marks)



James died on 22 January 2015. He had made the following gifts during his lifetime:

(1) On 9 October 2007, a cash gift of £35,000 to a trust. No lifetime inheritance tax was payable in respect of this gift.

(2) On 14 May 2013, a cash gift of £420,000 to his daughter.

(3) On 2 August 2013, a gift of a property valued at £260,000 to a trust. No lifetime inheritance tax was payable in respect of this gift because it was covered by the nil rate band. By the time of James’ death on 22 January 2015, the property had increased in value to £310,000.

On 22 January 2015, James’ estate was valued at £870,000. Under the terms of his will, James left his entire estate to his children.

The nil rate band of James’ wife was fully utilised when she died ten years ago.

The nil rate band for the tax year 2007–08 is £300,000, and for the tax year 2013–14 it is £325,000.


(a) Calculate the inheritance tax which will be payable as a result of James’ death, and state who will be responsible for paying the tax. (6 marks)

(b) Explain why it might have been beneficial for inheritance tax purposes if James had left a portion of his estate to his grandchildren rather than to his children. (2 marks)

(c) Explain why it might be advantageous for inheritance tax purposes for a person to make lifetime gifts even when such gifts are made within seven years of death.


1. Your answer should include a calculation of James’ inheritance tax saving from making the gift of property to the trust on 2 August 2013 rather than retaining the property until his death.

2. You are not expected to consider lifetime exemptions in this part of the question. (2 marks)


(a) James – Inheritance tax arising on death

Lifetime transfers within seven years of death

The personal representatives of James’ estate will be responsible for paying the inheritance tax of £348,000.

Working – Available nil rate band

(b) Skipping a generation avoids a further charge to inheritance tax when the children die. Gifts will then only be taxed once before being inherited by the grandchildren, rather than twice.

(c) (1) Even if the donor does not survive for seven years, taper relief will reduce the amount of IHT payable after three years.

(2) The value of potentially exempt transfers and chargeable lifetime transfers are fixed at the time they are made.

(3) James therefore saved inheritance tax of £20,000 ((310,000 – 260,000) at 40%) by making the lifetime gift of property.

4 Susan Grant is in something of a dilemma. She has been invited to join the board of the troubled Marlow Fashion

Group as a non-executive director, but is uncertain as to the level and nature of her contribution to the strategic

thinking of the Group.

The Marlow Fashion Group had been set up by a husband and wife team in the 1970s in an economically depressed

part of the UK. They produced a comprehensive range of women’s clothing built round the theme of traditional English

style. and elegance. The Group had the necessary skills to design, manufacture and retail its product range. The

Marlow brand was quickly established and the company built up a loyal network of suppliers, workers in the company

factory and franchised retailers spread around the world. Marlow Fashion Group’s products were able to command

premium prices in the world of fashion. Rodney and Betty Marlow ensured that their commitment to traditional values

created a strong family atmosphere in its network of partners and were reluctant to change this.

Unfortunately, changes in the market for women’s wear presented a major threat to Marlow Fashion. Firstly, women

had become a much more active part of the workforce and demanded smarter, more functional outfits to wear at work.

Marlow Fashion’s emphasis on soft, feminine styles became increasingly dated. Secondly, the tight control exercised

by Betty and Rodney Marlow and their commitment to control of design, manufacturing and retailing left them

vulnerable to competitors who focused on just one of these core activities. Thirdly, there was a reluctance by the

Marlows and their management team to acknowledge that a significant fall in sales and profits were as a result of a

fundamental shift in demand for women’s clothing. Finally, the share price of the company fell dramatically. Betty and

Rodney Marlow retained a significant minority ownership stake, but the company had had a new Chief Executive

Officer every year since 2000.


(a) Write a short report to Susan Grant identifying and explaining the strategic strengths and weaknesses in the

Marlow Fashion Group. (12 marks)

(a) To: Susan Grant
Strategic strengths and weaknesses in Marlow Fashion Group
In carrying out a strategic strengths and weaknesses analysis one becomes aware that what were formerly strengths often
become weaknesses as the competitive environment changes over time. Strengths and weaknesses analysis is focused on
the internal side of the business and is usually linked to an external appraisal of the external opportunities and threats facing
the company. Marlow Fashion Group is clearly at a crisis point in its company life and needs a strategic turnaround in order
to survive. The business model that has served them so well is no longer appropriate to the fashion world in which they are
now competing. Rodney and Betty Marlow have built a highly vertically integrated model, which gave them considerable
control over the growth and development of the company. In terms of the value chain the relationship they built up with
suppliers was mutually supportive and clearly facilitated the global expansion of the group. Control was even tighter over the
design, manufacturing and retailing of the company’s products. Marlow Fashions had successfully developed a niche market
for its products based around traditional English values. This enabled it to expand successfully and develop a worldwide
reputation for design excellence and quality.
Unfortunately, its competitive environment has changed considerably, becoming increasingly competitive and hostile. The
economics of clothing manufacturing has changed, with most clothing retailers choosing to outsource the manufacture of their
clothes. Women’s tastes in clothing have also changed and there is no longer the market for the clothes Marlow Fashion sells.
The tight control exercised by the founders has prevented recognition of these changes. Marlow Fashion has continued to
pursue outdated designs and expensive manufacturing processes that had served it well in the past. There has been some
recognition of the strategic nature of the problems as indicated by the succession of CEOs since 2000 given the task of
preventing the fall in sales and cutting costs. Unfortunately, the changes in its environment have led to some uncertainty as
to whether Marlow Fashion is a brand, a manufacturer, a retailer or an integrated fashion company.
Overall, Marlow Fashion, from being in a strategically sound position, now requires a swift strategic turnaround. Its products
and markets have changed; the relationships it has with key stakeholders are no longer strengths and its value chain andsystem no longer deliver distinctive value to its customers.

