21年ACCA/CAT模拟试题7篇

发布时间:2021-10-08
21年ACCA/CAT模拟试题7篇

21年ACCA/CAT模拟试题7篇 第1篇


(c) At 1 June 2006, Router held a 25% shareholding in a film distribution company, Wireless, a public limited

company. On 1 January 2007, Router sold a 15% holding in Wireless thus reducing its investment to a 10%

holding. Router no longer exercises significant influence over Wireless. Before the sale of the shares the net asset

value of Wireless on 1 January 2007 was $200 million and goodwill relating to the acquisition of Wireless was

$5 million. Router received $40 million for its sale of the 15% holding in Wireless. At 1 January 2007, the fair

value of the remaining investment in Wireless was $23 million and at 31 May 2007 the fair value was

$26 million. (6 marks)

Required:

Discuss how the above items should be dealt with in the group financial statements of Router for the year ended

31 May 2007.Required:

Discuss how the above items should be dealt with in the group financial statements of Router for the year ended

31 May 2007.

正确答案:
(c) The investment in Wireless is currently accounted for using the equity method of accounting under IAS28 ‘Investments in
Associates’. On the sale of a 15% holding, the investment in Wireless will be accounted for in accordance with IAS39. Router
should recognise a gain on the sale of the holding in Wireless of $7 million (Working 1). The gain comprises the following:
(i) the difference between the sale proceeds and the proportion of the net assets sold and
(ii) the goodwill disposed of.
The total gain is shown in the income statement.
The remaining 10 per cent investment will be classified as an ‘available for sale’ financial asset or at ‘fair value through profit
or loss’ financial asset. Changes in fair value for these categories are reported in equity or in the income statement respectively.
At 1 January 2007, the investment will be recorded at fair value and a gain of $1 million $(23 – 22) recorded. At 31 May
2007 a further gain of $(26 – 23) million, i.e. $3 million will be recorded. In order for the investment to be categorised as
at fair value through profit or loss, certain conditions have to be fulfilled. An entity may use this designation when doing so
results in more relevant information by eliminating or significantly reducing a measurement or recognition inconsistency (an
‘accounting mismatch’) or where a group of financial assets and/or financial liabilities is managed and its performance is
evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy, and information
about the assets and/ or liabilities is provided internally to the entity’s key management personnel.


3 The managers of Daylon plc are reviewing the company’s investment portfolio. About 15% of the portfolio is represented by a holding of 5,550,000 ordinary shares of Mondglobe plc. The managers are concerned about the effect on portfolio value if the price of Mondglobe’s shares should fall, and are considering selling the shares. Daylon’s investment bank has suggested that the risk of Mondglobe’s shares falling by more than 5% from their current value could be protected against by buying an over the counter option. The investment bank is prepared to sell an appropriate six month option to Daylon for £250,000.

Other information:

(i) The current market price of Mondglobe’s ordinary shares is 360 pence.

(ii) The annual volatility (variance) of Mondglobe’s shares for the last year was 169%.

(iii) The risk free rate is 4% per year.

(iv) No dividend is expected to be paid by Mondglobe during the next six months.

Required:

(a) Evaluate whether or not the price at which the investment bank is willing to sell the option is a fair price.(10 marks)

正确答案:

3 (a) The investment bank is offering to sell to Daylon plc an option to sell Mondglobe ordinary shares at a price no worse than 5% below the current market price of 360 pence. This is a put option on Mondglobe shares at a price of 342 pence. The Black-Scholes option pricing model may be used to estimate whether or not the option price is a fair price. The value of a put option may be found by first estimating the value of a call option and then using the put-call parity theorem.
Basic data:
Share price 360 pence
Exercise price 342 pence
Risk free rate 4% (0·04)
Volatility is measured by the standard deviation. The variance is 169% therefore the standard deviation, σ is 13% (0·13)
The relevant period is six months (0·5)


(b) How could pursuing a corporate environmental strategy both add to CFS’s competitive advantage and be

socially responsible? (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Increasingly, firms are becoming aware of their social responsibility and their need to develop strategies that are designed to
meet this responsibility. Such responsibility can take many forms and is not a new phenomenon – many 19th century firms
looked after the housing, education and health needs of the communities where they were located. Michael Porter and Claas
van der Linde in their article ‘Green and competitive’ show how the traditional view that there is ‘an inherent and fixed tradeoff:
ecology versus economy’ is incorrect. This traditional view sees the benefits of government imposed environmental
standards, causing industry’s private costs of prevention and clean up – ‘costs that cause higher prices and reduced
competitiveness’. Porter and Linde argue that with properly designed and implemented environmental standards, firms will
be encouraged to produce innovations that use a range of inputs more efficiently, e.g. energy, labour, raw materials, and in
so doing increase resource productivity and in offsetting the costs of environmental improvement make industry more not less
competitive. All too often in their opinion, companies resort to fighting environmental control through the courts rather than
using innovation to increase resource productivity and meet environmental standards – ‘environmental strategies must
become an issue for general managers’.
CFS are, therefore, correct in seeing environmental standards as a positive step towards becoming more not less competitive.
Key stakeholders in the form. of both government and customers are looking to their suppliers to become more ‘green’. These
challenges are increasingly international and global. Building in positive environmental strategies can help CFS differentiate
itself and through improved resource productivity become more competitive. Clearly, they will need the environmental
scanning devices to become aware of environmental legislation and change. Awareness then can lead to analysis in the
monitoring of macro environmental challenges and the development of a SWOT analysis to match the company’s strengths
and weaknesses against the threats and opportunities created by environmental standards. Tools of strategic analysis such as
PEST, five forces and value chain analysis lend themselves to understanding the significance of the environmental change
and how it can stimulate innovation and, through innovation, competitive advantage.


4 Ryder, a public limited company, is reviewing certain events which have occurred since its year end of 31 October

2005. The financial statements were authorised on 12 December 2005. The following events are relevant to the

financial statements for the year ended 31 October 2005:

(i) Ryder has a good record of ordinary dividend payments and has adopted a recent strategy of increasing its

dividend per share annually. For the last three years the dividend per share has increased by 5% per annum.

On 20 November 2005, the board of directors proposed a dividend of 10c per share for the year ended

31 October 2005. The shareholders are expected to approve it at a meeting on 10 January 2006, and a

dividend amount of $20 million will be paid on 20 February 2006 having been provided for in the financial

statements at 31 October 2005. The directors feel that a provision should be made because a ‘valid expectation’

has been created through the company’s dividend record. (3 marks)

(ii) Ryder disposed of a wholly owned subsidiary, Krup, a public limited company, on 10 December 2005 and made

a loss of $9 million on the transaction in the group financial statements. As at 31 October 2005, Ryder had no

intention of selling the subsidiary which was material to the group. The directors of Ryder have stated that there

were no significant events which have occurred since 31 October 2005 which could have resulted in a reduction

in the value of Krup. The carrying value of the net assets and purchased goodwill of Krup at 31 October 2005

were $20 million and $12 million respectively. Krup had made a loss of $2 million in the period 1 November

2005 to 10 December 2005. (5 marks)

(iii) Ryder acquired a wholly owned subsidiary, Metalic, a public limited company, on 21 January 2004. The

consideration payable in respect of the acquisition of Metalic was 2 million ordinary shares of $1 of Ryder plus

a further 300,000 ordinary shares if the profit of Metalic exceeded $6 million for the year ended 31 October

2005. The profit for the year of Metalic was $7 million and the ordinary shares were issued on 12 November

2005. The annual profits of Metalic had averaged $7 million over the last few years and, therefore, Ryder had

included an estimate of the contingent consideration in the cost of the acquisition at 21 January 2004. The fair

value used for the ordinary shares of Ryder at this date including the contingent consideration was $10 per share.

The fair value of the ordinary shares on 12 November 2005 was $11 per share. Ryder also made a one for four

bonus issue on 13 November 2005 which was applicable to the contingent shares issued. The directors are

unsure of the impact of the above on earnings per share and the accounting for the acquisition. (7 marks)

(iv) The company acquired a property on 1 November 2004 which it intended to sell. The property was obtained

as a result of a default on a loan agreement by a third party and was valued at $20 million on that date for

accounting purposes which exactly offset the defaulted loan. The property is in a state of disrepair and Ryder

intends to complete the repairs before it sells the property. The repairs were completed on 30 November 2005.

The property was sold after costs for $27 million on 9 December 2005. The property was classified as ‘held for

sale’ at the year end under IFRS5 ‘Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations’ but shown at

the net sale proceeds of $27 million. Property is depreciated at 5% per annum on the straight-line basis and no

depreciation has been charged in the year. (5 marks)

(v) The company granted share appreciation rights (SARs) to its employees on 1 November 2003 based on ten

million shares. The SARs provide employees at the date the rights are exercised with the right to receive cash

equal to the appreciation in the company’s share price since the grant date. The rights vested on 31 October

2005 and payment was made on schedule on 1 December 2005. The fair value of the SARs per share at

31 October 2004 was $6, at 31 October 2005 was $8 and at 1 December 2005 was $9. The company has

recognised a liability for the SARs as at 31 October 2004 based upon IFRS2 ‘Share-based Payment’ but the

liability was stated at the same amount at 31 October 2005. (5 marks)

Required:

Discuss the accounting treatment of the above events in the financial statements of the Ryder Group for the year

ended 31 October 2005, taking into account the implications of events occurring after the balance sheet date.

(The mark allocations are set out after each paragraph above.)

(25 marks)

正确答案:
4 (i) Proposed dividend
The dividend was proposed after the balance sheet date and the company, therefore, did not have a liability at the balance
sheet date. No provision for the dividend should be recognised. The approval by the directors and the shareholders are
enough to create a valid expectation that the payment will be made and give rise to an obligation. However, this occurred
after the current year end and, therefore, will be charged against the profits for the year ending 31 October 2006.
The existence of a good record of dividend payments and an established dividend policy does not create a valid expectation
or an obligation. However, the proposed dividend will be disclosed in the notes to the financial statements as the directors
approved it prior to the authorisation of the financial statements.
(ii) Disposal of subsidiary
It would appear that the loss on the sale of the subsidiary provides evidence that the value of the consolidated net assets of
the subsidiary was impaired at the year end as there has been no significant event since 31 October 2005 which would have
caused the reduction in the value of the subsidiary. The disposal loss provides evidence of the impairment and, therefore,
the value of the net assets and goodwill should be reduced by the loss of $9 million plus the loss ($2 million) to the date of
the disposal, i.e. $11 million. The sale provides evidence of a condition that must have existed at the balance sheet date
(IAS10). This amount will be charged to the income statement and written off goodwill of $12 million, leaving a balance of
$1 million on that account. The subsidiary’s assets are impaired because the carrying values are not recoverable. The net
assets and goodwill of Krup would form. a separate income generating unit as the subsidiary is being disposed of before the
financial statements are authorised. The recoverable amount will be the sale proceeds at the date of sale and represents the
value-in-use to the group. The impairment loss is effectively taking account of the ultimate loss on sale at an earlier point in
time. IFRS5, ‘Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations’, will not apply as the company had no intention
of selling the subsidiary at the year end. IAS10 would require disclosure of the disposal of the subsidiary as a non-adjusting
event after the balance sheet date.
(iii) Issue of ordinary shares
IAS33 ‘Earnings per share’ states that if there is a bonus issue after the year end but before the date of the approval of the
financial statements, then the earnings per share figure should be based on the new number of shares issued. Additionally
a company should disclose details of all material ordinary share transactions or potential transactions entered into after the
balance sheet date other than the bonus issue or similar events (IAS10/IAS33). The principle is that if there has been a
change in the number of shares in issue without a change in the resources of the company, then the earnings per share
calculation should be based on the new number of shares even though the number of shares used in the earnings per share
calculation will be inconsistent with the number shown in the balance sheet. The conditions relating to the share issue
(contingent) have been met by the end of the period. Although the shares were issued after the balance sheet date, the issue
of the shares was no longer contingent at 31 October 2005, and therefore the relevant shares will be included in the
computation of both basic and diluted EPS. Thus, in this case both the bonus issue and the contingent consideration issue
should be taken into account in the earnings per share calculation and disclosure made to that effect. Any subsequent change
in the estimate of the contingent consideration will be adjusted in the period when the revision is made in accordance with
IAS8.
Additionally IFRS3 ‘Business Combinations’ requires the fair value of all types of consideration to be reflected in the cost of
the acquisition. The contingent consideration should be included in the cost of the business combination at the acquisition
date if the adjustment is probable and can be measured reliably. In the case of Metalic, the contingent consideration has
been paid in the post-balance sheet period and the value of such consideration can be determined ($11 per share). Thus
an accurate calculation of the goodwill arising on the acquisition of Metalic can be made in the period to 31 October 2005.
Prior to the issue of the shares on 12 November 2005, a value of $10 per share would have been used to value the
contingent consideration. The payment of the contingent consideration was probable because the average profits of Metalic
averaged over $7 million for several years. At 31 October 2005 the value of the contingent shares would be included in a
separate category of equity until they were issued on 12 November 2005 when they would be transferred to the share capital
and share premium account. Goodwill will increase by 300,000 x ($11 – $10) i.e. $300,000.
(iv) Property
IFRS5 (paragraph 7) states that for a non-current asset to be classified as held for sale, the asset must be available for
immediate sale in its present condition subject to the usual selling terms, and its sale must be highly probable. The delay in
this case in the selling of the property would indicate that at 31 October 2005 the property was not available for sale. The
property was not to be made available for sale until the repairs were completed and thus could not have been available for
sale at the year end. If the criteria are met after the year end (in this case on 30 November 2005), then the non-current
asset should not be classified as held for sale in the previous financial statements. However, disclosure of the event should
be made if it meets the criteria before the financial statements are authorised (IFRS5 paragraph 12). Thus in this case,
disclosure should be made.
The property on the application of IFRS5 should have been carried at the lower of its carrying amount and fair value less
costs to sell. However, the company has simply used fair value less costs to sell as the basis of valuation and shown the
property at $27 million in the financial statements.
The carrying amount of the property would have been $20 million less depreciation $1 million, i.e. $19 million. Because
the property is not held for sale under IFRS5, then its classification in the balance sheet will change and the property will be
valued at $19 million. Thus the gain of $7 million on the wrong application of IFRS5 will be deducted from reserves, and
the property included in property, plant and equipment. Total equity will therefore be reduced by $8 million.
(v) Share appreciation rights
IFRS2 ‘Share-based payment’ (paragraph 30) requires a company to re-measure the fair value of a liability to pay cash-settled
share based payment transactions at each reporting date and the settlement date, until the liability is settled. An example of
such a transaction is share appreciation rights. Thus the company should recognise a liability of ($8 x 10 million shares),
i.e. $80 million at 31 October 2005, the vesting date. The liability recognised at 31 October 2005 was in fact based on the
share price at the previous year end and would have been shown at ($6 x 1/2) x 10 million shares, i.e. $30 million. This
liability at 31 October 2005 had not been changed since the previous year end by the company. The SARs vest over a twoyear
period and thus at 31 October 2004 there would be a weighting of the eventual cost by 1 year/2 years. Therefore, an
additional liability and expense of $50 million should be accounted for in the financial statements at 31 October 2005. The
SARs would be settled on 1 December 2005 at $9 x 10 million shares, i.e. $90 million. The increase in the value of the
SARs since the year end would not be accrued in the financial statements but charged to profit or loss in the year ended31 October 2006.