(d) Wader has decided to close one of its overseas branches. A board meeting was held on 30 April 2007 when a

detailed formal plan was presented to the board. The plan was formalised and accepted at that meeting. Letters

were sent out to customers, suppliers and workers on 15 May 2007 and meetings were held prior to the year

end to determine the issues involved in the closure. The plan is to be implemented in June 2007. The company

wish to provide $8 million for the restructuring but are unsure as to whether this is permissible. Additionally there

was an issue raised at one of the meetings. The operations of the branch are to be moved to another country

from June 2007 but the operating lease on the present buildings of the branch is non-cancellable and runs for

another two years, until 31 May 2009. The annual rent of the buildings is $150,000 payable in arrears on

31 May and the lessor has offered to take a single payment of $270,000 on 31 May 2008 to settle the

outstanding amount owing and terminate the lease on that date. Wader has additionally obtained permission to

sublet the building at a rental of $100,000 per year, payable in advance on 1 June. The company needs advice

on how to treat the above under IAS37 ‘Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets’. (7 marks)


Discuss the accounting treatments of the above items in the financial statements for the year ended 31 May


Note: a discount rate of 5% should be used where necessary. Candidates should show suitable calculations where



(d) A provision under IAS37 ‘Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent assets’ can only be made in relation to the entity’s
restructuring plans where there is both a detailed formal plan in place and the plans have been announced to those affected.
The plan should identify areas of the business affected, the impact on employees and the likely cost of the restructuring and
the timescale for implementation. There should be a short timescale between communicating the plan and starting to
implement it. A provision should not be recognised until a plan is formalised.
A decision to restructure before the balance sheet date is not sufficient in itself for a provision to be recognised. A formal plan
should be announced prior to the balance sheet date. A constructive obligation should have arisen. It arises where there has
been a detailed formal plan and this has raised a valid expectation in the minds of those affected. The provision should only
include direct expenditure arising from the restructuring. Such amounts do not include costs associated with ongoing business
operations. Costs of retraining staff or relocating continuing staff or marketing or investment in new systems and distribution
networks, are excluded. It seems as though in this case a constructive obligation has arisen as there have been detailed formal
plans approved and communicated thus raising valid expectations. The provision can be allowed subject to the exclusion of
the costs outlined above.
Although executory contracts are outside IAS37, it is permissible to recognise a provision that is onerous. Onerous contracts
can result from restructuring plans or on a stand alone basis. A provision should be made for the best estimate of the excess
unavoidable costs under the onerous contract. This estimate should assess any likely level of future income from new sources.
Thus in this case, the rental income from sub-letting the building should be taken into account. The provision should be

2021ACCA/CAT考试题目下载8篇 第6篇

2 An important part of management is understanding the style. of leadership.


(a) Explain what Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid measures. (5 marks)

2 Overview:
The accountant is frequently the manager or group leader. An understanding of leadership theory and practice is therefore an
important part of an accountant’s training.
Part (a):
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in their Ohio State Leadership Studies, observed two basic leadership dimensions that were
apparent from their studies; concern for the task and concern for people.
They recognised that it was possible for concern for the task to be independent of concern for people. It was therefore possible for
a leader to be strong on one and weak on the other, strong on both, weak on both or any variation in between.
They devised a series of questions, the answers to which enabled them to plot these two basic leadership dimensions. These two
dimensions were placed as the axes on a grid structure now known as the Managerial Grid. A person who scores 7 on ‘concern
for production’ (the x axis) and 5 on ‘concern for people’ (the y axis) is known as a 7,5 leader.

(b) Using the information contained in Appendix 1.1, discuss the financial performance of HLP and MAS,

incorporating details of the following in your discussion:

(i) Overall client fees (total and per consultation)

(ii) Advisory protection scheme consultation ‘utilisation levels’ for both property and commercial clients

(iii) Cost/expense levels. (10 marks)


(ii) As far as annual agreements relating to property work are concerned, HLP had a take up rate of 82·5% whereas MAS
had a take up rate of only 50%. Therefore, HLP has ‘lost out’ to competitor MAS in relative financial terms as regards
the ‘take-up’ of consultations relating to property work. This is because both HLP and MAS received an annual fee from
each property client irrespective of the number of consultations given. MAS should therefore have had a better profit
margin from this area of business than HLP. However, the extent to which HLP has ‘lost out’ cannot be quantified since
we would need to know the variable costs per consultation and this detail is not available. What we do know is that
HLP earned actual revenue per effective consultation amounting to £90·90 whereas the budgeted revenue per
consultation amounted to £100. MAS earned £120 per effective consultation.
The same picture emerges from annual agreements relating to commercial work. HLP had a budgeted take up rate of
50%, however the actual take up rate during the period was 90%. MAS had an actual take up rate of 50%. The actual
revenue per effective consultation earned by HLP amounted to £167 whereas the budgeted revenue per consultation
amounted to £300. MAS earned £250 per effective consultation.
There could possibly be an upside to this situation for HLP in that it might be the case that the uptake of 90% of
consultations without further charge by clients holding annual agreements in respect of commercial work might be
indicative of a high level of customer satisfaction. It could on the other hand be indicative of a mindset which says ‘I
have already paid for these consultations therefore I am going to request them’.
(iii) Budgeted and actual salaries in HLP were £50,000 per annum, per advisor. Two additional advisors were employed
during the year in order to provide consultations in respect of commercial work. MAS paid a salary of £60,000 to each
advisor which is 20% higher than the salary of £50,000 paid to each advisor by HLP. Perhaps this is indicative that
the advisors employed by MAS are more experienced and/or better qualified than those employed by HLP.
HLP paid indemnity insurance of £250,000 which is £150,000 (150%) more than the amount of £100,000 paid by
MAS. This excess cost may well have arisen as a consequence of successful claims against HLP for negligence in
undertaking commercial work. It would be interesting to know whether HLP had been the subject of any successful
claims for negligent work during recent years as premiums invariably reflect the claims history of a business. Rather
worrying is the fact that HLP was subject to three such claims during the year ended 31 May 2007.
Significant subcontract costs were incurred by HLP during the year probably in an attempt to satisfy demand and retain
the goodwill of its clients. HLP incurred subcontract costs in respect of commercial properties which totalled £144,000.
These consultations earned revenue amounting to (320 x £150) = £48,000, hence a loss of £96,000 was incurred
in this area of the business.
HLP also paid £300,000 for 600 subcontract consultations in respect of litigation work. These consultations earned
revenue amounting to (600 x £250) = £150,000, hence a loss of £150,000 was incurred in this area of the business.
In contrast, MAS paid £7,000 for 20 subcontract consultations in respect of commercial work and an identical amount
for 20 subcontract consultations in respect of litigation work. These consultations earned revenue amounting to
20 x (£150 + £200) =£7,000. Therefore, a loss of only £7,000 was incurred in respect of subcontract consultations
by MAS.
Other operating expenses were budgeted at 53·0% of sales revenue. The actual level incurred was 40·7% of sales
revenue. The fixed/variable split of such costs is not given but it may well be the case that the fall in this percentage is
due to good cost control by HLP. However, it might simply be the case that the original budget was flawed. Competitor
MAS would appear to have a slightly superior cost structure to that of HLP since its other operating expenses amounted
to 38·4% of sales revenue. Further information is required in order to draw firmer conclusions regarding cost control
within both businesses.