(b) Illustrate EACH of the six problems chosen in (a) using the data from the Bettamould division/TRG scenario;

and (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) An illustration of each of the problems using the data from the Battamould division/TRG scenario is as follows:
Meeting only the lowest targets
– In the scenario, the budgeted variable cost of $200 per tonne has been agreed. There is no specific incentive for the
Bettamould division to try to achieve a better level of performance.
Using more resources than necessary
– In the scenario, the current budget allows for 5% machine idle time. There is evidence that a move to outsourcing
machine maintenance from a specialist company could help reduce idle time levels and permit annual output in excess
of 100,000 tonnes.
Making the bonus – whatever it takes
– At present, the only sanction/incentive is to achieve 100,000 tonnes of output. There is no mention of any sanction for
example, if processing losses (and hence costs) rise to 20% of material inputs.
Competing against other divisions, business units and departments
– At present, the Bettamould division sources its materials from chosen suppliers who have been used for some years.
There is evidence that materials of equal specification could be sourced for 40% of the annual requirement from another
TRG division which has spare capacity. Why has this not been investigated?
Ensuring that what is in the budget is spent
– In the Bettamould scenario, there is a fixed cost budget allowance of $50,000,000. We are told in the question that
salaries of all employees and management are paid on a fixed salary basis. Bettamould’s management will not want a
reduction in the fixed budget allowance, since this could lead to the need to reduce the number of employees, which
they may see as having a detrimental effect on the ability of the division to meet its annual budget output target of
100,000 tonnes.
Providing inaccurate forecasts
– In the scenario there may have been deliberate efforts to increase the agreed budget level of aspects of measures and
costs. For example, by putting forward the argument that the budget requirement of 15% processing losses is acceptable
because of the likelihood that ageing machinery will be less effective in the coming budget period.
Meeting the target but not beating it
– In the scenario the bonus of 5% of salary is payable as long as the 100,000 tonnes of output is achieved. This does
not require that actual results will show any other aspects of the budget being improved upon. For example there is no
need to consider a reduction in the current level of quality checks (25% of daily throughput) to the 10% level that current
evidence suggests is achieved by competitor companies. The current budget agreement allows the Bettamould division
to transfer its output to market based profit centres at $200 + $500 = $700 per tonne. There is no specified penalty
if costs exceed this target level.
Avoiding risks
– Bettamould has not yet incorporated the changes listed in note 4 in the question. For example why has the sourcing of
40% of required materials from another TRC division not been quantified and evaluated. It is possible that the division
with spare capacity could supply the material at cost (possibly based on marginal cost) which would be less than
currently paid to a supplier external to TRC. It may be that Bettamould have not pursued this possibility because of risk
factors relating to the quality of the material transferred or its continued availability where the supplying division had an
upturn in the level of more profitable external business.


21年ACCA/CAT模拟试题7篇 第2篇


(c) (i) State the date by which Thai Curry Ltd’s self-assessment corporation tax return for the year ended

30 September 2005 should be submitted, and advise the company of the penalties that will be due if

the return is not submitted until 31 May 2007. (3 marks)

(ii) State the date by which Thai Curry Ltd’s corporation tax liability for the year ended 30 September 2005

should be paid, and advise the company of the interest that will be due if the liability is not paid until

31 May 2007. (3 marks)

正确答案:

(c) Self-assessment tax return
(1) Thai Curry Ltd’s self-assessment corporation tax return for the year ended 30 September 2005 must be submitted by
30 September 2006.
(2) If the company does not submit its self-assessment tax return until 31 May 2007, then there will be an automatic fixed
penalty of £200 since the return is more than three months late.
(3) There will also be an additional corporation tax related penalty of £4,415 (44,150 × 10%) being 10% of the tax unpaid,
since the self-assessment tax return is more than six months late.
Corporation tax liability
(1) Thai Curry Ltd’s corporation tax liability for the year ended 30 September 2005 must be paid by 1 July 2006.
(2) If the company does not pay its corporation tax until 31 May 2007, then interest of £3,035 (44,150 at 7·5% = 3,311
× 11/12) will be charged by HM Revenue & Customs for the period 1 July 2006 to 31 May 2007.


(ii) Discuss whether gains and losses that have been reported initially in one section of the performance

statement should be ‘recycled’ in a later period in another section and whether only ‘realised’ gains and

losses should be included in such a statement. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Recycling is an issue for both the current performance statements and the single statement. Recycling occurs where an
item of financial performance is reported in more than one accounting period because the nature of the item has in some
way changed. It raises the question as to whether gains and losses originally reported in one section of the statement
should be reported in another section at a later date. An example would be gains/losses on the retranslation of the net
investment in an overseas subsidiary. These gains could be reported annually on the retranslation of the subsidiary and
then again when the subsidiary was sold.
The main arguments for recycling to take place are as follows:
1. when unrealised items become realised they should be shown again
2. when uncertain measurements become certain they should be reported again
3. all items should be shown in operating or financing activities at some point in time as all items of performance are
ultimately part of operating or financing activities of an entity.
There is no conceptual justification for recycling. Once an item has been recognised in a statement of financial
performance it should not be recognised again in a future period in a different part of that statement. Once an item is
recognised in the statement there is an assumption that it can be reliably measured and therefore it should be recognised
in the appropriate section of the statement with no reason to show it again.
Gains and losses should not be based on the notion of realisation. Realisation may have been a critical event historically
but given the current financial exposures of many entities, such a principle has limited value. A realised gain reflects the
same economic gain as an unrealised gain. Items should be classified in the performance statement on the basis of
characteristics which are more useful than realisation. The effect of realisation is explained better in the cash flow
statement. Realisation means different things in different countries. In Europe and Asia it refers to the amount of
distributable profits but in the USA it refers to capital maintenance. The amount of distributable profits is not an
accounting but a legal issue, and therefore realisation should not be the overriding determinant of the reporting of gains
and losses.
An alternative view could be that an unrealised gain is more subjective than a realised gain. In many countries, realised
gains are recognised for distribution purposes because of their certainty because this gives more economic stability to
the payment of dividends.


The following information is available for a manufacturing company which produces multiple products:

(i) The product mix ratio

(ii) Contribution to sales ratio for each product

(iii) General fixed costs

(iv) Method of apportioning general fixed costs

Which of the above are required in order to calculate the break-even sales revenue for the company?

A.All of the above

B.(i), (ii) and (iii) only

C.(i), (iii) and (iv) only

D.(ii) and (iii) only

正确答案:B

The method of apportioning general fixed costs is not required to calculate the break-even sales revenue.


(ii) Advise Mr Fencer of the income tax implications of the proposed financing arrangements. (2 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) The income tax implications of the proposed financing arrangements
Mr Fencer has borrowed money from a UK bank in order to make a loan to Rapier Ltd, a close company. The interest
paid by Mr Fencer to the bank will be an allowable charge on income as long as he continues to hold more than 5% of
Rapier Ltd. Charges on income are deductible in arriving at an individual’s statutory total income.
Mr Fencer will receive interest from Rapier Ltd net of 20% income tax. The gross amount of interest will be subject to
income tax at either 10%, 20% or 40% depending on whether the income falls into Mr Fencer’s starting rate, basic rate
or higher rate tax band. Mr Fencer will obtain a tax credit for the 20% income tax suffered at source.


(b) (i) Explain, by reference to Coral’s residence, ordinary residence and domicile position, how the rental

income arising in respect of the property in the country of Kalania will be taxed in the UK in the tax year

2007/08. State the strategy that Coral should adopt in order to minimise the total income tax suffered

on the rental income. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) UK tax on the rental income
Coral is UK resident in 2007/08 because she is present in the UK for more than 182 days. Accordingly, she will be
subject to UK income tax on her Kalanian rental income.
Coral is ordinarily resident in the UK in 2007/08 as she is habitually resident in the UK.
Coral will have acquired a domicile of origin in Kalania from her father. She has not acquired a domicile of choice in the
UK as she has not severed her ties with Kalania and does not intend to make her permanent home in the UK.
Accordingly, the rental income will be taxed in the UK on the remittance basis.
Any rental income remitted to the UK will fall into the basic rate band and will be subject to income tax at 22% on the
gross amount (before deduction of Kalanian tax). Unilateral double tax relief will be available in respect of the 8% tax
suffered in Kalania such that the effective rate of tax suffered by Coral in the UK on the grossed up amount of income
remitted will be 14%.
In order to minimise the total income tax suffered on the rental income Coral should ensure that it is not brought into or
used in the UK such that it will not be subject to income tax in the UK.
Coral should retain evidence, for example bank statements, to show that the rental income has not been removed from
Kalania. Coral can use the money whilst she is on holiday in Kalania with no UK tax implications.


21年ACCA/CAT模拟试题7篇 第3篇


1 Oliver Hoppe has been working at Hoopers and Henderson accountancy practice for eighteen months. He feels that

he fits in well, especially with his colleagues and has learnt a lot from them. However, he feels that the rules and

regulations governing everyday activities and time keeping are not clear.

Oliver does not get on well with his line manager, David Morgan. There appears to be a clash of personalities and

reluctance on David Morgan’s part to deal with the icy atmosphere between them after David was asked by one of

the accounting partners to give Oliver a job. For the past three months Oliver has gone to lunch with his fellow workers

and always returned to work with them or before them. In fact they all have returned to work about ten minutes late

on several previous occasions. After the third time, Oliver was called into David Morgan’s office and given an oral

warning about his time keeping.

Oliver was not permitted to argue his case and none of the other staff who returned late were disciplined in this way.

On the next occasion the group was late returning from lunch, David Morgan presented Oliver with a written warning

about his time keeping.

Yesterday, Oliver was five minutes late returning to work. His colleagues returned after him. David Morgan gave Oliver

notice and told him to work until the end of the week and then collect his salary, the necessary paperwork and to

leave the practice.

There is a partner responsible for human resources. Oliver has come to see the partner to discuss the grievance

procedures against David Morgan for his treatment and about what Oliver regards as unfair dismissal.

Required:

(a) Describe the six stages of a formal disciplinary procedure that an organisation such as Hoopers and

Henderson should have in place. (12 marks)

正确答案:

1 Overview
A grievance occurs when an individual thinks that he or she has been wrongly treated by colleagues or management, especially
in disciplinary matters. An unresolved feeling of grievance can often lead to further problems for the organisation. The purpose of
procedures is to resolve disciplinary and grievance issues to the satisfaction of all concerned and as early as possible.
If a grievance perceived by an employee is not resolved, then conflict and discontent can arise that will affect the work of the
individual and the organisation. Accountants as managers need to be aware of the need to resolve grievances satisfactorily and
professionally.
The fundamental basis of organisational disciplinary and grievance procedures is that they must be explicitly clear and accessible
to all.
Part (a):
An official and correctly applied disciplinary procedure has six steps which should be followed in the correct order and applied
equitably.
The Informal Talk.
This is the first step. If the disciplinary matter is of a minor nature and the individual has had until this occasion a good record,
then an informal meeting can often resolve the issue.
Reprimand or Oral Warning.
Here the manager draws the attention of the employee to unsatisfactory behaviour, a repeat of which could lead to formal
disciplinary proceedings.
Official or Written Warning.
A written warning is a serious matter. It draws the attention of the offending employee to a serious breach of conduct and remains
a recorded document on the employee’s employment history.
Such written documents can be used as evidence if further action is taken, especially dismissal.
Suspension or Lay-off.
If an offence is of a serious nature, if the employee has repeated an earlier offence or if there have been repeated problems then
an employee may be suspended from work for a period of time without pay.
Demotion.
This is a situation where an employee is demoted to a lower salary or position within an organisation. This is a very serious step
to take and can be regarded as a form. of internal dismissal. This course of action can have negative repercussions because the
employee concerned will feel dissatisfied and such feelings can affect their own work and that of others.
Dismissal.
This is the ultimate disciplinary measure and should be used only in the most extreme cases. As with demotion, the dismissal of
a staff member can lead to wider dissatisfaction amongst the employees.
The employee may nominate a representative at any stage of the procedure, especially at the more serious stages.


3 The ‘person specification’ is derived from the job description.

Required:

(a) Explain what is meant by the terms:

(i) ‘person specification’; (4 marks)

正确答案:
3 Overview:
A traditional job description can only list or outline the tangible elements of a job. As work becomes more challenging, more
information is required about the skills needed to perform. that job. A person specification is of greater value in the professional
sector, where it is inappropriate to assume repetition and where there is a greater degree of discretion in performing the task.
Part (a):
(i) A person specification - also referred to as a personnel specification – provides the organisation with a profile of the kind of
person that would match the needs of the post. It sets out in written detail the education, qualifications, training, experience,
personal attributes and competencies a post holder must possess to perform. the task to the satisfaction of the organisation.
It describes the person needed to fulfil the task.


The senior management team is aware of your success in implementing necessary change following a change in

ownership and control.

(c) Identify and explain the key areas of change likely to be needed in Bonar Paint in order to implement a

successful buyout. (15 marks)

正确答案:
(c) A management buyout represents a change in ownership rather than a change in strategy. However it should, as suggested
above, lead to a comprehensive review of the customers and product groups the firm chooses to supply and the basis on
which it seeks to achieve competitive advantage. In terms of the strategy pursued prior to the buyout, Bonar Paint seems to
be trying to achieve a differentiation focus strategy but without being able to achieve the higher profit margins associated with
the successful implementation of such a strategy.
If as seems likely Bonar Paint chooses to become a more focused company through product range reduction and serving fewer
customers, implementation of such a strategy will have clear implications for the whole of the organisation. Using the
McKinsey 7S model strategy change will lead to changes in the structure of the organisation. The departure of Bill and Jim
Bonar will have major repercussions for the roles taken by the three senior managers. Decisions will be needed on who is to
lead the company and the responsibilities of the other two managers. Bonar Paint has a very traditional functional structure
with the managers being responsible for discrete areas of activity. The change in ownership gives a major opportunity to see
whether this structure continues to be an appropriate one for handling the challenges of an increasingly competitive
environment. Any significant change to the product and/or customer portfolio as proposed by Tony Edmunds will need to be
implemented through a change to the structure. Product divisions may need to be set up if there is a decision to enter the
market for D-I-Y paints.
Systems will also need to change to accommodate any reduction in the product range and numbers of customers. Reference
has already been made to the impact on the production side of the business of such a strategic decision and the associated
consequences for areas such as sales and finance. Clearly, the lack of marketing information on product sales, customers and
profitability needs to be quickly addressed before any divestment decisions are taken. Making strategic decisions using poor
or inadequate information is a recipe for disaster. Decisions on new product development also will require a system that better
integrates the interests and information of the key functional areas.
Staff are the critical resource without which the buyout will not succeed. The change in ownership will cause uncertainty and
the buyout managers will need to spell out the changes that are both necessary and needed. Changes to the product and
customer portfolio will have a significant impact on some members of staff. Issues of redundancy/redeployment are best
addressed early, along with opportunities the change in strategy will create. Closely linked to staff are the skills those staff
will need to implement chosen strategy. The need to have a greater awareness of customer and competitor activity will require
new skills in the marketing area. Any investment in new production technology will affect the type of skills needed to use it.
The links between strategic decisions and human resource strategy need to be appreciated.