(ii) Describe the evidence you would seek to support the assertion that development costs are technically

feasible. (3 marks)

(ii) Evidence supporting the assertion that development costs are technically feasible would include the following:
– Review the results of scientific tests performed on the products, for example, the results of animal or human testing
of the products.
– Discuss any detrimental results of these tests, e.g. harmful side effects, with the scientists working on the project
to determine what corrective action is being taken.
– Enquire whether any licences necessary for continued development and/or commercial production have been
granted by the appropriate regulatory body.
– Compare expected to actual development costs incurred per product being developed. Where actual costs are in
excess of expected costs investigate whether the extra costs have been incurred in order to make good any problems
identified in the development process.
– Review board minutes for relevant discussion of the product development taking place during the year.

2 Ramon Silva is a Spanish property developer, who has made a considerable fortune from the increasing numbers of

Europeans looking to buy new homes and apartments in the coastal regions of Mediterranean Spain. His frequent

contact with property buyers has made him aware of their need for low cost hotel accommodation during the lengthy

period between finding a property to buy and when they actually move into their new home. These would-be property

owners are looking for inexpensive hotels in the same locations as tourists looking for cheap holiday accommodation.

Closer investigation of the market for inexpensive or budget hotel accommodation has convinced Ramon of the

opportunity to offer something really different to his potential customers. He has the advantage of having no

preconceived idea of what his chain of hotels might look like. The overall picture for the budget hotel industry is not

encouraging with the industry suffering from low growth and consequent overcapacity. There are two distinct market

segments in the budget hotel industry; firstly, no-star and one-star hotels, whose average price per room is between

30 and 45 euros. Customers are simply attracted by the low price. The second segment is the service provided by

two-star hotels with an average price of 100 euros a night. These more expensive hotels attract customers by offering

a better sleeping environment than the no-star and one-star hotels. Customers therefore have to choose between low

prices and getting a poor night’s sleep owing to noise and inferior beds or paying more for an untroubled night’s sleep.

Ramon quickly deduced that a hotel chain that can offer a better price/quality combination could be a winner.

The two-star hotels typically offer a full range of services including restaurants, bars and lounges, all of which are

costly to operate. The low price budget hotels offer simple overnight accommodation with cheaply furnished rooms

and staffed by part-time receptionists. Ramon is convinced that considerable cost savings are available through better

room design, construction and furniture and a more effective use of hotel staff. He feels that through offering hotel

franchises under the ‘La Familia Amable’ (‘The Friendly Family’) group name, he could recruit husband and wife teams

to own and operate them. The couples, with suitable training, could offer most of the services provided in a two-star

hotel, and create a friendly, family atmosphere – hence the company name. He is sure he can offer the customer twostar

hotel value at budget prices. He is confident that the value-for-money option he offers would need little marketing

promotion to launch it and achieve rapid growth.


(a) Provide Ramon with a brief report, using strategic models where appropriate, showing where his proposed

hotel service can add value to the customer’s experience. (12 marks)

(a) To: Ramon Silva
Value innovation in La Familia Amable hotel chain
In strategic terms you are looking to create a competitive advantage over existing hotels based on a cost focus strategy. The
success of this niche marketing strategy will depend on your ability to attract customers from the existing providers but there
does seem a gap to exploit. In many ways you have an advantage in that you are not constrained by previous experience in
the hotel industry and this has enabled you to look to deliver a significantly different value proposition to your customers and
not simply look to marginally improve on what currently is on offer. One particular study on innovation drew attention to five
dimensions of strategy where innovators can significantly outperform. existing companies. This is important, as the industry
does not look particularly attractive with low growth and overcapacity – a recipe for low profitability.
Industry assumptions – here existing companies take the competitive conditions as given whereas innovators are looking to
influence and change those conditions.
Strategic focus – simply benchmarking against the current hotel providers may not create any real advantage, innovators are
seeking to provide a step change in the experience given to the customer.
Customers – the route to success may not be through ever increasing segmentation and customisation but by actually looking
to focus on the shared attributes of the service that customers value – a good night’s sleep for a low price being a prime
Assets and capabilities – rather than looking to leverage existing assets and capabilities the innovator looks to ask what would
we do if we were starting a new business.
Product and service offering – existing competitors may again be constrained in their thinking by the existing boundaries of
the industry and the innovator by identifying new customers and services that take them outside this boundary may offer a
‘total solution’ that transforms the industry. The ‘no frills’, low cost budget airlines are a good example of such thinking.
In the hotel business ‘location, location, location’ is argued to be at the heart of a successful strategy. Clearly this will be your
choice and is affected by the customer groups you are looking to attract. Establishing a brand name and reputation is an
important marketing strategy and this will be facilitated by growing the chain rapidly and giving customers easy access to
your hotels. In value chain terms the company infrastructure looks to be lean with a reliance on trained husband and wife
teams to deliver the service. Franchising would also seem to be a route to grow the business that will place reduced strain
on company headquarters. The creation of a chain should lend itself to significant buying and procurement advantages, right
from the design of the hotels which will focus on the core value you are providing – namely quiet and cost. One French hotel
chain was able to cut in half the average cost of building a room, its ‘no frills’ service cut staff costs from between 25% and
35% of sales – the industry average – to between 20% and 23%.
Good design will therefore affect the quality of service that the operations side of the value chain delivers to the customer.
This may be a simpler service to that provided by its competitors – simpler, more basic rooms, no expensive restaurants or
lounge areas all impact on the cost of operations and consequently the price charged. Marketing, as previously referred to
above, is much more effectively done through satisfied customers’ recommendations than by expensive advertising. Many
hotel chains have used technology to create customer loyalty schemes of questionable benefit to the customer. You will
certainly have to seriously consider the value of such an after sales service. The established competitors often make
assumptions as to what a customer wants and typically this is offering more and more services that are expensive to provide.
Your entry into a ‘mature’ industry such as this, allows you to really challenge these assumptions and deliver a price/value
combination that is hard to beat.