Style. concerns the way the three buyout managers carry out their new roles and communicate with staff. There is a significant
difference between leading and managing the business and each of the buyout managers will need to communicate a clear
sense of where the firm is going and inspiring staff to follow their vision and mission. This links closely with the concept of
shared values and the overall culture of the firm. The exit of the founders of the business could potentially create a cultural
void, which could lead to staff uncertainty. Unless quickly addressed good staff may leave the firm and adversely affect the
strategic change the new owners and managers are trying to introduce.
In implementing a chosen strategy there is a danger that the ‘hard’ Ss of strategy, structure and systems are attended to while
the soft Ss of staff, skills, style. and shared values are largely ignored. There is compelling evidence to suggest that it is thesoft Ss which will determine the success or otherwise of the management buyout.


3 Johan, a public limited company, operates in the telecommunications industry. The industry is capital intensive with

heavy investment in licences and network infrastructure. Competition in the sector is fierce and technological

advances are a characteristic of the industry. Johan has responded to these factors by offering incentives to customers

and, in an attempt to acquire and retain them, Johan purchased a telecom licence on 1 December 2006 for

$120 million. The licence has a term of six years and cannot be used until the network assets and infrastructure are

ready for use. The related network assets and infrastructure became ready for use on 1 December 2007. Johan could

not operate in the country without the licence and is not permitted to sell the licence. Johan expects its subscriber

base to grow over the period of the licence but is disappointed with its market share for the year to 30 November

2008. The licence agreement does not deal with the renewal of the licence but there is an expectation that the

regulator will grant a single renewal for the same period of time as long as certain criteria regarding network build

quality and service quality are met. Johan has no experience of the charge that will be made by the regulator for the

renewal but other licences have been renewed at a nominal cost. The licence is currently stated at its original cost of

$120 million in the statement of financial position under non-current assets.

Johan is considering extending its network and has carried out a feasibility study during the year to 30 November

2008. The design and planning department of Johan identified five possible geographical areas for the extension of

its network. The internal costs of this study were $150,000 and the external costs were $100,000 during the year

to 30 November 2008. Following the feasibility study, Johan chose a geographical area where it was going to install

a base station for the telephone network. The location of the base station was dependent upon getting planning

permission. A further independent study has been carried out by third party consultants in an attempt to provide a

preferred location in the area, as there is a need for the optimal operation of the network in terms of signal quality

and coverage. Johan proposes to build a base station on the recommended site on which planning permission has

been obtained. The third party consultants have charged $50,000 for the study. Additionally Johan has paid

$300,000 as a single payment together with $60,000 a month to the government of the region for access to the land

upon which the base station will be situated. The contract with the government is for a period of 12 years and

commenced on 1 November 2008. There is no right of renewal of the contract and legal title to the land remains with

the government.

Johan purchases telephone handsets from a manufacturer for $200 each, and sells the handsets direct to customers

for $150 if they purchase call credit (call card) in advance on what is called a prepaid phone. The costs of selling the

handset are estimated at $1 per set. The customers using a prepaid phone pay $21 for each call card at the purchase

date. Call cards expire six months from the date of first sale. There is an average unused call credit of $3 per card

after six months and the card is activated when sold.

Johan also sells handsets to dealers for $150 and invoices the dealers for those handsets. The dealer can return the

handset up to a service contract being signed by a customer. When the customer signs a service contract, the

customer receives the handset free of charge. Johan allows the dealer a commission of $280 on the connection of a

customer and the transaction with the dealer is settled net by a payment of $130 by Johan to the dealer being the

cost of the handset to the dealer ($150) deducted from the commission ($280). The handset cannot be sold

separately by the dealer and the service contract lasts for a 12 month period. Dealers do not sell prepaid phones, and

Johan receives monthly revenue from the service contract.

The chief operating officer, a non-accountant, has asked for an explanation of the accounting principles and practices

which should be used to account for the above events.

Required:

Discuss the principles and practices which should be used in the financial year to 30 November 2008 to account

for:

(a) the licences; (8 marks)

正确答案:
Licences
An intangible asset meets the identifiability criterion when it is separable or it arises from contractual or other legal rights (IAS38
‘Intangible Assets’). Additionally intangible assets are recognised where it is probable that the future economic benefits attributable
to the asset will flow to the entity and the asset’s cost can be reliably measured. Where intangible assets are acquired separately,
the asset’s cost or fair value reflects the estimations of the future economic benefits that are expected to flow to the entity. The
licence will, therefore, meet the above criteria for recognition as an intangible asset at cost. Subsequent to initial recognition,
IAS38 permits an entity to adopt the cost or revaluation model as its accounting policy. The revaluation model can only be adopted
if intangible assets are traded in an active market. As the licence cannot be sold, the revaluation model cannot be used.
The cost model requires intangible assets to be carried at cost less amortisation and impairment losses (IAS38, para 74).
Amortisation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an intangible asset over its useful life. The depreciable
amount is the asset’s cost less its residual value. The licence will have no residual value. The depreciable amount should be
allocated on a systematic basis over its useful life. The method of amortisation should reflect the pattern in which the asset’s
economic benefits are expected to be consumed. If that pattern cannot be determined reliably, the straight line method of
amortisation must be used. The licence does not suffer wear and tear from usage, that is the number of customers using the
service. The economic benefits of the licence relate to Johan’s ability to benefit from the use of the licence. The economic benefits
relates to the passage of time and the useful life of the licence is now shorter. Therefore, the asset depletes on a time basis and
the straight line basis is appropriate. The licence should be amortised from the date that the network is available for use; that is
from 1 December 2007. An impairment review should have been undertaken at 30 November 2007 when the licence was not
being amortised. Although the licence is capable of being used on the date it was purchased, it cannot be used until the associated
network assets and infrastructure are available for use. Johan expects the regulator to renew the licence at the end of the initial
term and thus consideration should be given to amortising the licence over the two licence periods, i.e. a period of 11 years (five
years and six years) as the licence could be renewed at a nominal cost. However, Johan has no real experience of renewing licences
and cannot reliably determine what amounts, if any, would be payable to the regulator. Therefore, the licence should be amortised
over a five year period, that is $24 million per annum.
There are indications that the value of the licence may be impaired. The market share for the year to 30 November 2008 is
disappointing and competition is fierce in the sector, and retention of customers difficult. Therefore, an impairment test should be
undertaken. Johan should classify the licence and network assets as a single cash generating unit (CGU) for impairment purposes.
The licence cannot generate revenue in its own right and the smallest group of assets that generates independent revenue will be
the licence and network assets. The impairment indicators point to the need to test this cash generating unit for impairment.


(b) As a newly-qualified Chartered Certified Accountant, you have been asked to write an ‘ethics column’ for a trainee

accountant magazine. In particular, you have been asked to draft guidance on the following questions addressed

to the magazine’s helpline:

(i) What gifts or hospitality are acceptable and when do they become an inducement? (5 marks)

Required:

For each of the three questions, explain the threats to objectivity that may arise and the safeguards that

should be available to manage them to an acceptable level.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three questions above.

正确答案:
(b) Draft guidance
(i) Gifts and hospitality
Gifts and hospitality may be offered as an inducement i.e. to unduly influence actions or decisions, encourage illegal or
dishonest behaviour or to obtain confidential information. An offer of gifts and/or hospitality from a client ordinarily gives
rise to threats to compliance with the fundamental principles, for example:
■ self-interest threats to objectivity and/or confidentiality may be created if a gift from a client is accepted;
■ intimidation threats to objectivity and/or confidentiality may arise through the possibility of such offers being made
public and damaging the reputation of the professional accountant (or close family member).
The significance of such threats will depend on the nature, value and intent behind the offer. There may be no significant
threat to compliance with the fundamental principles if a reasonable and informed third party would consider gifts and
hospitality to be clearly insignificant. For example, if the offer of gifts or hospitality is made in the normal course of
business without the specific intent to influence decision making or to obtain information.
If evaluated threats are other than clearly insignificant, safeguards should be considered and applied as necessary to
eliminate them or reduce them to an acceptable level.
Offers of gifts and hospitality should not be accepted if the threats cannot be eliminated or reduced to an acceptable
level through the application of safeguards.
As the real or apparent threats to compliance with the fundamental principles do not merely arise from acceptance of
an inducement but, sometimes, merely from the fact of the offer having been made, additional safeguards should be
adopted. For example:
■ immediately informing higher levels of management or those charged with governance that an inducement has
been offered;
■ informing third parties (e.g. a professional body) of the offer (after seeking legal advice);
■ advising immediate or close family members of relevant threats and safeguards where they are potentially in
positions that might result in offers of inducements (e.g. as a result of their employment situation); and
■ informing higher levels of management or those charged with governance where immediate or close family
members are employed by competitors or potential suppliers of that organisation.


21年ACCA/CAT模拟试题7篇 第4篇


(b) Describe the skills that a counsellor should possess. (14 marks)

正确答案:
(b) It is clear that many of the problems at Bailey’s that have led to the unhappy atmosphere lend themselves to resolution through the neutral and non-judgemental approach offered by the appointment of external counsellors. The counsellor must be in a position to help the individual employee to identify problems, issues and possible solutions to the kind of problems that have manifested themselves at Bailey’s: poor production, unrest, low morale and significantly, the long tradition of poor pay that is leading to employee family problems outside the factory. There is always the danger of leading the employee, so the counsellor must adopt a passive role, show interest and encourage reflection whilst allowing the employee to lead and talk around the issues. Open questions must be used to help the employee explore ideas and feelings. The counsellor must be an active listener, speaking only to clarify issues and elicit answers when appropriate. Above all, the counsellor must be impartial and this is why Bailey’s has appointed outside counsellors.
Counselling skills require the ability to establish rapport with the employee, to clarify and summarise as appropriate, to ask non-specific questions, use a non-directive approach, to listen and be able to discern what is meant by what the employee says. In addition, the counsellor must allow the employee to be silent if he or she wishes to be, to allow any meeting to take place at the speed of the employee and anticipate the employee’s views on the causes, which at Bailey’s are many, and to allow solutions to the problems.


There has been significant divergence in practice over recognition of revenue mainly because International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) have contained limited guidance in certain areas. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) as a result of the joint project with the US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has issued IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers. IFRS 15 sets out a five-step model, which applies to revenue earned from a contract with a customer with limited exceptions, regardless of the type of revenue transaction or the industry. Step one in the five-step model requires the identification of the contract with the customer and is critical for the purpose of applying the standard. The remaining four steps in the standard’s revenue recognition model are irrelevant if the contract does not fall within the scope of IFRS 15.

Required:

(a) (i) Discuss the criteria which must be met for a contract with a customer to fall within the scope of IFRS 15. (5 marks)

(ii) Discuss the four remaining steps which lead to revenue recognition after a contract has been identified as falling within the scope of IFRS 15. (8 marks)

(b) (i) Tang enters into a contract with a customer to sell an existing printing machine such that control of the printing machine vests with the customer in two years’ time. The contract has two payment options. The customer can pay $240,000 when the contract is signed or $300,000 in two years’ time when the customer gains control of the printing machine. The interest rate implicit in the contract is 11·8% in order to adjust for the risk involved in the delay in payment. However, Tang’s incremental borrowing rate is 5%. The customer paid $240,000 on 1 December 2014 when the contract was signed. (4 marks)

(ii) Tang enters into a contract on 1 December 2014 to construct a printing machine on a customer’s premises for a promised consideration of $1,500,000 with a bonus of $100,000 if the machine is completed within 24 months. At the inception of the contract, Tang correctly accounts for the promised bundle of goods and services as a single performance obligation in accordance with IFRS 15. At the inception of the contract, Tang expects the costs to be $800,000 and concludes that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised will occur. Completion of the printing machine is highly susceptible to factors outside of Tang’s influence, mainly issues with the supply of components.

At 30 November 2015, Tang has satisfied 65% of its performance obligation on the basis of costs incurred to date and concludes that the variable consideration is still constrained in accordance with IFRS 15. However, on 4 December 2015, the contract is modified with the result that the fixed consideration and expected costs increase by $110,000 and $60,000 respectively. The time allowable for achieving the bonus is extended by six months with the result that Tang concludes that it is highly probable that the bonus will be achieved and that the contract still remains a single performance obligation. Tang has an accounting year end of 30 November. (6 marks)

Required:

Discuss how the above two contracts should be accounted for under IFRS 15. (In the case of (b)(i), the discussion should include the accounting treatment up to 30 November 2016 and in the case of (b)(ii), the accounting treatment up to 4 December 2015.)

Note: The mark allocation is shown against each of the items above.

Professional marks will be awarded in question 4 for clarity and quality of presentation. (2 marks)

正确答案:

(a) (i) The definition of what constitutes a contract for the purpose of applying the standard is critical. The definition of contract is based on the definition of a contract in the USA and is similar to that in IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation. A contract exists when an agreement between two or more parties creates enforceable rights and obligations between those parties. The agreement does not need to be in writing to be a contract but the decision as to whether a contractual right or obligation is enforceable is considered within the context of the relevant legal framework of a jurisdiction. Thus, whether a contract is enforceable will vary across jurisdictions. The performance obligation could include promises which result in a valid expectation that the entity will transfer goods or services to the customer even though those promises are not legally enforceable.

The first criteria set out in IFRS 15 is that the parties should have approved the contract and are committed to perform. their respective obligations. It would be questionable whether that contract is enforceable if this were not the case. In the case of oral or implied contracts, this may be difficult but all relevant facts and circumstances should be considered in assessing the parties’ commitment. The parties need not always be committed to fulfilling all of the obligations under a contract. IFRS 15 gives the example where a customer is required to purchase a minimum quantity of goods but past experience shows that the customer does not always do this and the other party does not enforce their contract rights. However, there needs to be evidence that the parties are substantially committed to the contract.

It is essential that each party’s rights and the payment terms can be identified regarding the goods or services to be transferred. This latter requirement is the key to determining the transaction price.

The contract must have commercial substance before revenue can be recognised, as without this requirement, entities might artificially inflate their revenue and it would be questionable whether the transaction has economic consequences. Further, it should be probable that the entity will collect the consideration due under the contract. An assessment of a customer’s credit risk is an important element in deciding whether a contract has validity but customer credit risk does not affect the measurement or presentation of revenue. The consideration may be different to the contract price because of discounts and bonus offerings. The entity should assess the ability of the customer to pay and the customer’s intention to pay the consideration. If a contract with a customer does not meet these criteria, the entity can continually re-assess the contract to determine whether it subsequently meets the criteria.

Two or more contracts which are entered into around the same time with the same customer may be combined and accounted for as a single contract, if they meet the specified criteria. The standard provides detailed requirements for contract modifications. A modification may be accounted for as a separate contract or a modification of the original contract, depending upon the circumstances of the case.