(d) Describe the three stages of a formal grievance interview that Oliver might seek with the appropriate partner

at Hoopers and Henderson following the formal procedure. (9 marks)

Part (d):
Oliver should arrange a formal grievance interview with the appropriate partner. Both Oliver and the partner need to be aware that
the grievance interview follows three steps in a particular and logical order. The meeting between Oliver and the partner responsible
for human resources must be in a formal atmosphere.
The first stage is exploration. The manager or supervisor – in this case the partner responsible for human resources – must gather
as much information as possible. No solution must be offered at this stage. The need is to establish what is actually the problem;
the background to the problem (in this case the icy relationship between Oliver and David Morgan) and the facts and causes of
the problem – in this case the resentment felt by David Morgan over Oliver’s appointment.
The second stage is the consideration stage. This is undertaken by the appropriate manager or partner here, who must firstly check
the facts, analyse the causes of the complaint and evaluate possible solutions. The meeting may be adjourned if at this stage the
partner requires more time to fulfil this step.
The final stage is the reply. This will be carried out by the partner after he or she has reached and reviewed a conclusion. It is
important that the outcome is recorded in writing; the meeting and therefore the interview and procedure is only successful when
an agreement is reached.
If no agreement is reached then the procedure should be taken to a higher level of management.

The following information is relevant for questions 9 and 10

A company’s draft financial statements for 2005 showed a profit of $630,000. However, the trial balance did not agree,

and a suspense account appeared in the company’s draft balance sheet.

Subsequent checking revealed the following errors:

(1) The cost of an item of plant $48,000 had been entered in the cash book and in the plant account as $4,800.

Depreciation at the rate of 10% per year ($480) had been charged.

(2) Bank charges of $440 appeared in the bank statement in December 2005 but had not been entered in the

company’s records.

(3) One of the directors of the company paid $800 due to a supplier in the company’s payables ledger by a personal

cheque. The bookkeeper recorded a debit in the supplier’s ledger account but did not complete the double entry

for the transaction. (The company does not maintain a payables ledger control account).

(4) The payments side of the cash book had been understated by $10,000.

9 Which of the above items would require an entry to the suspense account in correcting them?

A All four items

B 3 and 4 only

C 2 and 3 only

D 1, 2 and 4 only


2021ACCA/CAT考试题目下载8篇 第7篇

Section B – TWO questions ONLY to be attempted

Perkin manufactures electronic components for export worldwide, from factories in Ceeland, for use in smartphones and hand held gaming devices. These two markets are supplied with similar components by two divisions, Phones Division (P) and Gaming Division (G). Each division has its own selling, purchasing, IT and research and development functions, but separate IT systems. Some manufacturing facilities, however, are shared between the two divisions.

Perkin’s corporate objective is to maximise shareholder wealth through innovation and continuous technological improvement in its products. The manufacturers of smartphones and gaming devices, who use Perkin’s components, update their products frequently and constantly compete with each other to launch models which are technically superior.

Perkin has a well-established incremental budgeting process. Divisional managers forecast sales volumes and costs months in advance of the budget year. These divisional budgets are then scrutinised by the main board, and revised significantly by them in line with targets they have set for the business. The finalised budgets are often approved after the start of the accounting year. Under pressure to deliver consistent returns to institutional shareholders, the board does not tolerate failure by either division to achieve the planned net profit for the year once the budget is approved. Last year’s results were poor compared to the annual budget. Divisional managers, who are appraised on the financial performance of their own division, have complained about the length of time that the budgeting process takes and that the performance of their divisions could have been better but was constrained by the budgets which were set for them.

In P Division, managers had failed to anticipate the high popularity of a new smartphone model incorporating a large screen designed for playing games, and had not made the necessary technical modifications to the division’s own components. This was due to the high costs of doing so, which had not been budgeted for. Based on the original sales forecast, P Division had already committed to manufacturing large quantities of the existing version of the component and so had to heavily discount these in order to achieve the planned sales volumes.

A critical material in the manufacture of Perkin’s products is silver, which is a commodity which changes materially in price according to worldwide supply and demand. During the year supplies of silver were reduced significantly for a short period of time and G Division paid high prices to ensure continued supply. Managers of G Division were unaware that P Division held large inventories of silver which they had purchased when the price was much lower.

Initially, G Division accurately forecasted demand for its components based on the previous years’ sales volumes plus the historic annual growth rate of 5%. However, overall sales volumes were much lower than budgeted. This was due to a fire at the factory of their main customer, which was then closed for part of the year. Reacting to this news, managers at G Division took action to reduce costs, including closing one of the three R&D facilities in the division.

However, when the customer’s factory reopened, G Division was unwilling to recruit extra staff to cope with increased demand; nor would P Division re-allocate shared manufacturing facilities to them, in case demand increased for its own products later in the year. As a result, Perkin lost the prestigious preferred supplier status from their main customer who was unhappy with G Division’s failure to effectively respond to the additional demand. The customer had been forced to purchase a more expensive, though technically superior, component from an alternative manufacturer.

The institutional shareholders’ representative, recently appointed to the board, has asked you as a performance management expert for your advice. ‘We need to know whether Perkin’s budgeting process is appropriate for the business, and how this contributed to last year’s poor performance’, she said, ‘and more importantly, how do we need to change the process to prevent this happening in the future, such as a move to beyond budgeting.’


(a) Evaluate the weaknesses in Perkin’s current budgeting system and whether it is suitable for the environment in which Perkin operates. (13 marks)

(b) Evaluate the impact on Perkin of moving to beyond budgeting. (12 marks)


Tutor note: This is a detailed solution and candidates would not be expected to produce an answer of this length.

(a) Weaknesses in the current budget process at Perkin

Perkin uses a traditional approach to budgeting, which has a number of weaknesses.

First of all the budgeting system does not seem aligned with Perkin’s corporate objective which focuses on innovation and continuous product improvement. Innovation is a key competitive advantage to both component and device manufacturers in this industry and the products which incorporate Perkin’s components are subject to rapid technological change as well as changes in consumer trends. The markets in which the two divisions operate appear to be evolving, as seen by the high popularity of the smartphone model which was designed for playing games. This may mean the distinction between smartphone and gaming devices could be becoming less clear cut. Management time would probably be better spent considering these rapid changes and currently the budgeting process does not facilitate that.

In reality, the budget process at Perkin is time consuming and probably therefore a costly exercise. Divisional budgets go through a lengthy process of drafting and then revision by the main board before they are approved. The approval often happens after the start of the period to which they relate, at which point the budgets are already out of date. This also means divisional managers are trying to plan activities for the next financial year without a set of finalised targets agreed, which could impact the effectiveness of decisions made.

Another weakness is that the budgets are only prepared annually, which is clearly too infrequent for a business such as Perkin. The process is also rigid and inflexible as deviations from the planned targets are not tolerated. Sticking to rigid, annual budgets can lead to problems such as P Division not being able to cope with increasing popularity of a particular product and even other short-term changes in demand like those driven by seasonal factors, or one-off events such as the factory fire. Linked to this problem of budgetary constraints is that to cut costs to achieve the budgeted net profit, managers closed one of the three research and development facilities in G Division. As identified at the outset, a successful research and development function is a key source of long-term competitive advantage to Perkin.

It also appears that Perkin fails to flex the budgets and consequently the fixed budgets had discouraged divisional managers from deviating from the original plan. P Division did not make technical modifications to its components due to the cost of doing so, which meant they were unable to supply components for use in the new model of smartphone and had to discount the inventories of the old version. It is unclear why G Division did not take on additional staff to cope with increased demand following reopening of their customer’s factory, but it may be because managers felt constrained by the budget. This then caused long-term detriment to Perkin as they lost the preferred supplier status with their main customer.

Another problem created by annual budgeting is the management of short-term changes in costs and prices. A key component of Perkin’s products is silver, which fluctuates in price, and though it is not clear how much effect this has on Perkin’s costs, any problems in supply could disrupt production even if only a small amount of silver were required. Also Perkin exports goods worldwide and probably also purchases materials, including silver, from overseas. The business is therefore exposed to short-term movements in foreign currency exchange rates which may affect costs and selling prices.

Similarly, there also seems to be considerable uncertainty in sales volumes and prices which creates problems in the forecasting process for the two divisions. P Division did not anticipate the high demand for the new component which meant P Division had to discount products it had already manufactured in order to achieve its forecast sales volumes. G Division did correctly forecast the demand, but based on past growth in the market which may be too simplistic in a rapidly changing industry. Lack of up-to-date information will hinder decision-making and overall performance at Perkin. Perkin would perhaps be better adopting a rolling basis for forecasting.

The two divisions share manufacturing facilities and are likely to compete for other resources during the budgeting process. The current budgeting system does not encourage resource, information or knowledge sharing, for example, expertise in forecasting silver requirements. Divisional managers are appraised on the financial performance of their own division and hence are likely to prioritise the interests of their own division above those of Perkin as a whole. P Division would not re-allocate its manufacturing facilities to G Division, even though G Division needed this to cope with extra demand following reopening of the customer’s factory. The current system is therefore not encouraging goal congruence between the divisions and Perkin as a whole and a budgeting system, if done effectively, should encourage co-ordination and co-operation.

Managers may find the budgeting process demotivating because it is time-consuming for them and then the directors override the forecast which they had made. It is also unfair and demotivating to staff to appraise them on factors which are outside their control. This also identifies another weakness in Perkin’s budgeting system related to control as there does not seem to be any planning and operating variance analysis performed to assess exactly where performance is lacking and so no appropriate management information is provided. In fact it is not even clear just how often divisional managers receive reports on performance throughout the year. Any budgeting system without regular feedback would be ineffective. It should even be noted that for the industry in which Perkin operates the use of only budgetary targets as a measure of performance is narrow and internal. It should be utilising information from external sources as well to assess performance in a more relevant and contextual way.

Given the rapidly changing external environment and the emphasis on innovation and continuous product development, the current traditional budgeting method does not seem appropriate for Perkin.

(b) Beyond budgeting moves away from traditional budgeting processes and is suitable for businesses operating in a rapidly changing external environment and has the following features:

1. Encourages management to focus on the present and the future. Performance is assessed by reference to external benchmarks, utilising rolling forecasts and more non-financial information. This encourages a longer term view.

2. More freedom is given to managers to make decisions, which are consistent with the organisation’s goals and achieving competitive success.

3. Resources are made available on demand, for example, to enable a division to take advantage of an opportunity in the market, rather than being constrained by budgets.

4. Management focus is switched to the customer and managers are motivated towards actions which benefit the whole organisation, not just their own divisions.

5. Effective information systems are required to provide fast and easily accessible information across the whole organisation to allow for robust planning and control at all levels.

Taking each of the elements of beyond budgeting in turn, the impact of introducing this technique into Perkin can be assessed.

At Perkin, there are rapid technological changes in the products being produced by customers and competitors as a result of changes demanded by the market, which mean that Perkin must respond and continuously innovate and develop its products. This will support Perkin’s corporate objective. Consequently, this means that Perkin must change its plans frequently to be able to compete effectively with other component manufacturers and therefore will need to move away from annual incremental budgeting to introducing regular rolling forecasts. This process will need supporting by KPIs which will have a longer term focus. The impact of this will be that Perkin will need to develop a coherent set of strategies which supports its corporate objective, which will then need to be translated into targets and appropriate KPIs selected and developed. It will also mean that performance measures at the operational level will need to be revised from annual budgetary targets to these longer term objectives. Management at all levels will require training on the production of rolling forecasts and Perkin will need to assess if additional resources will also be required to run this new system.

Beyond budgeting focuses on the long-term success of the business by division managers working towards targets which may be non-financial. The use of external benchmarks and non-financial information will mean Perkin will need to put processes in place to collect this information and analyse it to assess performance. This will be a learning process as Perkin does not currently do this. The status of preferred supplier with key customers, for example, would be important to the long-term success of the business and this could be an objective which Perkin sets for its divisional managers.