(ii) Step one in the five-step model requires the identification of the contract with the customer. After a contract has been determined to fall under IFRS 15, the following steps are required before revenue can be recognised.

Step two requires the identification of the separate performance obligations in the contract. This is often referred to as ’unbundling’, and is done at the beginning of a contract. The key factor in identifying a separate performance obligation is the distinctiveness of the good or service, or a bundle of goods or services. A good or service is distinct if the customer can benefit from the good or service on its own or together with other readily available resources and is separately identifiable from other elements of the contract. IFRS 15 requires a series of distinct goods or services which are substantially the same with the same pattern of transfer, to be regarded as a single performance obligation. A good or service, which has been delivered, may not be distinct if it cannot be used without another good or service which has not yet been delivered. Similarly, goods or services which are not distinct should be combined with other goods or services until the entity identifies a bundle of goods or services which is distinct. IFRS 15 provides indicators rather than criteria to determine when a good or service is distinct within the context of the contract. This allows management to apply judgement to determine the separate performance obligations which best reflect the economic substance of a transaction.

Step three requires the entity to determine the transaction price, which is the amount of consideration which an entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for the promised goods or services. This amount excludes amounts collected on behalf of a third party, for example, government taxes. An entity must determine the amount of consideration to which it expects to be entitled in order to recognise revenue.

The transaction price might include variable or contingent consideration. Variable consideration should be estimated as either the expected value or the most likely amount. Management should use the approach which it expects will best predict the amount of consideration and should be applied consistently throughout the contract. An entity can only include variable consideration in the transaction price to the extent that it is highly probable that a subsequent change in the estimated variable consideration will not result in a significant revenue reversal. If it is not appropriate to include all of the variable consideration in the transaction price, the entity should assess whether it should include part of the variable consideration. However, this latter amount still has to pass the ’revenue reversal’ test.

Additionally, an entity should estimate the transaction price taking into account non-cash consideration, consideration payable to the customer and the time value of money if a significant financing component is present. The latter is not required if the time period between the transfer of goods or services and payment is less than one year. If an entity anticipates that it may ultimately accept an amount lower than that initially promised in the contract due to, for example, past experience of discounts given, then revenue would be estimated at the lower amount with the collectability of that lower amount being assessed. Subsequently, if revenue already recognised is not collectable, impairment losses should be taken to profit or loss.

Step four requires the allocation of the transaction price to the separate performance obligations. The allocation is based on the relative standalone selling prices of the goods or services promised and is made at inception of the contract. It is not adjusted to reflect subsequent changes in the standalone selling prices of those goods or services. The best evidence of standalone selling price is the observable price of a good or service when the entity sells that good or service separately. If that is not available, an estimate is made by using an approach which maximises the use of observable inputs. For example, expected cost plus an appropriate margin or the assessment of market prices for similar goods or services adjusted for entity-specific costs and margins or in limited circumstances a residual approach. When a contract contains more than one distinct performance obligation, an entity allocates the transaction price to each distinct performance obligation on the basis of the standalone selling price.

Where the transaction price includes a variable amount and discounts, consideration needs to be given as to whether these amounts relate to all or only some of the performance obligations in the contract. Discounts and variable consideration will typically be allocated proportionately to all of the performance obligations in the contract. However, if certain conditions are met, they can be allocated to one or more separate performance obligations.

Step five requires revenue to be recognised as each performance obligation is satisfied. An entity satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control of a promised good or service to the customer, which could occur over time or at a point in time. The definition of control includes the ability to prevent others from directing the use of and obtaining the benefits from the asset. A performance obligation is satisfied at a point in time unless it meets one of three criteria set out in IFRS 15. Revenue is recognised in line with the pattern of transfer.

If an entity does not satisfy its performance obligation over time, it satisfies it at a point in time and revenue will be recognised when control is passed at that point in time. Factors which may indicate the passing of control include the present right to payment for the asset or the customer has legal title to the asset or the entity has transferred physical possession of the asset.

(b) (i) The contract contains a significant financing component because of the length of time between when the customer pays for the asset and when Tang transfers the asset to the customer, as well as the prevailing interest rates in the market. A contract with a customer which has a significant financing component should be separated into a revenue component (for the notional cash sales price) and a loan component. Consequently, the accounting for a sale arising from a contract which has a significant financing component should be comparable to the accounting for a loan with the same features. An entity should use the discount rate which would be reflected in a separate financing transaction between the entity and its customer at contract inception. The interest rate implicit in the transaction may be different from the rate to be used to discount the cash flows, which should be the entity’s incremental borrowing rate. IFRS 15 would therefore dictate that the rate which should be used in adjusting the promised consideration is 5%, which is the entity’s incremental borrowing rate, and not 11·8%.

Tang would account for the significant financing component as follows:

Recognise a contract liability for the $240,000 payment received on 1 December 2014 at the contract inception:

Dr Cash $240,000
Cr Contract liability $240,000

During the two years from contract inception (1 December 2014) until the transfer of the printing machine, Tang adjusts the amount of consideration and accretes the contract liability by recognising interest on $240,000 at 5% for two years.

Year to 30 November 2015
Dr Interest expense $12,000
Cr Contract liability $12,000

Contract liability would stand at $252,000 at 30 November 2015.

Year to 30 November 2016
Dr Interest expense $12,600
Cr Contract liability $12,600

Recognition of contract revenue on transfer of printing machine at 30 November 2016 of $264,600 by debiting contract liability and crediting revenue with this amount.

(ii) Tang accounts for the promised bundle of goods and services as a single performance obligation satisfied over time in accordance with IFRS 15. At the inception of the contract, Tang expects the following:

Transaction price $1,500,000
Expected costs $800,000
Expected profit (46·7%) $700,000

At contract inception, Tang excludes the $100,000 bonus from the transaction price because it cannot conclude that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised will not occur. Completion of the printing machine is highly susceptible to factors outside the entity’s influence. By the end of the first year, the entity has satisfied 65% of its performance obligation on the basis of costs incurred to date. Costs incurred to date are therefore $520,000 and Tang reassesses the variable consideration and concludes that the amount is still constrained. Therefore at 30 November 2015, the following would be recognised:

Revenue $975,000
Costs $520,000
Gross profit $455,000

However, on 4 December 2015, the contract is modified. As a result, the fixed consideration and expected costs increase by $110,000 and $60,000, respectively. The total potential consideration after the modification is $1,710,000 which is $1,610,000 fixed consideration + $100,000 completion bonus. In addition, the allowable time for achieving the bonus is extended by six months with the result that Tang concludes that it is highly probable that including the bonus in the transaction price will not result in a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised in accordance with IFRS 15. Therefore the bonus of $100,000 can be included in the transaction price. Tang also concludes that the contract remains a single performance obligation. Thus,Tang accounts for the contract modification as if it were part of the original contract. Therefore, Tang updates its estimates of costs and revenue as follows:

Tang has satisfied 60·5% of its performance obligation ($520,000 actual costs incurred compared to $860,000 total expected costs). The entity recognises additional revenue of $59,550 [(60·5% of $1,710,000) – $975,000 revenue recognised to date] at the date of the modification as a cumulative catch-up adjustment. As the contract amendment took place after the year end, the additional revenue would not be treated as an adjusting event.


Section A – This ONE question is compulsory and MUST be attempted

Hesket Nuclear (HN) is a nuclear power station in Ayland, a large European country. The HN plant is operated by Hesket Power Company (HPC), which in turn is wholly owned by the government of Ayland. Initially opened in the late 1950s, the power station grew in subsequent decades by the addition of several other facilities on the same site. HN now has the ability to generate 5% of Ayland’s entire electricity demand and is one of the largest nuclear stations in Europe. At each stage of its development from the 1950s to the present day, development on the site was welcomed by the relevant local government authorities, by the businesses that have supported it, by the trade union that represents the majority of employees (called Forward Together or FT for short) and also by the national Ayland government. A nuclear reprocessing facility was added in the 1980s. This is a valuable source of overseas income as nuclear power producers in many other parts of the world send material by sea to HN to be reprocessed. This includes nuclear producers in several developing countries that rely on the cheaper reprocessed fuel (compared to ‘virgin’ fuel) that HN produces.

HPC is loss-making and receives a substantial subsidy each year from the government of Ayland. HPC has proven itself uneconomic but is deemed politically and environmentally necessary as far as the government is concerned. The government of Ayland has reluctantly accepted that large subsidies to HPC will be necessary for many years but considers nuclear power to be a vital component of its energy portfolio (along with other energy sources such as oil, gas, coal, renewables and hydroelectric) and also as a key part of its ‘clean’ energy strategy. Unlike energy from fossil fuels (such as coal, gas and oil), nuclear power generates a negligible amount of polluting greenhouse gas. HN also provides much needed employment in an otherwise deprived part of the country. The HN power station underpins and dominates the economy of its local area and local government authorities say that the HN plant is vital to the regional economy.

Since it opened, however, the HN power station has been controversial. Whilst being welcomed by those who benefi t from it in terms of jobs, trade, reprocessing capacity and energy, a coalition has gradually built up against it comprising those sceptical about the safety and environmental impact of nuclear power. Some neighbouring countries believe themselves to be vulnerable to radioactive contamination from the HN plant. In particular, two countries, both of whom say their concerns about HN arise because of their geographical positions, are vocal opponents. They say that their geographical proximity forced them to be concerned as they are affected by the location of the HN plant which was not of their choosing.

The government of Beeland, whose capital city is 70 km across the sea from HN (which is situated on the coast), has consistently opposed HN and has frequently asked the government of Ayland to close HN down. The Beeland government claims that not only does ‘low-level’ emission from the site already contaminate the waters separating the two countries but it also claims that any future major nuclear ‘incident’ would have serious implications for the citizens of Beeland. There is some scientifi c support for this view although opinion is divided over whether Beeland is being irrational in its general opposition to HN.

The government of Ceeland is also a vocal opponent of HN. Ceeland is located to the north of Beeland and approximately 500 km away from Ayland. Some nuclear scientists have said that with such a large stretch of water between the HN plant and Ceeland, even a much-feared incident would be unlikely to seriously impact on Ceeland. Some commentators have gone further and said that Ceeland’s concerns are unfounded and ‘borne of ignorance’. FT, the trade union for HN employees, issued a statement saying that Ceeland had no reason to fear HN and that its fears were ‘entirely groundless’.

HN’s other vocal and persistent opponent is No Nuclear Now (NNN), a well-organised and well-funded campaigning group. Describing itself on its website as ‘passionate about the environment’, it describes HN’s social and environmental footprint as ‘very negative’. NNN has often pointed to an environmentally important colony of rare seals living near the HN plant. It says that the seals are dependent on a local natural ecosystem around the plant and are unable to move, arguing that the animals are at signifi cant risk from low-level contamination and would have ‘no chance’ of survival if a more serious radioactive leak ever occurred. NNN points to such a leak that occurred in the 1970s, saying that such a leak proves that HN has a poor safety record and that a leak could easily recur.

Each time an objection to the HN power station is raised, FT, the trade union, robustly defends the HN site in the media, and argues for further investment, based on the need to protect the jobs at the site. Furthermore, the radiation leak in the 1970s led to FT uniting with the HPC board to argue against those stakeholders that wanted to use the leak as a reason to close the HN site. The combination of union and HPC management was able to counter the arguments of those asking for closure.

HN places a great deal of emphasis on its risk management and often publicises the fact that it conducts continual risk assessments and is in full compliance with all relevant regulatory frameworks. Similarly, FT recently pointed out that HN has had an ‘impeccable’ safety record since the incident in the 1970s and says on its website that it is ‘proud’ that its members are involved in ensuring that the company is continually in full compliance with all of the regulatory requirements placed upon it.

The board of HPC, led by chairman Paul Gog, is under continual pressure from the government of Ayland to minimise the amount of government subsidy. Each year, the government places challenging targets on the HPC board requiring stringent cost controls at the HN power station. In seeking to reduce maintenance costs on the expiry of a prior maintenance contract last year, the board awarded the new contract to an overseas company that brought its own workers in from abroad rather than employing local people. The previous contract company was outraged to have lost the contract and the move also triggered an angry response from the local workforce and from FT, the representative trade union.

FT said that it was deplorable that HPC had awarded the contract to an overseas company when a domestic company in Ayland could have been awarded the work. The union convenor, Kate Allujah, said that especially in the nuclear industry where safety was so important, domestic workers were ‘more reliable’ than foreign workers who were brought in purely on the basis of cost and in whose countries safety standards in similar industries might not be so stringent. HPC said that it had done nothing illegal as the foreign workers were allowed to work in Ayland under international legal treaties. Furthermore, it argued that pressure by FT to raise wages over recent years had created, with the government’s subsidy targets, the cost pressure to re-tender the maintenance contract.

On HN’s 50th anniversary last year, NNN published what it called a ‘risk assessment’ for the HN power station. It said it had calculated the probabilities (P) and impacts (I) of three prominent risks.

Risk of major radioactive leak over the next 10 years: P = 10%, I = 20

Risk of nuclear explosion over the next 50 years: P = 20%, I = 100

Risk of major terrorist attack over next 10 years: P = 10%, I = 80

Impacts were on an arbitrary scale of 1–100 where 100 was defi ned by NNN as ‘total nuclear annihilation of the area and thousands of deaths’.

The governments of Beeland and Ceeland seized upon the report, saying that it proved that HN is a genuine threat to their security and should be immediately closed and decommissioned. HN’s risk manager, Keith Wan, vigorously disagreed with this assessment saying that the probabilities and the impacts were ‘ridiculous’, massively overstated and intended to unnecessarily alarm people. HN’s public relations offi ce was also angry about it and said it would issue a rebuttal statement.

Required:

(a) Distinguish between voluntary and involuntary stakeholders, identifying both types of stakeholders in Hesket Nuclear. Assess the claims of THREE of the involuntary ‘affected’ stakeholders identifi ed. (12 marks)

(b) The trade union, Forward Together, has had a long relationship with HN and represents not only the main workforce but also the employees of the maintenance company replaced by the foreign workers.

Required:

Explain the roles of employee representatives such as trade unions in corporate governance and critically evaluate, from the perspective of HPC’s board, the contribution of Forward Together in the governance of HPC. (10 marks)

(c) Explain what an agency relationship is and examine the board of HPC’s current agency relationship and objectives. Briefl y explain how these would differ if HPC was a company with private shareholders. (10 marks)

(d) As a part of HPC’s public relations effort, it has been proposed that a response statement should be prepared for the company’s website to help address two major challenges to their reputation.

Required:

Draft this statement to include the following:

(i) Referring to the NNN report, explain why accurate risk assessment is necessary at Hesket Nuclear. (8 marks)

(ii) Explain what a social and environmental ‘footprint’ is and construct the argument that HN’s overall social and environmental footprint is positive. (6 marks)

Professional marks will additionally be awarded in part (d) for drafting a statement that is clear, has a logical fl ow, is persuasive and is appropriately structured. (4 marks)

正确答案:

(a) Distinguish and identify
Voluntary stakeholders are those that engage with an organisation of their own choice and free will. They are ultimately (in the long term) able to detach and discontinue their stakeholding if they choose. Involuntary stakeholders have their stakeholding imposed and are unable to detach or withdraw of their own volition.