Beyond budgeting allows authority to be delegated to suitably trained and supported managers to take decisions in the long-term interests of the business. It allows managers to respond quickly and effectively to changes in the external environment, and encourages them to develop innovative solutions to external change. In Perkin, budgets proposed by divisional managers are changed by the board to reflect its overall plans for the business. This means that a change in the approach to communication between the board and the divisions will be necessary as Perkin would need to switch from the top down process currently adopted to a more devolved decision-making structure. This will again require training for management to enable them to be ready to deal with this delegated authority as it will be very different from their existing approach.

Traditional budgeting may constrain managers who are not allowed to fail to meet the approved budget. This can be seen when P Division did not adapt its components because it did not want to incur the costs of doing so, which had not been budgeted for. Similarly, prices of raw materials are known to be volatile. Beyond budgeting makes resources available for managers to take advantage of opportunities in the market, such as the smartphone designed for playing games. Managers would also be able to react to changes in the price of materials or changes in foreign currency exchange rates, for example, by having the authority to purchase silver for inventory at times when the price of silver is low. This will mean that as a result there will be fewer budgetary constraints; however, these resources and targets will still need to be effectively managed. This management will mean that strategic initiatives invested in will need monitoring rather than closely scrutinising departmental budgets, which will be a significant change in Perkin.

In Perkin, the two divisions share some manufacturing facilities and are likely to compete for other resources, for example, when setting budgets. When manufacturing facilities are in short supply, each division will prioritise its own requirements rather than those of the business as a whole. Beyond budgeting encourages managers to work together for the good of the business and to share knowledge and resources. This is important in a business such as Perkin where product innovation is key and where the activities and products of the two divisions are similar. This coordinated approach will be new to Perkin so there will be a culture change. Also, the customer-oriented element of beyond budgeting is key here and will require the setup of customer focused teams which will require more harmonised actions in the divisions.

Each division currently has its own IT systems. In order to effectively share knowledge and to be able to respond to the external environment, which are key elements of beyond budgeting, it would be preferable for them to have shared IT facilities. This will mean that Perkin may have to invest in new technology capable of sharing information across the organisation in a rapid and open fashion but also be able to collect all relevant comparative data to allow for continuous monitoring of performance. This will facilitate better planning and control across all levels of Perkin.

With appropriate training of managers and investment in information systems, it would be relevant for Perkin to adopt beyond budgeting because of the rapid changes in the external environment in which it operates.

10 What would the company’s profit become after the correction of the above errors?

A $634,760

B $624,760

C $624,440

D $625,240

630,000 – 4,320 – 440

(b) Discuss FOUR factors that distinguish service from manufacturing organisations and explain how each of

these factors relates to the services provided by the Dental Health Partnership. (5 marks)

(b) The major characteristics of services which distinguish services from manufacturing are as follows:
– Intangibility.
When a dentist provides a service to a client there are many intangible factors involved such as for example the
appearance of the surgery, the personality of the dentist, the manner and efficiency of the dental assistant. The output
of the service is ‘performance’ by the dentist as opposed to tangible goods.
– Simultaneity.
The service provided by the dentist to the patient is created by the dentist at the same time as the patient consumed it
thus preventing any advance verification of quality.
– Heterogeneity.
Many service organisations face the problem of achieving consistency in the quality of its output. Whilst each of the
dentists within the Dental Health Partnership will have similar professional qualifications there will be differences in the
manner they provide services to clients.
– Perishability.
Many services are perishable. The services of a dentist are purchased only for the duration of an appointment.

(d) Comment on THREE factors other than NPV that the directors of ITL should consider when deciding whether

to manufacture the Snowballer. (3 marks)

(d) Factors that should be considered by the directors of ITL include:
(i) The cash flows are estimated. How accurate they are requires detailed consideration.
(ii) The cost of capital used by the finance director might be inappropriate. For example if the Snowballer proposal is less
risky than other projects undertaken by ITL then a lower cost of capital should be used.
(iii) The rate of inflation may vary from the anticipated rate of 4% per annum.
(iv) How strong is the Olympic brand name? The directors are proposing to pay royalties equivalent to 6% of sales revenue
during the six years of the anticipated life of the project. Should they market the Snowballer themselves?
(v) Would competitors enter the market and what would be the likely effect on sales volumes and selling prices?
N.B: Only three factors were required.

James died on 22 January 2015. He had made the following gifts during his lifetime:

(1) On 9 October 2007, a cash gift of £35,000 to a trust. No lifetime inheritance tax was payable in respect of this gift.

(2) On 14 May 2013, a cash gift of £420,000 to his daughter.

(3) On 2 August 2013, a gift of a property valued at £260,000 to a trust. No lifetime inheritance tax was payable in respect of this gift because it was covered by the nil rate band. By the time of James’ death on 22 January 2015, the property had increased in value to £310,000.

On 22 January 2015, James’ estate was valued at £870,000. Under the terms of his will, James left his entire estate to his children.

The nil rate band of James’ wife was fully utilised when she died ten years ago.

The nil rate band for the tax year 2007–08 is £300,000, and for the tax year 2013–14 it is £325,000.


(a) Calculate the inheritance tax which will be payable as a result of James’ death, and state who will be responsible for paying the tax. (6 marks)

(b) Explain why it might have been beneficial for inheritance tax purposes if James had left a portion of his estate to his grandchildren rather than to his children. (2 marks)

(c) Explain why it might be advantageous for inheritance tax purposes for a person to make lifetime gifts even when such gifts are made within seven years of death.


1. Your answer should include a calculation of James’ inheritance tax saving from making the gift of property to the trust on 2 August 2013 rather than retaining the property until his death.

2. You are not expected to consider lifetime exemptions in this part of the question. (2 marks)


(a) James – Inheritance tax arising on death

Lifetime transfers within seven years of death

The personal representatives of James’ estate will be responsible for paying the inheritance tax of £348,000.

Working – Available nil rate band

(b) Skipping a generation avoids a further charge to inheritance tax when the children die. Gifts will then only be taxed once before being inherited by the grandchildren, rather than twice.

(c) (1) Even if the donor does not survive for seven years, taper relief will reduce the amount of IHT payable after three years.

(2) The value of potentially exempt transfers and chargeable lifetime transfers are fixed at the time they are made.

(3) James therefore saved inheritance tax of £20,000 ((310,000 – 260,000) at 40%) by making the lifetime gift of property.

(b) On 31 May 2007, Leigh purchased property, plant and equipment for $4 million. The supplier has agreed to

accept payment for the property, plant and equipment either in cash or in shares. The supplier can either choose

1·5 million shares of the company to be issued in six months time or to receive a cash payment in three months

time equivalent to the market value of 1·3 million shares. It is estimated that the share price will be $3·50 in

three months time and $4 in six months time.

Additionally, at 31 May 2007, one of the directors recently appointed to the board has been granted the right to

choose either 50,000 shares of Leigh or receive a cash payment equal to the current value of 40,000 shares at

the settlement date. This right has been granted because of the performance of the director during the year and

is unconditional at 31 May 2007. The settlement date is 1 July 2008 and the company estimates the fair value

of the share alternative is $2·50 per share at 31 May 2007. The share price of Leigh at 31 May 2007 is $3 per

share, and if the director chooses the share alternative, they must be kept for a period of four years. (9 marks)


Discuss with suitable computations how the above share based transactions should be accounted for in the

financial statements of Leigh for the year ended 31 May 2007.


(b) Transactions that allow choice of settlement are accounted for as cash-settled to the extent that the entity has incurred a
liability (IFRS2 para 34). The share based transaction is treated as the issuance of a compound financial instrument. IFRS2
applies similar measurement principles to determine the value of the constituent parts of a compound instrument as that
required by IAS32 ‘Financial Instruments: Disclosure and Presentation’. The purchase of the property, plant and equipment
(PPE) and the grant to the director, both fall under this section of IFRS2 as the supplier and the director have a choice of
settlement. The fair value of the goods can be measured directly as regards the purchase of the PPE and therefore this fact
determines that the transaction is treated in a certain way. In the case of the director, the fair value of the service rendered
will be determined by the fair value of the equity instruments given and IFRS2 says that this type of share based transaction
should be dealt with in a certain way. Under IFRS2, if the fair value of the goods or services received can be measured directly
and easily then the equity element is determined by taking the fair value of the goods or services less the fair value of the
debt element of this instrument. The debt element is essentially the cash payment that will occur. If the fair value of the goods
or services is measured by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments given then the whole of the compound
instrument should be fair valued. The equity element becomes the difference between the fair value of the equity instruments
granted less the fair value of the debt component. It should take into account the fact that the counterparty must forfeit its
right to receive cash in order to receive the equity instrument.
When Leigh received the property, plant and equipment it should have recorded a liability of $4 million and an increase in
equity of $0·55 million being the difference between the value of the property, plant and equipment and the fair value of theliability. The fair value of the liability is the cash payment of $3·50 x 1·3 million shares, i.e. $4·55 million.
The accounting entry would be:

2021ACCA/CAT考试题目下载8篇 第8篇

4 You are an audit manager in Nate & Co, a firm of Chartered Certified Accountants. You are reviewing three situations,

which were recently discussed at the monthly audit managers’ meeting:

(1) Nate & Co has recently been approached by a potential new audit client, Fisher Co. Your firm is keen to take the

appointment and is currently carrying out client acceptance procedures. Fisher Co was recently incorporated by

Marcellus Fisher, with its main trade being the retailing of wooden storage boxes.

(2) Nate & Co provides the audit service to CF Co, a national financial services organisation. Due to a number of

errors in the recording of cash deposits from new customers that have been discovered by CF Co’s internal audit

team, the directors of CF Co have requested that your firm carry out a review of the financial information

technology systems. It has come to your attention that while working on the audit planning of CF Co, Jin Sayed,

one of the juniors on the audit team, who is a recent information technology graduate, spent three hours

providing advice to the internal audit team about how to improve the system. As far as you know, this advice has

not been used by the internal audit team.

(3) LA Shots Co is a manufacturer of bottled drinks, and has been an audit client of Nate & Co for five years. Two

audit juniors attended the annual inventory count last Monday. They reported that Brenda Mangle, the new

production manager of LA Shots Co, wanted the inventory count and audit procedures performed as quickly as

possible. As an incentive she offered the two juniors ten free bottles of ‘Super Juice’ from the end of the

production line. Brenda also invited them to join the LA Shots Co office party, which commenced at the end of

the inventory count. The inventory count and audit procedures were completed within two hours (the previous

year’s procedures lasted a full day), and the juniors then spent four hours at the office party.


(a) Define ‘money laundering’ and state the procedures specific to money laundering that should be considered

before, and on the acceptance of, the audit appointment of Fisher Co. (5 marks)

(a) – Money laundering is the process by which criminals attempt to conceal the true origin and ownership of the proceeds
of criminal activity, allowing them to maintain control over the proceeds, and ultimately providing a legitimate cover for
their sources of income. The objective of money laundering is to break the connection between the money, and the crime
that it resulted from.
– It is widely defined, to include possession of, or concealment of, the proceeds of any crime.
– Examples include proceeds of fraud, tax evasion and benefits of bribery and corruption.
Client procedures should include the following:
– Client identification:
? Establish the identity of the entity and its business activity e.g. by obtaining a certificate of incorporation
? If the client is an individual, obtain official documentation including a name and address, e.g. by looking at
photographic identification such as passports and driving licences
? Consider whether the commercial activity makes business sense (i.e. it is not just a ‘front’ for illegal activities)
? Obtain evidence of the company’s registered address e.g. by obtaining headed letter paper
? Establish the current list of principal shareholders and directors.
– Client understanding:
? Pre-engagement communication may be considered, to explain to Marcellus Fisher and the other directors the
nature and reason for client acceptance procedures.
? Best practice recommends that the engagement letter should also include a paragraph outlining the auditor’s
responsibilities in relation to money laundering.