The voluntary stakeholders identifi ed in the case are: Forward Together (the trade union), Hesket Nuclear employees, the Ayland government, the board of HPC, local authorities, No Nuclear Now and other nuclear producers who use the reprocessing facility.

The involuntary stakeholders – those whose stakeholding is placed upon them by virtue of their physical position – are the governments of Beeland and Ceeland, the local community and the seal colony.

[Tutorial note: membership of these categories is contestable if time perspectives are introduced. In the short term, some voluntary stakeholders are involuntary in that their involvement cannot be quickly withdrawn. The case clearly identifi es the involuntary stakeholders.]

Assess the claims
The case identifi es three ‘affected’ stakeholders that are clearly involuntary. Both Beeland and Ceeland say that they are stakeholders because of their geographical position and the seals are unable to move because of local environmental conditions.

Beeland government’s claim is based on its position near to the Hesket plant. With the capital 70 km from the plant, it claims that it is already the ‘victim’ of low level radiation in the sea between the two countries. The case does not give the radius of damage if a major incident were to occur but it does say that there is ‘scientifi c support’ for the view that it could affect the capital of Beeland. Assuming that both of these statements are accurate then the Beeland government would appear to have a legitimate and reasonable claim that they are affected by the Hesket Nuclear plant and could be further affected in the future.

The government of Ceeland claims to be a potential ‘victim’ of nuclear contamination from the HN plant and has sought to have the plant closed as a result. The weakness of its claim rests upon the physical distance away from HN (500 km). If the threats to Ceeland are, as scientists have suggested, ‘unfounded and borne of ignorance’ then clearly Ceeland has a weak claim over Hesket Nuclear. It may have political reasons of its own to make protestations, perhaps to appease opinion in Ceeland or to be populist to manage dissent at home.

The case says that the local seal colony is unable to move away from the HN plant because of the local environmental conditions there and so it is unable to discontinue its stakeholding. It is thus involuntary. Low level emissions could potentially affect the seals and their food sources and any major incident would obviously impact it signifi cantly. Whilst their affectedness is therefore indisputable, the value of the colony’s claim rests in part upon the value placed upon sea life value against human and economic value. This assessment is therefore contestable.

The local community is another involuntary stakeholder albeit with a weaker involuntary element than the above three described. Whilst not structurally involuntary (they are able to move away if they do not like it), many local citizens may have lived near the HN plant for many years before it was built and may therefore have simply had to accept its development regardless of their views. The impacts on local communities can be positive or negative in that HN supports them through the provision of jobs but they would also be the fi rst and most affected if there ever was a major incident at the HN plant.

[Tutorial note: allow for other ‘affected’ stakeholders if coherently argued. It is possible to argue that the taxpayers of Ayland are affected involuntary stakeholders, for example.]

(b) Roles of employee representatives
Trade unions are the most usual example of employee representation in corporate governance. Trade unions represent employees in a work facility such as an offi ce or a plant. Membership is voluntary and the infl uence of the union is usually proportional to its proportion of membership.

Although a trade union is by default assumed to have an adversarial role with management, its ability to ‘deliver’ the compliance of a workforce can help signifi cantly in corporate governance. When an external threat is faced, such as with the reputation losses following the 1970s leak, then the coalition of workforce (via Forward Together) and management meant that it was more diffi cult for external critics to gain support.

A trade union is an actor in the checks and balances of power within a corporate governance structure. Where management abuses occur, it is often the trade union that is the fi rst and most effective reaction against it and this can often work to the advantage of shareholders or other owners, especially when the abuse has the ability to affect productivity.

Trade unions help to maintain and control one of the most valuable assets in an organisation (employees). Where a helpful and mutually constructive relationship is cultivated between union and employer then an optimally effi cient industrial relations climate exists, thus reinforcing the productivity of human resources in the organisation. In defending members’ interests and negotiating terms and conditions, the union helps to ensure that the workforce is content and able to work with maximum effi ciency and effectiveness.

Critically evaluate the contribution of Forward Together from HPC’s perspective

Helpful roles
The case describes Forward Together’s (FT) role as generally supportive of the development of the Hesket Nuclear site. Clearly, with a primary loyalty to its members, FT will always pursue causes that are going to maximise members’ job security. When the primary external stakeholder pressure is for the reduction of the HN site, the union and board are aligned in their objectives for the continuation of the facility.

FT’s statement over Ceeland’s concern was very helpful to the HPC board. FT has a clear interest in diffusing unfounded concern where it exists and its statement that Ceeland’s fears were ‘entirely groundless’ would reinforce the power of any similar such statement made by others. Similarly, FT provided support after the leakage incident in the 1970s. The helpful reinforcement was evident when FT pointed to the impeccable safety record and compliance. This may have meant more as a public relations exercise coming from the trade union rather than the HPC board as FT is independent of the company.

Unhelpful roles
FT’s wage pressure, over time, put a pressure on the company’s costs that had, according to the HPC board, created the need to bring in cheaper foreign workers to fulfi l the maintenance contract. From the board of HPC’s viewpoint, such pressure was ultimately self-defeating for the union and effectively meant that the previous maintenance contractor was priced out. The union had been short-sighted in its year-on-year wage demands.

We are not told whether the board agrees with Kate Allujah that workers from Ayland were ‘more reliable’ in such a risk sensitive industry, but her comment was possibly based on prejudice against foreign workers entering the country. She seemed to be unconcerned with the legal implications of her outrage. Given that the company was legally entitled to employ foreign workers in Ayland, she had no valid legal argument for her position. From an economic perspective, it is also unhelpful, from HPC’s perspective to have the union making high wage demands and then complaining about legitimate measures that the company takes to stay within its government subsidy such as cutting costs, including labour costs.

Conclusion
HPC’s relationship with FT has been positive and mutually benefi cial for the majority of the company’s history. Clearly seeing their destinies to be linked, FT has supported the company against external threats but has, at the same time, used its good relations to make wage demands that ultimately led to the award of a maintenance contract to the foreign workers. This would have broken an important relationship with experienced maintenance personnel and the foreign workers may or may not have had the same level of expertise as the previous workers.

(c) Explain agency relationship
An agency relationship is one of trust between an agent and a principal which obliges the agent to meet the objectives placed upon it by the principal. As one appointed by a principal to manage, oversee or further the principal’s specifi c interests, the primary purpose of agency is to discharge its fi duciary duty to the principal. In this case, there is an agency relationship between the government and the board of HPC.

Examine existing agency relationship
Although HPC is run by a conventional board, the company is wholly owned by the government of Ayland. This means that the company’s strategic objectives are determined by the government and these are likely to be different from purely commercial concerns. The nuclear operation is clearly not economic in terms of profi t and so the government’s objectives for the company must be other than that. The case describes this in terms of broadening its energy portfolio and meeting environmental objectives. The board’s objectives are likely to be predominantly fi nancial, due to the control by subsidy placed upon it, but the principal’s political and environmental concerns may also affect the objectives placed upon the HPC board (such as employment objectives in what is a deprived region of Ayland).

The principal is the government of Ayland and ultimately the board is accountable to the taxpayers of Ayland. This means that the development and even the existence of HN is ultimately under democratic control. The agency relationship means that the board of HPC has subsidy targets and also sees its role as fulfi lling an important role in Ayland’s energy portfolio.

HPC as a ‘conventional’ company owned by private shareholders
If HPC was a private company, its principals would be shareholders with very different objectives. Shareholders would be predominantly concerned with the economic performance of HP and the economies of the nuclear power industry. It would insist that the board pursued only those parts of the business that were profi table. This would necessitate a radical redesign of HPC’s business as we are told that in its present form. it is loss-making.

(d) (i)

Statement
Hesket Power Company’s response to the report produced by NNN

Importance of risk assessment at Hesket Power Company
Hesket Power Company was recently dismayed to have been made aware of a report conducted by an anti-nuclear pressure group purporting to be a risk assessment of selected risks to the Hesket Nuclear plant. The company would like to take this opportunity to inform. the public about the irresponsibility of the pressure group’s activity whilst comprehensively rejecting its arguments.

In all industries it is important to assess risks as accurately as possible but in the nuclear power industry, it is critical. It is because the pressure group misrepresented our risks that we feel it necessary to remind stakeholders about the importance of a correct risk assessment based on valid measurements.

In observing best practice, Hesket Nuclear carries out thorough and continual risk assessments in compliance with our regulatory frameworks. The information going into the process must be as accurate as possible because resources are allocated in part on the basis of our risk assessments. Clearly, a risk assessed as probable and of high impact would attract a signifi cant resource allocation and to have incorrect information could conceivably lead to the misallocation of company resources. This, in turn, would be a failure of our duty to the HPC company and ultimately to our owners, the government of Ayland and its taxpayers. The fact that there has not been a serious incident since the 1970s highlights the efforts that we take with risk assessment.

The ways in which we manage risk also depend upon the assessment. Once a risk, such as the risk of a nuclear leakage, is identifi ed and assessed, the company pursues a strategy for managing that risk, typically to transfer or share the risk, avoid the risk, reduce it or accept it. This has implications for the entire strategy of the organisation, especially where the assessed risks are strategic in nature. Inaccurate assessment might, for example, mean accepting a risk that should have been avoided or vice versa.

Our stakeholders expect us to be a responsible company in all matters but especially in matters of safety and the environment. We owe it to our local community, employees and others to ensure that all risks are fully but accurately understood. In addition to ensuring that we are fully compliant with all regulatory regimes applicable to us, we believe that accurate risk assessment is necessary to our valued reputation as an ethical and responsible employer and neighbour.

Finally, as we have seen in the case of this misguided report by the pressure group, inaccurate assessments can breed fear, distrust and unnecessary panic. HPC was disappointed to hear the report being used by critics when the information it contained was inaccurate and this leads us to the second matter.

(ii) HN’s social and environmental ‘footprint’

HPC is aware of some critics that have asserted that our overall footprint is negative. In responding to this, we feel it necessary to remind readers that the footprint of any organisation includes the sum total of its positive and negative interactions with the environment. Whilst this sometimes involves negative impacts such as carbon emissions and accidental pollution, it also takes into account the positive impacts such as social benefi t, through such things as job creation, and positive environmental impacts. Both ‘sides’ need to be taken into account before an overall evaluation of the social and environmental footprint can be established. To focus on only a small number of measures, as some of our critics have done, is to provide an unfair and biased account of our genuine overall footprint.

Social arguments
It is our belief that Hesket Nuclear makes a substantial positive contribution on both social and environmental measures. In terms of social contribution, HN makes a positive impact for several reasons. Whilst accepting that Hesket Nuclear has its critics, the company would like to remind the public both in Ayland and Beeland that the plant is a very large employer and vital to the economic well-being of the region, a fact recognised by a wide range of local and national stakeholders. Others have noted the importance of the jobs provided at Hesket Nuclear to the social and economic well-being of the region and HPC fully agrees with this analysis.

In addition to the jobs provided in Ayland, Hesket Nuclear also provides reprocessed fuel that is cheaper than virgin fuel. This provides support for nuclear power, and hence clean energy, in several developing countries that are our valued customers. Hesket Nuclear therefore indirectly supports employment and social development in those countries. Were our reprocessed fuel unavailable to them, rates of economic and social development growth may be slowed in those countries. We are therefore determined to continue to supply this vital input into those countries and to continue to support them.

Environmental arguments
In addition, as a non-fossil fuel industry, nuclear is relatively non-polluting and is an essential component of the government of Ayland’s clean energy strategy. Hesket Nuclear is proud to be a part of that strategy and will continue to be a dependable producer of nuclear power and reprocessing services. In so doing we will continue to carefully manage the risks of nuclear power supply whilst providing the jobs and clean energy for which Hesket Nuclear is corporately responsible. A likely alternative to nuclear is the burning of more polluting fossil fuels which would presumably be as unacceptable to our critics as it is to us.

Whilst conceding that all nuclear operations require a high level of safety and regulatory observance, we are pleased to be able to remind our stakeholders, including the governments of Beeland and Ceeland, of our very high performance in this area. As our colleagues in the Forward Together trade union recently said, Hesket Nuclear has had an impeccable safety record since the 1970s and is fully compliant with all relevant safety regulations. We fully intend to maintain this high level of performance.

[Tutorial note: allow latitude in responding to part (ii), especially rewarding answers referring to the specifi c case of nuclear]


(b) Using relevant evaluation criteria, assess how achievable and compatible these three strategic goals are over

the next five years. (20 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The three strategic goals are to become the leading premium ice cream brand in the UK; to increase sales to £25 million;
and to achieve a significant entry into the supermarket sector. On the basis of performance to date these goals will certainly
be stretching. All three strategies will involve significant growth in the company. Johnson and Scholes list three success criteria
against which the strategies can be assessed, namely suitability, acceptability and feasibility. Suitability is a test of whether a
strategy addresses the situation in which a company is operating. In Johnson and Scholes’ terms it is the firm’s ‘strategic
position’, an understanding of which comes from the analysis done in the answer to the question above. Acceptability is
concerned with the likely performance outcomes of the strategy and in particular whether the return and risk are in line with
the expectations of the stakeholders. Feasibility is the extent to which the strategy can be made to work and is determined
by the strategic capability of the company reflecting the resources available to implement the strategy. It is interesting to see
that the three growth related goals are compatible in that becoming the leading premium brand will involve increased market
penetration, product development and market development. If achieved it will increase sales and necessitate a successful
entry into the supermarket sector. Time will be an important influence on the success or otherwise of these growth goals –
five years seems to be a reasonable length of time to achieve these ambitious targets.
Suitability – Churchill is currently a small but significant player at the premium end of the market. This segment is becoming
more significant and is attractive because of the high prices and high margins attainable. This is leading to more intense
competition with global companies. One immediate question that springs to mind is what precisely does ‘leading brand’
mean? The most obvious test is that of market share and unless Churchill achieve the access to the supermarkets looked for
in the third strategic goal, seems difficult to achieve. If ‘leading brand’ implies brand recognition this again looks very
ambitious. On the positive side this segment of the ice cream market is showing significant growth and Churchill’s success
in gaining sponsorship rights to major sporting events is a step in the right direction. The combination of high price and high
quality should position the company where it wants to be. Achieving sales of £25 million represents a quantum shift in
performance in a company that has to date only achieved modest levels of sales growth.
Acceptability – as a family owned business the balance between risk and return is an important one. The family to date has
been ‘happy’ with a modest rate of growth and modest return in terms of profits. The other significant stakeholder group is
the professional managers headed up by Richard Smith. They seem much more growth orientated and may be happier with
the risks that the growth strategy entails. The family members seem more interested in the manufacturing side than the
retailing side of the business and their bad previous experiences with growing the business through international market
development may mean they are risk averse and less willing to invest the necessary resources.
Feasibility – again this is linked to how ‘leading brand’ is defined. If as seems likely the brand becomes more widely known
through increasing the number of company owned ice cream stores then a significant investment in retail outlets will be
necessary. Increasing the number of franchised outlets will reduce the financial resources required but may be at the expense
of the brand’s reputation. Certainly there would seem to be a need for increased levels of advertising and promotion –
particularly to gain access to the ice cream cabinets in the supermarket chains. This is likely to mean an increase in the
number of sales and marketing staff. Equally important will be the ability to develop and launch new products in a luxury
market shaped by impulse buying and customers looking to indulge themselves.
Overall, becoming the leading brand of premium ice cream may well be the key to achieving the desired presence in the
supermarket ice cream cabinets, which in turn is a pre-requisite for increasing company sales to £25 million. So the three
strategic goals may be regarded as consistent and compatible with one another. However each strategic goal will have to be
broken down into its key elements. For example in achieving sales of £25 million what proportion of sales will come from its
own ice cream stores and what proportion from other outlets including the supermarkets? Sales to date of Churchill ice cream
are dominated by impulse purchases but in achieving sales of £25 million penetrating the take home market will be essential.
Finally, what proportion of these take home sales will be under the supermarkets own label brands? Over reliance on own
label sales will seriously weaken Churchill’s desire to become the leading national brand of premium ice cream. It looks to
be an ambitious but attainable strategy but will require a significant planning effort to develop the necessary resources andcapabilities vital to successful implementation of the strategy.