(c) Suggest ways in which each of the six problems chosen in (a) above may be overcome. (6 marks)

(c) Ways in which each of the problems might be overcome are as follows:
Meeting only the lowest targets
– To overcome the problem there must be some additional incentive. This could be through a change in the basis of bonus
payment which currently only provides an incentive to achieve the 100,000 tonnes of output.
Using more resources than necessary
– Overcoming the problem may require a change in the bonus system which currently does not provide benefit from any
output in excess of 100,000 tonnes. This may not be perceived as sufficiently focused in order to achieve action. It may
be that engendering a culture of continuous improvement would help ensure that employees actively sought ways of
reducing idle time levels.
Making the bonus – whatever it takes
– It is likely that efforts to change the ‘work ethos’ at all levels is required, while not necessarily removing the concept of
a bonus payable to all employees for achievement of targets. This may require the fostering of a culture for success within
the company. Dissemination of information to all staff relating to trends in performance, meeting targets, etc may help
to improve focus on continuous improvement.
Competing against other divisions, business units and departments
– The problem may need some input from the directors of TRG. For example, could a ‘dual-cost’ transfer pricing system
be explained to management at both the Bettamould division and also the Division with spare capacity in order to
overcome resistance to problems on transfer pricing and its impact on divisional budgets and reported results? In this
way it may be possible for the Bettamould division to source some of its input materials at a lower cost (particularly from
TRG’s viewpoint) and yet be acceptable to the management at the supplying division.
Ensuring that what is in the budget is spent
– In order to overcome the problem it may be necessary to educate management into acceptance of aspects of budgeting
such as the need to consider the committed, engineered and discretionary aspects of costs. For example, it may be
possible to reduce the number of salaried staff involved in the current quality checking of 25% of throughput on a daily
Providing inaccurate forecasts
– In order to overcome this problem there must be an integrated approach to the budget setting process. This may be
achieved to some extent through all aspects of the budget having to be agreed by all functions involved. For example,
engineers as well as production line management in reaching the agreed link between percentage process losses and
the falling efficiency of machinery due to age. In addition, TRC may insist an independent audit of aspects of budget
revisions by group staff.
Meeting the target but not beating it
– To overcome the problem may require that the bonus system should be altered to reflect any failure to control costs per
tonne at the budget level.
Avoiding risks
– In order to overcome such problems, TRC would have to provide some guarantees to Bettamould management that the
supply would be available during the budget period at the initially agreed price and that the quality would be maintained
at the required level. This would remove the risk element that the management of the Bettamould division may consider
currently exists.

(c) In August 2004 it was discovered that the inventory at 31 December 2003 had been overstated by $100,000.

(4 marks)


Advise the directors on the correct treatment of these matters, stating the relevant accounting standard which

justifies your answer in each case.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three matters.

(c) The opening inventory should be included in the current year’s income statement at the corrected figure, and the opening
balance of retained profit reduced by $100,000. The $100,000 reduction will appear in the statement of changes in equity.
(IAS8 Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors)

(b) Both divisions have recognised the need for a strategic alliance to help them achieve a successful entry into

European markets.

Critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the divisions using strategic alliances to develop their

respective businesses in Europe. (15 marks)

(b) Johnson, Scholes and Whittington define a strategic alliance as ‘where two or more organisations share resources and
activities to pursue a strategy’. There are a number of types of alliance ranging from a formal joint venture through to networks
where there is collaboration but no formal agreement. The type of strategic alliance will be affected by how quickly market
conditions are changing – swift rates of change may require flexible less formal types of alliance and determine whether
specific dedicated resources are required or whether the partners can use existing resources. Johnson, Scholes and
Whittington argue that for an alliance to be successful there needs to be a clear strategic purpose and senior management
support; compatibility between the partners at all levels – this may be complicated if it is a cross-border alliance; time spent
defining and meeting performance expectations including clear goals, governance and organisational arrangements; and
finally trust both in terms of respective competences and trustworthiness.

Paper 3.5
Paper 3.5
The advantages that may be gained by a successful strategic alliance include creating a joint operation that has a ‘critical
mass’ that may lead to lower costs or an improved offer to the customer. It may also allow each partner to specialise in areas
where they have a particular advantage or competence. Interestingly, alliances are often entered into where a company is
seeking to enter new geographical markets, as is the case with both divisions. The partner brings local knowledge and
expertise in distribution, marketing and customer support. A good strategic alliance will also enable the partners to learn from
one another and develop competences that may be used in other markets. Often firms looking to develop an e-business will
use an alliance with a partner with experience in website development. Once its e-business is up and running a firm may
eventually decide to bring the website design skills in-house and acquire the partner.
Disadvantages of alliances range from over-dependence on the partner, not developing own core competences and a tendency
for them not to have a defined end date. Clearly there is a real danger of the partner eventually becoming a competitor.
In assessing the suitability for each division in using a strategic alliance to enter European markets one clearly has to analyse
the very different positions of the divisions in terms of what they can offer a potential partner. The earlier analysis suggests
that the Shirtmaster division may have the greater difficulty in attracting a partner. One may seriously question the feasibility
of using the Shirtmaster brand in Europe and the competences the division has in terms of manufacturing and selling to large
numbers of small independent UK clothing retailers would seem inappropriate to potential European partners. Ironically, if
the management consultant recommends that the Shirtmaster division sources some or all of its shirts from low cost
manufacturers in Europe this may provide a reason for setting up an alliance with such a manufacturer.
The prospects of developing a strategic alliance in the Corporate Clothing division are much more favourable. The division
has developed a value added service for its corporate customers, indeed its relationship with its customers can be seen as a
relatively informal network or alliance and there seems every chance this could be replicated with large corporate customers
in Europe. Equally, there may be European workwear companies looking to grow and develop who would welcome sharingthe Corporate Clothing division’s expertise.

(iii) Explain the potential corporation tax (CT) implications of Tay Limited transferring work to Trent Limited,

and suggest how these can be minimised or eliminated. (3 marks)

(iii) Trading losses may not be carried forward where, within a period of three years there is both a change in the ownership
of a company and a major change in the nature or conduct of its trade. The transfer of work from Tay Limited to Trent
Limited is likely to constitute a major change in the nature or conduct of the latter’s trade. As a consequence, any tax
losses at the date of acquisition will be forfeited. Assuming losses were incurred uniformly in 2005, the tax losses at the
date of acquisition were £380,000 (300,000 + 2/3 x 120,000)). This is worth £114,000 assuming a corporation tax
rate of 30%.
Thus, Tay Limited should not consider transferring any trade to Trent Limited until after the third anniversary of the date
of the change of ownership i.e. not before 1 September 2008. As the trades are similar, there should be little problem
in transferring work from that date onwards.

(b) Prepare a consolidated statement of financial position of the Ribby Group at 31 May 2008 in accordance

with International Financial Reporting Standards. (35 marks)