You are an audit manager responsible for providing hot reviews on selected audit clients within your firm of Chartered

Certified Accountants. You are currently reviewing the audit working papers for Pulp Co, a long standing audit client,

for the year ended 31 January 2008. The draft statement of financial position (balance sheet) of Pulp Co shows total

assets of $12 million (2007 – $11·5 million).The audit senior has made the following comment in a summary of

issues for your review:

‘Pulp Co’s statement of financial position (balance sheet) shows a receivable classified as a current asset with a value

of $25,000. The only audit evidence we have requested and obtained is a management representation stating the

following:

(1) that the amount is owed to Pulp Co from Jarvis Co,

(2) that Jarvis Co is controlled by Pulp Co’s chairman, Peter Sheffield, and

(3) that the balance is likely to be received six months after Pulp Co’s year end.

The receivable was also outstanding at the last year end when an identical management representation was provided,

and our working papers noted that because the balance was immaterial no further work was considered necessary.

No disclosure has been made in the financial statements regarding the balance. Jarvis Co is not audited by our firm

and we have verified that Pulp Co does not own any shares in Jarvis Co.’

Required:

(b) In relation to the receivable recognised on the statement of financial position (balance sheet) of Pulp Co as

at 31 January 2008:

(i) Comment on the matters you should consider. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Matters to consider
Materiality
The receivable represents only 0·2% (25,000/12 million x 100) of total assets so is immaterial in monetary terms.
However, the details of the transaction could make it material by nature.
The amount is outstanding from a company under the control of Pulp Co’s chairman. Readers of the financial statements
would be interested to know the details of this transaction, which currently is not disclosed. Elements of the transaction
could be subject to bias, specifically the repayment terms, which appear to be beyond normal commercial credit terms.
Paul Sheffield may have used his influence over the two companies to ‘engineer’ the transaction. Disclosure is necessary
due to the nature of the transaction, the monetary value is irrelevant.
A further matter to consider is whether this is a one-off transaction, or indicative of further transactions between the two
companies.
Relevant accounting standard
The definitions in IAS 24 must be carefully considered to establish whether this actually constitutes a related party
transaction. The standard specifically states that two entities are not necessarily related parties just because they have
a director or other member of key management in common. The audit senior states that Jarvis Co is controlled by Peter
Sheffield, who is also the chairman of Pulp Co. It seems that Peter Sheffield is in a position of control/significant influence
over the two companies (though this would have to be clarified through further audit procedures), and thus the two
companies are likely to be perceived as related.
IAS 24 requires full disclosure of the following in respect of related party transactions:
– the nature of the related party relationship,
– the amount of the transaction,
– the amount of any balances outstanding including terms and conditions, details of security offered, and the nature
of consideration to be provided in settlement,
– any allowances for receivables and associated expense.
There is currently a breach of IAS 24 as no disclosure has been made in the notes to the financial statements. If not
amended, the audit opinion on the financial statements should be qualified with an ‘except for’ disagreement. In
addition, if practicable, the auditor’s report should include the information that would have been included in the financial
statements had the requirements of IAS 24 been adhered to.
Valuation and classification of the receivable
A receivable should only be recognised if it will give rise to future economic benefit, i.e. a future cash inflow. It appears
that the receivable is long outstanding – if the amount is unlikely to be recovered then it should be written off as a bad
debt and the associated expense recognised. It is possible that assets and profits are overstated.
Although a representation has been received indicating that the amount will be paid to Pulp Co, the auditor should be
sceptical of this claim given that the same representation was given last year, and the amount was not subsequently
recovered. The $25,000 could be recoverable in the long term, in which case the receivable should be reclassified as
a non-current asset. The amount advanced to Jarvis Co could effectively be an investment rather than a short term
receivable. Correct classification on the statement of financial position (balance sheet) is crucial for the financial
statements to properly show the liquidity position of the company at the year end.
Tutorial note: Digressions into management imposing a limitation in scope by withholding evidence are irrelevant in this
case, as the scenario states that the only evidence that the auditors have asked for is a management representation.
There is no indication in the scenario that the auditors have asked for, and been refused any evidence.


21年ACCA/CAT模拟试题7篇 第5篇


(iii) Flexibility. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(iii) Flexibility may relate to the company being able to cope with flexibility of volume, delivery speed or job specification. In
this particular context, flexibility appears to have been problematic for HLP as evidenced by the fact that 320
consultations relating to commercial were subcontracted during the year. This could be due to the lack of the ability of
HLP advisors to be able to provide consultations to a potentially wide-range of commercial clients, i.e. the variability in
the ‘job specification’ requires greater flexibility than HLP can deliver. Furthermore, a total of 600 consultations relating
to litigation work were also subcontracted throughout the year. These subcontract consultations might be due to the
inability of HLP to deal with fluctuations in demand.


1 The Great Western Cake Company (GWCC) is a well-established manufacturer of specialist flour confectionery

products, including cakes. GWCC sells its products to national supermarket chains. The company’s success during

recent years is largely attributable to its ability to develop innovative products which appeal to the food selectors within

national supermarket chains.

The marketing department of Superstores plc, a national supermarket chain has asked GWCC to manufacture a cake

known as the ‘Mighty Ben’. Mighty Ben is a character who has recently appeared in a film which was broadcast

around the world. The cake is expected to have a minimum market life of one year although the marketing department

consider that this might extend to eighteen months.

The management accountant of GWCC has collated the following estimated information in respect of the Mighty Ben

cake:

(1) Superstores plc has decided on a launch price of £20·25 for the Mighty Ben cake and it is expected that this

price will be maintained for the duration of the product’s life. Superstores plc will apply a 35% mark-up on the

purchase price of each cake from GWCC.

(2) Sales of the Mighty Ben cake are expected to be 100,000 units per month during the first twelve months.

Thereafter sales of the Mighty Ben cake are expected to decrease by 10,000 units in each subsequent month.

(3) Due to the relatively short shelf-life of the Mighty Ben cake, management has decided to manufacture the cakes

on a ‘just-in-time’ basis for delivery in accordance with agreed schedules. The cakes will be manufactured in

batches of 1,000. Direct materials input into the baking process will cost £7,000 per batch for each of the first

three months’ production. The material cost of the next three months’ production is expected to be 95% of the

cost of the first three months’ production. All batches manufactured thereafter will cost 90% of the cost of the

second three months’ production.

(4) Packaging costs will amount to £0·75 per cake. The original costs of the artwork and design of the packaging

will amount to £24,000. Superstores plc will reimburse GWCC £8,000 in the event that the product is

withdrawn from sale after twelve months.

(5) The design of the Mighty Ben cake is such that it is required to be hand-finished. A 75% learning curve will

apply to the total labour time requirement until the end of month five. Thereafter a steady state will apply with

labour time required per batch stabilising at that of the final batch in month five. The labour requirement for the

first batch of Mighty Ben cakes to be manufactured is expected to be 6,000 hours at £10 per hour.

(6) A royalty of 5% of sales revenue (subject to a maximum royalty of £1·1 million) will be payable by GWCC to the

owners of the Mighty Ben copyright.

(7) Variable overheads are estimated at £3·50 per direct labour hour.

(8) The manufacture of the Mighty Ben cake will increase fixed overheads by £75,000 per month.

(9) In order to provide a production facility dedicated to the Mighty Ben cake, an investment of £1,900,000 will be

required and this will be fully depreciated over twelve months.

(10) The directors of GWCC require an average annual return of 35% on their investment over 12 months and

18 months.

(11) Ignore taxation and the present value of cash flows.

Note: Learning curve formula:

y = axb

where y = average cost per batch

a = the cost of the initial batch

x = the total number of batches

b = learning index (= –0·415 for 75% learning rate)

Required:

(a) Prepare detailed calculations to show whether the manufacture of Mighty Ben cakes will provide the required

rate of return for GWCC over periods of twelve months and eighteen months. (20 marks)

正确答案:


(b) What advantages and disadvantages might result from outsourcing Global Imaging’s HR function?

(8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) It is important to note that there is nothing in the nature of the activities carried out by HR staff and departments that prevents
outsourcing being looked at as a serious option. Indeed, amongst larger companies the outsourcing of some parts of the HR
function is already well under way, with one source estimating that HR outsourcing is growing by 27% each year. Paul,
therefore, needs to look at the HR activities identified above and assess the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing a
particular HR activity. Outsourcing certain parts of the recruitment process has long been accepted, with professional
recruitment agencies and ‘head-hunters’ being heavily involved in the advertising and short listing of candidates for senior
management positions. Some HR specialists argue that outsourcing much of the routine personnel work, including
maintaining employees’ records, frees the HR specialist to make a real contribution to the strategic planning process. One
study argues that ‘HR should become a partner with senior and line managers in strategy execution’.
If Paul is able to outsource the routine HR activities this will free him to contribute to the development of the growth strategy
and the critical people needs that strategy will require. In many ways the HR specialist is in a unique position to assess current
skills and capabilities of existing staff and the extent to which these can be ‘leveraged’ to achieve the desired strategy. In
Hamel and Prahalad’s terms this strategy is likely to ‘stretch’ the people resources of the company and require the recruitment
of additional staff with the relevant capabilities. Paul needs to show how long it will take to develop the necessary staff
resources as this will significantly influence the time needed to achieve the growth strategy.
Outsourcing passes on to the provider the heavy investment needed if the company sets up its own internal HR services with
much of this investment now going into web-based systems. The benefits are reduced costs and improved service quality.
The downside is a perceived loss of control and a reduced ability to differentiate the HR function from that of competitors.
Issues of employee confidentiality are also relevant in the decision to outsource.


(b) State the enquiries you would make of the directors of Mulligan Co to ascertain the adequacy of the

$3 million finance requested for the new production facility. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(b) It is important to appreciate that the finance request should cover not only the cost of the construction of the new facility, but
also costs in order to get the business unit up and running, and enough cash to meet initial working capital requirements.
Mulligan Co may have sufficient cash to cover such additional expenses, but the bank will want comfort that this is the case.
Enquiries would include the following:
Who has prepared the forecast? It is important to evaluate the experience and competence of the preparer. If management
has previously prepared forecasts and capital expenditure budgets that were reliable and accurate, this adds a measure of
confidence in the preparation of the new forecast and the underlying assumptions used.
To what extent is internal finance available to cover any shortfall in the finance requirement? If there is surplus cash within
the organisation then the bank need not provide the full amount of finance necessary to start up the new business operation.
Has the cost of finance been included in the forecast? It appears that this cost is missing. Finance costs should be calculated
based on the anticipated interest rate to be applied to the loan advanced, and included in the total finance requirement.
What is the forecast operating cycle of the new business unit? In particular how long is the work in progress period, and how
much credit will be extended to customers? i.e. when will cash inflows specific to the new business unit be received? More
finance might be required to fund initial working capital shortfalls during the period when work in progress is occurring, and
before cash receipts from customers are received.
Will further raw materials be required? A request has been made for $250,000 for raw materials of timber. Other materials
may need to be purchased, for example, non-timber raw materials, and inventory of other consumables such as nuts and
bolts.
How long will the ‘initial’ inventory of raw material last? What is the planned work in progress time for the new product? More
finance may be needed to avoid a stock out of raw materials.
Construction of the new factory – is there any documentation to support the capital expenditure? For example, architect’s
plans, surveyor’s reports. This will support the accuracy of the finance requested and is an important source of evidence given
the materiality of the premises to the total amount of finance requested.
How likely is it that costs may be subject to inflation before actually being incurred? This could increase the amount of finance
required by several percentage points.
Have quotes been obtained for the new machinery to be purchased?
Purchase of new machinery – will any specific installation costs be incurred? These costs can be significant for large pieces
of capital equipment. Also, enquiries should be made regarding any delivery costs.
The budget does not appear to contain any finance request for overheads such as use of electricity during the construction
period, and hire of installation equipment. Have these overheads been included in the construction cost estimate?
Will staff need to be trained in using the new machinery? If so, any incremental costs should be included in the finance
request.
Advertising and marketing of new product – enquire of Patrick Tiler the methods that will be used to market the new product.
Some types of advertising are more of a cash drain due to their high expense e.g. television advertising is expensive and ‘up
front’ compared to magazine advertising, which is cheap and spread out. As Patrick Tiler is new to Mulligan Co, his forecast
is not based on past experience of this particular business.
LCT Bank will also consider the recoverability of the amount advanced by looking at the cash generating potential of the new
business unit. Enquiries should therefore be made regarding the likely success of the new products, for example:
– Has any market research been carried out to support the commercial viability of the new products?
– Have any contracts with retailers to carry the new products been negotiated?
– How quickly have past products generated a cash inflow?
– Is there a contingency plan in place in case the new products fail to be successful?


(b) Using the information provided, state the financial statement risks arising and justify an appropriate audit

approach for Indigo Co for the year ending 31 December 2005. (14 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Financial statement risks
Assets
■ There is a very high risk that inventory could be materially overstated in the balance sheet (thereby overstating profit)
because:
? there is a high volume of metals (hence material);
? valuable metals are made more portable;
? subsidy gives an incentive to overstate purchases (and hence inventory);
? inventory may not exist due to lack of physical controls (e.g. aluminium can blow away);
? scrap metal in the stockyard may have zero net realisable value (e.g. iron is rusty and slow-moving);
? quantities per counts not attended by an auditor have increased by a third.
■ Inventory could be otherwise misstated (over or under) due to:
? the weighbridge being inaccurate;
? metal qualities being estimated;
? different metals being mixed up; and
? the lack of an independent expert to identify/measure/value metals.
■ Tangible non-current assets are understated as the parts of the furnaces that require replacement (the linings) are not
capitalised (and depreciated) as separate items but treated as repairs/maintenance/renewals and expensed.
■ Cash may be understated due to incomplete recording of sales.
■ Recorded cash will be overstated if it does not exist (e.g. if it has been stolen).
■ Trade receivables may be understated if cash receipts from credit customers have been misappropriated.
Liabilities
■ The provision for the replacement of the furnace linings is overstated by the amount provided in the current and previous
year (i.e. in its entirety).
Tutorial note: Last replacement was two years ago.
Income statement
■ Revenue will be understated in respect of unrecorded cash sales of salvaged metals and ‘clinker’.
■ Scrap metal purchases (for cash) are at risk of overstatement:
? to inflate the 15% subsidy;
? to conceal misappropriated cash.
■ The income subsidy will be overstated if quantities purchased are overstated and/or overvalued (on the quarterly returns)
to obtain the amount of the subsidy.
■ Cash receipts/payments that were recorded only in the cash book in November are at risk of being unrecorded (in the
absence of cash book postings for November), especially if they are of a ‘one-off’ nature.
Tutorial note: Cash purchases of scrap and sales of salvaged metal should be recorded elsewhere (i.e. in the manual
inventory records). However, a one-off expense (of a capital or revenue nature) could be omitted in the absence of
another record.
■ Expenditure is overstated in respect of the 25% provision for replacing the furnace linings. However, as depreciation
will be similarly understated (as the furnace linings have not been capitalised) there is no risk of material misstatement
to the income statement overall.
Disclosure risk
■ A going concern (‘failure’) risk may arise through the loss of:
? sales revenue (e.g. through misappropriation of salvaged metals and/or cash);
? the subsidy (e.g. if returns are prepared fraudulently);
? cash (e.g. if material amounts stolen).
Any significant doubts about going concern must be suitably disclosed in the notes to the financial statements.
Disclosure risk arises if the requirements of IAS 1 ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’ are not met.
■ Disclosure risk arises if contingent liabilities in connection with the dumping of ‘clinker’ (e.g. for fines and penalties) are
not adequately disclosed in accordance with IAS 37 ‘Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets’.
Appropriate audit approach
Tutorial note: In explaining why AN audit approach is appropriate for Indigo it can be relevant to comment on the
unsuitability of other approaches.
■ A risk-based approach is suitable because:
? inherent risk is high at the entity and financial assertion levels;
? material errors are likely to arise in inventory where a high degree of subjectivity will be involved (regarding quality
of metals, quantities, net realisable value, etc);
? it directs the audit effort to inventory, purchases, income (sales and subsidy) and other risk areas (e.g. contingent
liabilities).
■ A systems-based/compliance approach is not suited to the risk areas identified because controls are lacking/ineffective
(e.g. over inventory and cash). Also, as the audit appointment was not more than three months ago and no interim
audit has been conducted (and the balance sheet date is only three weeks away) testing controls is likely to be less
efficient than a substantive approach.
■ A detailed substantive/balance sheet approach would be suitable to direct audit effort to the appropriate valuation of
assets (and liabilities) existing at balance sheet date. Principal audit work would include:
? attendance at a full physical inventory count at 31 December 2005;
? verifying cash at bank (through bank confirmation and reconciliation) and in hand (through physical count);
? confirming the accuracy of the quarterly returns to the local authority.
■ A cyclical approach/directional testing is unlikely to be suitable as cycles are incomplete. For example the purchases
cycle for metals is ‘purchase/cash’ rather than ‘purchase/payable/cash’ and there is no independent third party evidence
to compensate for that which would be available if there were trade payables (i.e. suppliers’ statements). Also the cycles
are inextricably inter-related to cash and inventory – amounts of which are subject to high inherent risk.
■ Analytical procedures may be of limited use for substantive purposes. Factors restricting the use of substantive analytical
procedures include:
? fluctuating margins (e.g. as many factors will influence the price at which scrap is purchased and subsequently
sold, when salvaged, sometime later);
? a lack of reliable/historic information on which to make comparisons.


21年ACCA/CAT模拟试题7篇 第6篇


(ii) From the information provided above, recommend the matters which should be included as ‘findings

from the audit’ in your report to those charged with governance, and explain the reason for their

inclusion. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Control weakness
ISA 260 contains guidance on the type of issues that should be communicated. One of the matters identified is a control
weakness in the capital expenditure transaction cycle. The assets for which no authorisation was obtained amount to
0·3% of total assets (225,000/78 million x 100%), which is clearly immaterial. However, regardless of materiality, the
auditor should ensure that the weakness is brought to the attention of the management, with a clear indication of the
implication of the weakness, and recommendations as to how the control weakness should be eliminated.
The auditor is providing information to help those charged with governance improve the internal systems and controls
and ultimately reduce business risk. In this case there is a high risk of fraud, as the lack of authorisation for purchase
of office equipment could allow expenditure on assets not used for bona fide business purposes.
Disagreement with accounting treatment of brand
Audit procedures have revealed a breach of IAS 38 Intangible Assets, in which internally generated brand names are
specifically prohibited from being recognised. Blod Co has recognised an internally generated brand name which is
material to the statement of financial position (balance sheet) as it represents 12·8% of total assets (10/78 x 100%).
The statement of financial position (balance sheet) therefore contains a material misstatement.
The report to those charged with governance should clearly explain the rules on recognition of internally generated brand
names, to ensure that the management has all relevant technical facts available. In the report the auditors should
request that the financial statements be corrected, and clarify that if the brand is not derecognised, then the audit opinion
will be qualified on the grounds of a material disagreement – an ‘except for’ opinion would be provided. Once the breach
of IAS 38 is made clear to the management in the report, they then have the opportunity to discuss the matter and
decide whether to amend the financial statements, thereby avoiding a qualified audit opinion.
Audit inefficiencies
Documentation relating to inventories was not always made readily available to the auditors. This seems to be due to
poor administration by the client rather than a deliberate attempt to conceal information. The report should contain a
brief description of the problems encountered by the audit team. The management should be made aware that
significant delay to the receipt of necessary paperwork can cause inefficiencies in the audit process. This may seem a
relatively trivial issue, but it could lead to an increase in audit fee. Management should react to these comments by
ensuring as far as possible that all requested documentation is made available to the auditors in a timely fashion.


(d) There is considerable evidence to suggest that as a result of implementation problems less than 50% of all

acquisitions achieve their objectives and actually end up reducing shareholder value.

Required:

Provide Ken with a brief report on the most likely sources of integration problems and describe the key

performance indicators he should use to measure progress towards acquisition objectives. (15 marks)

正确答案:
(d) Many academic studies, together with actual managerial experience, point to the post-acquisition integration phase as being
the key to an acquirer achieving their acquisition objectives. In particular, the creation (or destruction) of shareholder value
rests most heavily on the success of the integration phase, which in turn helps determine whether the acquirer has chosen
the ‘right’ target company and paid the right price for it. One source strongly argues that the capability to manage the
integration of the two organisational sturctures, in particular the conversion of information systems and retention and
motivation of key employees, determines how much value can be extracted from the combined entities. The ability to manage
the integration process will therefore affect the success of the prior phases of the acquisition process – the search for and
screening of potential candidates, the effective carrying out of due diligence, financial evaluation and successful negotiation
of the deal.
Unfortunately, the failure to develop the necessary integration skills dooms many firms to continued failure with their
acquisitions, though some firms are conspicuously successful in developing such a capability and they gain significant
competitive advantage over their less successful competitors and create value for the stakeholders. One explanation for this
conspicuous inability to learn from past acquisition experience, compared with other activities in the value chain, lies with
their infrequency and variety. ‘No acquisition is like another.’ Much of the difficulty however lies in the complex

interrelationship and interdependency between the activities being integrated and a consequent difficulty of knowing what is
causing performance problems. Thus, it is no good communicating all the positives to the customer if there is a failure to
retain and motivate the sales force. To this complexity of integrating different processes is added the problem of developing
appropriate measures of and accurate monitoring of the integration processes. In one study of US bank acquirers, only 40%
had developed specific performance measures for the systems conversion process, despite the critical importance of systems
integration to efficient operation of the combined banks. Key performance indicators need to be set in the areas previously
identified as offering major opportunities for synergies. These synergies will affect both the cost and revenue side of the
business. Real cost reductions are clearly a major reason for the proposed acquisition in view of the competitive environment
faced. Equally relevant are appropriate measures of customer service. Each area will need appropriate key performance
indicators showing priorities and relevant timescales for achievement.
Therefore, there is a critical need to learn from previous experience and the relationship between decisions made, actions
taken and performance outcomes. This knowledge and experience needs to be effectively recorded and shared. It can then
influence the earlier phases of the acquisition referred to above, thus leading to a virtuous circle of better integration and
acquisitions that actually enhance value. In so doing, acquisitions can lead to faster growth and better performance.


4 When a prominent football club, whose shares were listed, announced that it was to build a new stadium on land

near to its old stadium, opinion was divided. Many of the club’s fans thought it a good idea because it would be more

comfortable for them when watching games. A number of problems arose, however, when it was pointed out that the

construction of the new stadium and its car parking would have a number of local implications. The local government

authority said that building the stadium would involve diverting roads and changing local traffic flow, but that it would

grant permission to build the stadium if those issues could be successfully addressed. A number of nearby residents

complained that the new stadium would be too near their homes and that it would destroy the view from their gardens.

Helen Yusri, who spoke on behalf of the local residents, said that the residents would fight the planning application

through legal means if necessary. A nearby local inner-city wildlife reservation centre said that the stadium’s

construction might impact on local water levels and therefore upset the delicate balance of animals and plants in the

wildlife centre. A local school, whose pupils often visited the wildlife centre, joined in the opposition, saying that whilst

the school supported the building of a new stadium in principle, it had concerns about disruption to the wildlife centre.

The football club’s board was alarmed by the opposition to its planned new stadium as it had assumed that it would

be welcomed because the club had always considered itself a part of the local community. The club chairman said

that he wanted to maintain good relations with all local people if possible, but at the same time he owed it to the fans

and the club’s investors to proceed with the building of the new stadium despite local concerns.

Required:

(a) Define ‘stakeholder’ and explain the importance of identifying all the stakeholders in the stadium project.

(10 marks)

正确答案:
4 (a) Stakeholders
Definition
There are a number of definitions of a stakeholder. Freeman (1984), for example, defined a stakeholder in terms of any
organisation or person that can affect or be affected by the policies or activities of an entity. Hence stakeholding can result
from one of two directions: being able to affect and possibly influence an organisation or, conversely, being influenced by it.
Any engagement with an organisation in whom a stake is held may be voluntary or involuntary in nature.
Tutorial note: any definition of a stakeholder that identifies bi-directional influence will be equally valid.
Importance of identifying all stakeholders
Knowledge of the stakeholders in the stadium project is important for a number of reasons. This will involve surveying
stakeholders that can either affect or be affected by the building of the stadium. In some cases, stakeholders will be
bi-directional in their stakeholding (claim) upon the stadium project. Stakeholders in the stadium project include the local
government authority, the local residents, the wildlife centre, the local school and the football club’s fans.
Stakeholder identification is necessary to gain an understanding of the sources of risks and disruption. Some external
stakeholders, such as the local government authority, offer a risk to the project and knowledge of the nature of the claim made
upon the football club by the stakeholder will be important in risk assessment.
Stakeholder identification is important in terms of assessing the sources of influence over the objectives and outcomes for the
project (such as identified in the Mendelow model). In strategic analysis, stakeholder influence is assessed in terms of each
stakeholder’s power and interest, with higher power and higher interest combining to generate the highest influence. In the
case, it is likely that the fans are more influential on the club’s objectives than, say, the local wildlife centre, as they have
more economic power over the club.
It is necessary in order to identify areas of conflict and tension between stakeholders, especially relevant when it is likely that
stakeholders of influence will be in disagreement over the outcomes for the project. In this case, for example, the claims of
the football club board and the local residents are in conflict.
There is a moral case for knowledge of how decisions affect people both inside the organisation or (as is the case with the
stadium project) externally.


10 Which of the following costs should be included in valuing inventories of finished goods held by a manufacturing

company, according to IAS2 Inventories?

1 Carriage inwards.

2 Carriage outwards.

3 Depreciation of factory plant.

4 Accounts department costs relating to wages for production employees.

A All four items

B 2 and 3 only

C 1, 3 and 4 only

D 1 and 4 only

正确答案:C


4 Ryder, a public limited company, is reviewing certain events which have occurred since its year end of 31 October

2005. The financial statements were authorised on 12 December 2005. The following events are relevant to the

financial statements for the year ended 31 October 2005:

(i) Ryder has a good record of ordinary dividend payments and has adopted a recent strategy of increasing its

dividend per share annually. For the last three years the dividend per share has increased by 5% per annum.

On 20 November 2005, the board of directors proposed a dividend of 10c per share for the year ended

31 October 2005. The shareholders are expected to approve it at a meeting on 10 January 2006, and a

dividend amount of $20 million will be paid on 20 February 2006 having been provided for in the financial

statements at 31 October 2005. The directors feel that a provision should be made because a ‘valid expectation’

has been created through the company’s dividend record. (3 marks)

(ii) Ryder disposed of a wholly owned subsidiary, Krup, a public limited company, on 10 December 2005 and made

a loss of $9 million on the transaction in the group financial statements. As at 31 October 2005, Ryder had no

intention of selling the subsidiary which was material to the group. The directors of Ryder have stated that there

were no significant events which have occurred since 31 October 2005 which could have resulted in a reduction

in the value of Krup. The carrying value of the net assets and purchased goodwill of Krup at 31 October 2005

were $20 million and $12 million respectively. Krup had made a loss of $2 million in the period 1 November

2005 to 10 December 2005. (5 marks)

(iii) Ryder acquired a wholly owned subsidiary, Metalic, a public limited company, on 21 January 2004. The

consideration payable in respect of the acquisition of Metalic was 2 million ordinary shares of $1 of Ryder plus

a further 300,000 ordinary shares if the profit of Metalic exceeded $6 million for the year ended 31 October

2005. The profit for the year of Metalic was $7 million and the ordinary shares were issued on 12 November

2005. The annual profits of Metalic had averaged $7 million over the last few years and, therefore, Ryder had

included an estimate of the contingent consideration in the cost of the acquisition at 21 January 2004. The fair

value used for the ordinary shares of Ryder at this date including the contingent consideration was $10 per share.

The fair value of the ordinary shares on 12 November 2005 was $11 per share. Ryder also made a one for four

bonus issue on 13 November 2005 which was applicable to the contingent shares issued. The directors are

unsure of the impact of the above on earnings per share and the accounting for the acquisition. (7 marks)

(iv) The company acquired a property on 1 November 2004 which it intended to sell. The property was obtained

as a result of a default on a loan agreement by a third party and was valued at $20 million on that date for

accounting purposes which exactly offset the defaulted loan. The property is in a state of disrepair and Ryder

intends to complete the repairs before it sells the property. The repairs were completed on 30 November 2005.

The property was sold after costs for $27 million on 9 December 2005. The property was classified as ‘held for

sale’ at the year end under IFRS5 ‘Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations’ but shown at

the net sale proceeds of $27 million. Property is depreciated at 5% per annum on the straight-line basis and no

depreciation has been charged in the year. (5 marks)

(v) The company granted share appreciation rights (SARs) to its employees on 1 November 2003 based on ten

million shares. The SARs provide employees at the date the rights are exercised with the right to receive cash

equal to the appreciation in the company’s share price since the grant date. The rights vested on 31 October

2005 and payment was made on schedule on 1 December 2005. The fair value of the SARs per share at

31 October 2004 was $6, at 31 October 2005 was $8 and at 1 December 2005 was $9. The company has

recognised a liability for the SARs as at 31 October 2004 based upon IFRS2 ‘Share-based Payment’ but the

liability was stated at the same amount at 31 October 2005. (5 marks)

Required:

Discuss the accounting treatment of the above events in the financial statements of the Ryder Group for the year

ended 31 October 2005, taking into account the implications of events occurring after the balance sheet date.

(The mark allocations are set out after each paragraph above.)

(25 marks)

正确答案:
4 (i) Proposed dividend
The dividend was proposed after the balance sheet date and the company, therefore, did not have a liability at the balance
sheet date. No provision for the dividend should be recognised. The approval by the directors and the shareholders are
enough to create a valid expectation that the payment will be made and give rise to an obligation. However, this occurred
after the current year end and, therefore, will be charged against the profits for the year ending 31 October 2006.
The existence of a good record of dividend payments and an established dividend policy does not create a valid expectation
or an obligation. However, the proposed dividend will be disclosed in the notes to the financial statements as the directors
approved it prior to the authorisation of the financial statements.
(ii) Disposal of subsidiary
It would appear that the loss on the sale of the subsidiary provides evidence that the value of the consolidated net assets of
the subsidiary was impaired at the year end as there has been no significant event since 31 October 2005 which would have
caused the reduction in the value of the subsidiary. The disposal loss provides evidence of the impairment and, therefore,
the value of the net assets and goodwill should be reduced by the loss of $9 million plus the loss ($2 million) to the date of
the disposal, i.e. $11 million. The sale provides evidence of a condition that must have existed at the balance sheet date
(IAS10). This amount will be charged to the income statement and written off goodwill of $12 million, leaving a balance of
$1 million on that account. The subsidiary’s assets are impaired because the carrying values are not recoverable. The net
assets and goodwill of Krup would form. a separate income generating unit as the subsidiary is being disposed of before the
financial statements are authorised. The recoverable amount will be the sale proceeds at the date of sale and represents the
value-in-use to the group. The impairment loss is effectively taking account of the ultimate loss on sale at an earlier point in
time. IFRS5, ‘Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations’, will not apply as the company had no intention
of selling the subsidiary at the year end. IAS10 would require disclosure of the disposal of the subsidiary as a non-adjusting
event after the balance sheet date.
(iii) Issue of ordinary shares
IAS33 ‘Earnings per share’ states that if there is a bonus issue after the year end but before the date of the approval of the
financial statements, then the earnings per share figure should be based on the new number of shares issued. Additionally
a company should disclose details of all material ordinary share transactions or potential transactions entered into after the
balance sheet date other than the bonus issue or similar events (IAS10/IAS33). The principle is that if there has been a
change in the number of shares in issue without a change in the resources of the company, then the earnings per share
calculation should be based on the new number of shares even though the number of shares used in the earnings per share
calculation will be inconsistent with the number shown in the balance sheet. The conditions relating to the share issue
(contingent) have been met by the end of the period. Although the shares were issued after the balance sheet date, the issue
of the shares was no longer contingent at 31 October 2005, and therefore the relevant shares will be included in the
computation of both basic and diluted EPS. Thus, in this case both the bonus issue and the contingent consideration issue
should be taken into account in the earnings per share calculation and disclosure made to that effect. Any subsequent change
in the estimate of the contingent consideration will be adjusted in the period when the revision is made in accordance with
IAS8.
Additionally IFRS3 ‘Business Combinations’ requires the fair value of all types of consideration to be reflected in the cost of
the acquisition. The contingent consideration should be included in the cost of the business combination at the acquisition
date if the adjustment is probable and can be measured reliably. In the case of Metalic, the contingent consideration has
been paid in the post-balance sheet period and the value of such consideration can be determined ($11 per share). Thus
an accurate calculation of the goodwill arising on the acquisition of Metalic can be made in the period to 31 October 2005.
Prior to the issue of the shares on 12 November 2005, a value of $10 per share would have been used to value the
contingent consideration. The payment of the contingent consideration was probable because the average profits of Metalic
averaged over $7 million for several years. At 31 October 2005 the value of the contingent shares would be included in a
separate category of equity until they were issued on 12 November 2005 when they would be transferred to the share capital
and share premium account. Goodwill will increase by 300,000 x ($11 – $10) i.e. $300,000.
(iv) Property
IFRS5 (paragraph 7) states that for a non-current asset to be classified as held for sale, the asset must be available for
immediate sale in its present condition subject to the usual selling terms, and its sale must be highly probable. The delay in
this case in the selling of the property would indicate that at 31 October 2005 the property was not available for sale. The
property was not to be made available for sale until the repairs were completed and thus could not have been available for
sale at the year end. If the criteria are met after the year end (in this case on 30 November 2005), then the non-current
asset should not be classified as held for sale in the previous financial statements. However, disclosure of the event should
be made if it meets the criteria before the financial statements are authorised (IFRS5 paragraph 12). Thus in this case,
disclosure should be made.
The property on the application of IFRS5 should have been carried at the lower of its carrying amount and fair value less
costs to sell. However, the company has simply used fair value less costs to sell as the basis of valuation and shown the
property at $27 million in the financial statements.
The carrying amount of the property would have been $20 million less depreciation $1 million, i.e. $19 million. Because
the property is not held for sale under IFRS5, then its classification in the balance sheet will change and the property will be
valued at $19 million. Thus the gain of $7 million on the wrong application of IFRS5 will be deducted from reserves, and
the property included in property, plant and equipment. Total equity will therefore be reduced by $8 million.
(v) Share appreciation rights
IFRS2 ‘Share-based payment’ (paragraph 30) requires a company to re-measure the fair value of a liability to pay cash-settled
share based payment transactions at each reporting date and the settlement date, until the liability is settled. An example of
such a transaction is share appreciation rights. Thus the company should recognise a liability of ($8 x 10 million shares),
i.e. $80 million at 31 October 2005, the vesting date. The liability recognised at 31 October 2005 was in fact based on the
share price at the previous year end and would have been shown at ($6 x 1/2) x 10 million shares, i.e. $30 million. This
liability at 31 October 2005 had not been changed since the previous year end by the company. The SARs vest over a twoyear
period and thus at 31 October 2004 there would be a weighting of the eventual cost by 1 year/2 years. Therefore, an
additional liability and expense of $50 million should be accounted for in the financial statements at 31 October 2005. The
SARs would be settled on 1 December 2005 at $9 x 10 million shares, i.e. $90 million. The increase in the value of the
SARs since the year end would not be accrued in the financial statements but charged to profit or loss in the year ended31 October 2006.


21年ACCA/CAT模拟试题7篇 第7篇


(b) Explain Mintzberg’s five organisational components. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The strategic apex is the highest level of the organisation and is therefore the highest level of management. This part ensures that the organisation’s mission is followed and manages the relationship with the environment.
The operating core is the part that represents the productive activity of the organisation, gathering inputs and, through conversion, turns them into outputs.
The middle line represents that part of the organisation where the middle managers operate. The role of this part is to turn the instructions of the strategic apex into activities for the operating core.
The technostructure includes the staff who provide a technical or supportive activity but which are not a part of the core activities. This part of the organisation includes the engineering, accounting and human resource departments.
The support staff carry out the ancillary activities that are neither part of the core nor the technostructure. Support staff have no role in the direct activities of the organisation: these activities include catering and public relations.(Students may draw the appropriate diagram)


(b) Describe to the Beth Group the possible advantages of producing a separate environmental report.

(8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) An environmental report allows an organisation to communicate with different stakeholders. The benefits of an environmental
report include:
(i) evaluating environmental performance can highlight inefficiencies in operations and help to improve management
systems. Beth could identify opportunities to reduce resource use, waste and operating costs.
(ii) communicating the efforts being made to improve social and environmental performance can foster community support
for a business and can also contribute towards its reputation as a good corporate citizen. At present Beth has a poor
reputation in this regard.
(iii) reporting efforts to improve the organisation’s environmental, social and economic performance can lead to increased
consumer confidence in its products and services.
(iv) commitment to reporting on current impacts and identifying ways to improve environmental performance can improve
relationships with regulators, and could reduce the potential threat of litigation which is hanging over Beth.
(v) investors, financial analysts and brokers increasingly ask about the sustainability aspects of operations. A high quality
report shows the measures the organisation is taking to reduce risks, and will make Beth more attractive to investors.
(vi) disclosing the organisation’s environmental, social and economic best practices can give a competitive market edge.
Currently Beth’s corporate image is poor and this has partly contributed to its poor stock market performance.
(vii) the international trend towards improved corporate sustainability is growing and access to international markets will
require increasing transparency, and this will help Beth’s corporate image.
(viii) large organisations are increasingly requiring material and service suppliers and contractors to submit performance
information to satisfy the expectations of their own shareholders. Disclosing such information can make the company a
more attractive supplier than their competitors, and increase Beth’s market share.
It is important to ensure that the policies are robust and effective and not just compliance based.


1 Stuart is a self-employed business consultant aged 58. He is married to Rebecca, aged 55. They have one child,

Sam, who is aged 24 and single.

In November 2005 Stuart sold a house in Plymouth for £422,100. Stuart had inherited the house on the death of

his mother on 1 May 1994 when it had a probate value of £185,000. The subsequent pattern of occupation was as

follows:

1 May 1994 to 28 February 1995 occupied by Stuart and Rebecca as main residence

1 March 1995 to 31 December 1998 unoccupied

1 January 1999 to 31 March 2001 let out (unfurnished)

1 April 2001 to 30 November 2001 occupied by Stuart and Rebecca

1 December 2001 to 30 November 2005 used occasionally as second home

Both Stuart and Rebecca had lived in London from March 1995 onwards. On 1 March 2001 Stuart and Rebecca

bought a house in London in their joint names. On 1 January 2002 they elected for their London house to be their

principal private residence with effect from that date, up until that point the Plymouth property had been their principal

private residence.

No other capital disposals were made by Stuart in the tax year 2005/06. He has £29,500 of capital losses brought

forward from previous years.

Stuart intends to invest the gross sale proceeds from the sale of the Plymouth house, and is considering two

investment options, both of which he believes will provide equal risk and returns. These are as follows:

(1) acquiring shares in Omikron plc; or

(2) acquiring further shares in Omega plc.

Notes:

1. Omikron plc is a listed UK trading company, with 50,250,000 shares in issue. Its shares currently trade at 42p

per share.

2. Stuart and Rebecca helped start up the company, which was then Omega Ltd. The company was formed on

1 June 1990, when they each bought 24,000 shares for £1 per share. The company became listed on 1 May

1997. On this date their holding was subdivided, with each of them receiving 100 shares in Omega plc for each

share held in Omega Ltd. The issued share capital of Omega plc is currently 10,000,000 shares. The share price

is quoted at 208p – 216p with marked bargains at 207p, 211p, and 215p.

Stuart and Rebecca’s assets (following the sale of the Plymouth house but before any investment of the proceeds) are

as follows:

Assets Stuart Rebecca

£ £

Family house in London 450,000 450,000

Cash from property sale 422,100 –

Cash deposits 165,000 165,000

Portfolio of quoted investments – 250,000

Shares in Omega plc see above see above

Life insurance policy note 1 note 1

Note:

1. The life insurance policy will pay out a sum of £200,000 on the death of the first spouse to die.

Stuart has recently been diagnosed with a serious illness. He is expected to live for another two or three years only.

He is concerned about the possible inheritance tax that will arise on his death. Both he and Rebecca have wills whose

terms transfer all assets to the surviving spouse. Rebecca is in good health.

Neither Stuart nor Rebecca has made any previous chargeable lifetime transfers for the purposes of inheritance tax.

Required:

(a) Calculate the taxable capital gain on the sale of the Plymouth house in November 2005 (9 marks)

正确答案:

 

Note that the last 36 months count as deemed occupation, as the house was Stuart’s principal private residence (PPR)
at some point during his period of ownership.
The first 36 months of the period from 1 March 1995 to 31 March 2001 qualifies as a deemed occupation period as
Stuart and Rebecca returned to occupy the property on 1 April 2001. The remainder of the period will be treated as a
period of absence, although letting relief is available for part of the period (see below).
The exempt element of the gain is the proportion during which the property was occupied, real or deemed. This is
£138,665 (90/139 x £214,160).
(2) The chargeable gain is restricted for the period that the property was let out. This is restricted to the lowest of the
following:
(i) the gain attributable to the letting period (27/139 x 214,160) = £41,599
(ii) £40,000
(iii) the total exempt PPR gain = £138,665
i.e. £40,000.
(3) The taper relief is effectively wasted, having restricted losses b/f to preserve the annual exemption.


(b) Discuss how management’s judgement and the financial reporting infrastructure of a country can have a

significant impact on financial statements prepared under IFRS. (6 marks)

Appropriateness and quality of discussion. (2 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Management judgement may have a greater impact under IFRS than generally was the case under national GAAP. IFRS
utilises fair values extensively. Management have to use their judgement in selecting valuation methods and formulating
assumptions when dealing with such areas as onerous contracts, share-based payments, pensions, intangible assets acquired
in business combinations and impairment of assets. Differences in methods or assumptions can have a major impact on
amounts recognised in financial statements. IAS1 expects companies to disclose the sensitivity of carrying amounts to the
methods, assumptions and estimates underpinning their calculation where there is a significant risk of material adjustment
to their carrying amounts within the next financial year. Often management’s judgement is that there is no ‘significant risk’
and they often fail to disclose the degree of estimation or uncertainty and thus comparability is affected.
In addition to the IFRSs themselves, a sound financial reporting infrastructure is required. This implies effective corporate
governance practices, high quality auditing standards and practices, and an effective enforcement or oversight mechanism.
Therefore, consistency and comparability of IFRS financial statements will also depend on the robust nature of the other
elements of the financial reporting infrastructure.
Many preparers of financial statements will have been trained in national GAAP and may not have been trained in the
principles underlying IFRS and this can lead to unintended inconsistencies when implementing IFRS especially where the
accounting profession does not have a CPD requirement. Additionally where the regulatory system of a country is not well
developed, there may not be sufficient market information to utilise fair value measurements and thus this could lead to
hypothetical markets being created or the use of mathematical modelling which again can lead to inconsistencies because of
lack of experience in those countries of utilising these techniques. This problem applies to other assessments or estimates
relating to such things as actuarial valuations, investment property valuations, impairment testing, etc.
The transition to IFRS can bring significant improvement to the quality of financial performance and improve comparability
worldwide. However, there are issues still remaining which can lead to inconsistency and lack of comparability with those
financial statements.


(b) Calculate the corporation tax (CT) liabilities for Alantech Ltd, Boron Ltd and Bubble Ltd for the year ending

31 December 2004 on the assumption that loss reliefs are taken as early as possible. (9 marks)

正确答案:

(b) Schedule D Case I calculation
The three companies form. a group for both group relief and capital gains purposes as all shareholdings pass the 75%
ownership test. The calculation of the corporation tax liabilities is as follows: