21年ACCA/CAT考试试题题库5节

发布时间:2021-10-13
21年ACCA/CAT考试试题题库5节

21年ACCA/CAT考试试题题库5节 第1节


(e) Briefly provide five reasons to the management of Bailey’s why financial rewards could be considered to improve motivation. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(e) There are issues at Bailey’s as a consequence of poor pay. Although non-financial motivation has an important role to play in encouraging commitment, the fact remains that financial rewards act as a strong motivating factor, especially in what has been a low pay business. Financial rewards are all encompassing and apply to all employees at all levels, are universally applicable, able to satisfy all types of need and simple to apply and understand. At Bailey’s, financial rewards have a greater effect because they can provide recognition and prestige if pay is improved, are seen as the most important hygiene factor(especially in a business with a history of low pay and low morale) and are a measure of achievement against goals, especially if some form. of bonus or performance related pay is introduced by the new management at Bailey’s. In addition, financial rewards are a basis for satisfaction and are often used as a form. of professional or social comparison outside the organisation.


(b) The chief executive of Xalam Co, an exporter of specialist equipment, has asked for advice on the accounting

treatment and disclosure of payments made for security consultancy services. The payments, which aim to

ensure that consignments are not impounded in the destination country of a major customer, may be material to

the financial statements for the year ending 30 June 2006. Xalam does not treat these payments as tax

deductible. (4 marks)

Required:

Identify and comment on the ethical and other professional issues raised by each of these matters and state what

action, if any, Dedza should now take.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three situations.

正确答案:
(b) Advice on payments
■ As compared with (a) there is no obvious tax issue. Xalam is not overstating expenditure for tax purposes.
■ The payments being made for security consultancy services amount to a bribe. Corruption and bribery (and extortion)
are designated categories of money laundering offence under ‘The Forty Recommendations’ of the Financial Action Task
Force on Money Laundering (FATF).
■ Xalam clearly benefits from the payments as it receives income from the contract with the major customer. This is
criminal property and possession of it is a money laundering offence.
■ Dedza should consider the seriousness of the disclosure made by the chief executive in the context of domestic law.
■ Dedza should consider its knowledge of import duties etc in the destination country before recommending a course of
action to Xalam.
■ Dedza may be guilty of a money laundering offence if the matter is not reported. If a report to the FIU is considered
necessary then Dedza should encourage Xalam to make voluntary disclosure. If Xalam does not, Dedza will not be in
breach of client confidentiality for reporting knowledge of a suspicious transaction.
Tutorial note: Making a report takes precedence over client confidentiality.


(c) Describe the main stages of a formal grievance procedure that Oliver should now pursue. (10 marks)

正确答案:
Part (c):
Grievance procedures must be accessible to all employees of Hoopers and Henderson at any level of the organisation and
regardless of their status. Managers must have suitable training in procedures and be provided with background as to how
grievances can occur in the first place. Grievance procedures must be regarded as beneficial and not threatening.
If an employee has a grievance, he or she should be able to pursue it and have the problem which has led to the grievance resolved.
A formal grievance procedure must be available, set out in writing and accessible to all employees. The procedure should consist
of five formal stages.
The first stage states the grade of employee or employees and their rights for each type of grievance.
The second stage details the actual procedures for pursuing a grievance, and is in four parts:
– The employee must discuss the grievance with his or her immediate supervisor or line manager.
– If the grievance can not be resolved at the first level, then the employee’s manager must become involved.
– The interview between the employee and manager takes place with the employee being allowed a representative if desired.
– If the grievance remains unresolved then the matter must be referred to a higher manager.
The third stage (referral to a higher manager) requires that the Human Resources Department or, in the case of Hoopers and
Henderson the partner responsible, must be informed.
The fourth stage is that written records must be kept and be available to all employees.
Finally, the procedure must be time limited.
Allowance must be made for the involvement of a trade union, staff association or individual support (if desired) at an appropriate
stage in the procedure.
At Hoopers and Henderson, Oliver has attempted to discuss the issue with his immediate manager (David Morgan) but without
success. He has therefore followed the procedure, but to continue correctly, Oliver must have taken up his grievance with the
manager next in seniority to David Morgan, who in this case is the partner responsible for human resources.


(b) (i) Explain the matters you should consider to determine whether capitalised development costs are

appropriately recognised; and (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Materiality
The net book value of capitalised development costs represent 7% of total assets in 2007 (2006 – 7·7%), and is
therefore material. The net book value has increased by 13%, a significant trend.
The costs capitalised during the year amount to $750,000. If it was found that the development cost had been
inappropriately capitalised, the cost should instead have been expensed. This would reduce profit before tax by
$750,000, representing 42% of the year’s profit. This is highly material. It is therefore essential to gather sufficient
evidence to support the assertion that development costs should be recognised as an asset.
In 2007, $750,000 capitalised development costs have been incurred, when added to $160,000 research costs
expensed, total research and development costs are $910,000 which represents 20·2% of total revenue, again
indicating a high level of materiality for this class of transaction.
Relevant accounting standard
Development costs should only be capitalised as an intangible asset if the recognition criteria of IAS 38 Intangible Assets
have been demonstrated in full:
– Intention to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it
– Technical feasibility and ability to use or sell
– Ability to generate future economic benefit
– Availability of technical, financial and other resources to complete
– Ability to measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset.
Research costs must be expensed, as should development costs which do not comply with the above criteria. The
auditors must consider how Sci-Tech Co differentiates between research and development costs.
There is risk that not all of the criteria have been demonstrated, especially due to the subjective nature of the
development itself:
– Pharmaceutical development is highly regulated. If the government does not license the product then the product
cannot be sold, and economic benefits will therefore not be received.
– Market research should justify the commercial viability of the product. The launch of a rival product to Flortex
means that market share is likely to be much lower than anticipated, and the ability to sell Flortex is reduced. This
could mean that Flortex will not generate an overall economic benefit if future sales will not recover the research
and development costs already suffered, and yet to be suffered, prior to launch. The existence of the rival product
could indicate that Flortex is no longer commercially viable, in which case the capitalised development costs
relating to Flortex should be immediately expensed.
– The funding on which development is dependent may be withdrawn, indicating that there are not adequate
resources to complete the development of the products. Sci-Tech has failed to meet one of its required key
performance indicators (KPI) in the year ended 30 November 2007, as products valued at 0·8% revenue have
been donated to charity, whereas the required KPI is 1% revenue.
Given that there is currently a breach of the target KPIs, this is likely to result in funding equivalent to 25% of
research and development expenditure being withdrawn. If Sci-Tech Co is unable to source alternative means of
finance, then it would seem that adequate resources may not be available to complete the development of new
products.


(c) State the specific inquiries you should make of Robson Construction Co’s management relevant to its

accounting for construction contracts. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Specific inquiries – accounting for construction contracts
Tutorial note: This answer is illustrative of the types of inquiry that should be made. Other relevant answer points will be
awarded similar credit. For each full mark to be earned an inquiry should address the specifics of Robson (e.g. that its
accounting policies are ‘generally less prudent’). The identification of asset overstatement/liability understatement may
reduce the purchase price offered by Prescott.
■ Are any constructions being undertaken without signed contracts?
Tutorial note: Any expenditure on constructions without contracts (e.g. of a speculative nature, perhaps to keep the
workforce employed) must be accounted for under IAS ‘Inventories’; revenue cannot be recognised nor profit taken.
■ Is full provision made for future losses foreseen on loss-making contracts?
Tutorial note: The information in the brief is that ‘provisions are made’. The level of provision is not indicated and
could be less than full.
■ Which contracts started during the year are likely to be/have been identified as loss-making (for which no provision has
yet been made)?
Tutorial note: Profits and losses are only determined by contract at each financial year end.
■ What are management’s assumptions and judgments on the likely future outcome on the Sarwar contract (and other
actual and contingent liabilities)?
Tutorial note: Robson would be imprudent if it underestimates the probability of an unfavourable outcome (or
overestimates the likelihood of successful recourse).
■ What claims history has Robson experienced? (What proportion of contracts have been subject to claims? What
proportion of claims brought have been successful? How have they been settled? Under insurance? Out-of-court
settlement?) How effective are the penalty clauses? (Is Robson having to pay penalties for overrunning on contracts?)
■ What are the actual useful lives of assets used in construction? What level of losses are made on disposal?
Tutorial note: If such assets are depreciated over useful lives that are estimated to be too long, depreciation costs
incurred to date (and estimated depreciation to be included in costs to completion) will be understated. This will result
in too much profit/too little loss being calculated on contracts.
■ What is the cause of losses on contracts? For example, if due to theft of building supplies Robson’s management is not
exercising sufficient control over the company’s assets.


(d) Job rotation. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(d) Job rotation is an important training method and is often also seen as a means of motivation. It involves moving the trainee from one job to another and is therefore more suitable for lower level employees. The trainee is required to do different jobs in logical succession, thus broadening experience and gaining a picture of the organisation’s wider activities.


(ii) Explain the accounting treatment under IAS39 of the loan to Bromwich in the financial statements of

Ambush for the year ended 30 November 2005. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) There is objective evidence of impairment because of the financial difficulties and reorganisation of Bromwich. The
impairment loss on the loan will be calculated by discounting the estimated future cash flows. The future cash flows
will be $100,000 on 30 November 2007. This will be discounted at an effective interest rate of 8% to give a present
value of $85,733. The loan will, therefore, be impaired by ($200,000 – $85,733) i.e. $114,267.
(Note: IAS 39 requires accrual of interest on impaired loans at the original effective interest rate. In the year to
30 November 2006 interest of 8% of $85,733 i.e. $6,859 would be accrued.)


3 Johan, a public limited company, operates in the telecommunications industry. The industry is capital intensive with

heavy investment in licences and network infrastructure. Competition in the sector is fierce and technological

advances are a characteristic of the industry. Johan has responded to these factors by offering incentives to customers

and, in an attempt to acquire and retain them, Johan purchased a telecom licence on 1 December 2006 for

$120 million. The licence has a term of six years and cannot be used until the network assets and infrastructure are

ready for use. The related network assets and infrastructure became ready for use on 1 December 2007. Johan could

not operate in the country without the licence and is not permitted to sell the licence. Johan expects its subscriber

base to grow over the period of the licence but is disappointed with its market share for the year to 30 November

2008. The licence agreement does not deal with the renewal of the licence but there is an expectation that the

regulator will grant a single renewal for the same period of time as long as certain criteria regarding network build

quality and service quality are met. Johan has no experience of the charge that will be made by the regulator for the

renewal but other licences have been renewed at a nominal cost. The licence is currently stated at its original cost of

$120 million in the statement of financial position under non-current assets.

Johan is considering extending its network and has carried out a feasibility study during the year to 30 November

2008. The design and planning department of Johan identified five possible geographical areas for the extension of

its network. The internal costs of this study were $150,000 and the external costs were $100,000 during the year

to 30 November 2008. Following the feasibility study, Johan chose a geographical area where it was going to install

a base station for the telephone network. The location of the base station was dependent upon getting planning

permission. A further independent study has been carried out by third party consultants in an attempt to provide a

preferred location in the area, as there is a need for the optimal operation of the network in terms of signal quality

and coverage. Johan proposes to build a base station on the recommended site on which planning permission has

been obtained. The third party consultants have charged $50,000 for the study. Additionally Johan has paid

$300,000 as a single payment together with $60,000 a month to the government of the region for access to the land

upon which the base station will be situated. The contract with the government is for a period of 12 years and

commenced on 1 November 2008. There is no right of renewal of the contract and legal title to the land remains with

the government.

Johan purchases telephone handsets from a manufacturer for $200 each, and sells the handsets direct to customers

for $150 if they purchase call credit (call card) in advance on what is called a prepaid phone. The costs of selling the

handset are estimated at $1 per set. The customers using a prepaid phone pay $21 for each call card at the purchase

date. Call cards expire six months from the date of first sale. There is an average unused call credit of $3 per card

after six months and the card is activated when sold.

Johan also sells handsets to dealers for $150 and invoices the dealers for those handsets. The dealer can return the

handset up to a service contract being signed by a customer. When the customer signs a service contract, the

customer receives the handset free of charge. Johan allows the dealer a commission of $280 on the connection of a

customer and the transaction with the dealer is settled net by a payment of $130 by Johan to the dealer being the

cost of the handset to the dealer ($150) deducted from the commission ($280). The handset cannot be sold

separately by the dealer and the service contract lasts for a 12 month period. Dealers do not sell prepaid phones, and

Johan receives monthly revenue from the service contract.

The chief operating officer, a non-accountant, has asked for an explanation of the accounting principles and practices

which should be used to account for the above events.

Required:

Discuss the principles and practices which should be used in the financial year to 30 November 2008 to account

for:

(a) the licences; (8 marks)

正确答案:
Licences
An intangible asset meets the identifiability criterion when it is separable or it arises from contractual or other legal rights (IAS38
‘Intangible Assets’). Additionally intangible assets are recognised where it is probable that the future economic benefits attributable
to the asset will flow to the entity and the asset’s cost can be reliably measured. Where intangible assets are acquired separately,
the asset’s cost or fair value reflects the estimations of the future economic benefits that are expected to flow to the entity. The
licence will, therefore, meet the above criteria for recognition as an intangible asset at cost. Subsequent to initial recognition,
IAS38 permits an entity to adopt the cost or revaluation model as its accounting policy. The revaluation model can only be adopted
if intangible assets are traded in an active market. As the licence cannot be sold, the revaluation model cannot be used.
The cost model requires intangible assets to be carried at cost less amortisation and impairment losses (IAS38, para 74).
Amortisation is the systematic allocation of the depreciable amount of an intangible asset over its useful life. The depreciable
amount is the asset’s cost less its residual value. The licence will have no residual value. The depreciable amount should be
allocated on a systematic basis over its useful life. The method of amortisation should reflect the pattern in which the asset’s
economic benefits are expected to be consumed. If that pattern cannot be determined reliably, the straight line method of
amortisation must be used. The licence does not suffer wear and tear from usage, that is the number of customers using the
service. The economic benefits of the licence relate to Johan’s ability to benefit from the use of the licence. The economic benefits
relates to the passage of time and the useful life of the licence is now shorter. Therefore, the asset depletes on a time basis and
the straight line basis is appropriate. The licence should be amortised from the date that the network is available for use; that is
from 1 December 2007. An impairment review should have been undertaken at 30 November 2007 when the licence was not
being amortised. Although the licence is capable of being used on the date it was purchased, it cannot be used until the associated
network assets and infrastructure are available for use. Johan expects the regulator to renew the licence at the end of the initial
term and thus consideration should be given to amortising the licence over the two licence periods, i.e. a period of 11 years (five
years and six years) as the licence could be renewed at a nominal cost. However, Johan has no real experience of renewing licences
and cannot reliably determine what amounts, if any, would be payable to the regulator. Therefore, the licence should be amortised
over a five year period, that is $24 million per annum.
There are indications that the value of the licence may be impaired. The market share for the year to 30 November 2008 is
disappointing and competition is fierce in the sector, and retention of customers difficult. Therefore, an impairment test should be
undertaken. Johan should classify the licence and network assets as a single cash generating unit (CGU) for impairment purposes.
The licence cannot generate revenue in its own right and the smallest group of assets that generates independent revenue will be
the licence and network assets. The impairment indicators point to the need to test this cash generating unit for impairment.


(ii) The shares held in Date Inc and the dividend income received from that company. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Shares held in Date Inc and the related dividend income
Degrouping charge
There will be a degrouping charge in Nikau Ltd in the year ending 31 March 2008 in respect of the shares in Date Inc.
This is because Nikau Ltd has left the Facet Group within six years of the no gain, no loss transfer of the shares whilst
still owning them.
Nikau Ltd is treated as if it has sold the shares in Date Inc for their market value as at the time of the no gain, no loss
transfer. This will give rise to a gain, ignoring indexation allowance, of £201,000 (£338,000 – £137,000).
This gain will give rise to additional corporation tax of £60,300 (£201,000 x 30%).
Controlled foreign company
Date Inc is a controlled foreign company. The profits of such a company are normally attributed to its UK resident
shareholders such that they are subject to UK corporation tax.
However, none of the profits of Date Inc will be attributed to Nikau Ltd because Date Inc distributes more than 90%
(£115,000/£120,000 = 95·8%) of its chargeable profits to its shareholders.
Dividend income
Nikau Ltd is a UK resident company and is therefore subject to corporation tax on its worldwide income.
The dividend income will be grossed up in respect of the withholding tax giving rise to taxable income of £39,792
(£38,200 x 100/96). There is no underlying tax as there are no taxes on income or capital profits in Palladia.
The corporation tax of £11,938 (£39,792 x 30%) will be reduced by unilateral double tax relief equal to the withholding
tax suffered of £1,592 (£39,792 x 4%) resulting in corporation tax due of £10,346 (£11,938 – £1,592).


21年ACCA/CAT考试试题题库5节 第2节


3 (a) Financial statements often contain material balances recognised at fair value. For auditors, this leads to additional

audit risk.

Required:

Discuss this statement. (7 marks)

正确答案:
3 Poppy Co
(a) Balances held at fair value are frequently recognised as material items in the statement of financial position. Sometimes it is
required by the financial reporting framework that the measurement of an asset or liability is at fair value, e.g. certain
categories of financial instruments, whereas it is sometimes the entity’s choice to measure an item using a fair value model
rather than a cost model, e.g. properties. It is certainly the case that many of these balances will be material, meaning that
the auditor must obtain sufficient appropriate evidence that the fair value measurement is in accordance with the
requirements of financial reporting standards. ISA 540 (Revised and Redrafted) Auditing Accounting Estimates Including Fair
Value Accounting Estimates and Related Disclosures and ISA 545 Auditing Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures
contain guidance in this area.
As part of the understanding of the entity and its environment, the auditor should gain an insight into balances that are stated
at fair value, and then assess the impact of this on the audit strategy. This will include an evaluation of the risk associated
with the balance(s) recognised at fair value.
Audit risk comprises three elements; each is discussed below in the context of whether material balances shown at fair value
will lead to increased risk for the auditor.
Inherent risk
Many measurements based on estimates, including fair value measurements, are inherently imprecise and subjective in
nature. The fair value assessment is likely to involve significant judgments, e.g. regarding market conditions, the timing of
cash flows, or the future intentions of the entity. In addition, there may be a deliberate attempt by management to manipulate
the fair value to achieve a desired aim within the financial statements, in other words to attempt some kind of window
dressing.
Many fair value estimation models are complicated, e.g. discounted cash flow techniques, or the actuarial calculations used
to determine the value of a pension fund. Any complicated calculations are relatively high risk, as difficult valuation techniques
are simply more likely to contain errors than simple valuation techniques. However, there will be some items shown at fair
value which have a low inherent risk, because the measurement of fair value may be relatively straightforward, e.g. assets
that are regularly bought and sold on open markets that provide readily available and reliable information on the market prices
at which actual exchanges occur.
In addition to the complexities discussed above, some fair value measurement techniques will contain significant
assumptions, e.g. the most appropriate discount factor to use, or judgments over the future use of an asset. Management
may not always have sufficient experience and knowledge in making these judgments.
Thus the auditor should approach some balances recognised at fair value as having a relatively high inherent risk, as their
subjective and complex nature means that the balance is prone to contain an error. However, the auditor should not just
assume that all fair value items contain high inherent risk – each balance recognised at fair value should be assessed for its
individual level of risk.
Control risk
The risk that the entity’s internal monitoring system fails to prevent and detect valuation errors needs to be assessed as part
of overall audit risk assessment. One problem is that the fair value assessment is likely to be performed once a year, outside
the normal accounting and management systems, especially where the valuation is performed by an external specialist.
Therefore, as a non-routine event, the assessment of fair value is likely not to have the same level of monitoring or controls
as a day-to-day business transaction.
However, due to the material impact of fair values on the statement of financial position, and in some circumstances on profit,
management may have made great effort to ensure that the assessment is highly monitored and controlled. It therefore could
be the case that there is extremely low control risk associated with the recognition of fair values.
Detection risk
The auditor should minimise detection risk via thorough planning and execution of audit procedures. The audit team may
lack experience in dealing with the fair value in question, and so would be unlikely to detect errors in the valuation techniques
used. Over-reliance on an external specialist could also lead to errors not being found.
Conclusion
It is true that the increasing recognition of items measured at fair value will in many cases cause the auditor to assess the
audit risk associated with the balance as high. However, it should not be assumed that every fair value item will be likely to
contain a material misstatement. The auditor must be careful to identify and respond to the level of risk for fair value items
on an individual basis to ensure that sufficient and appropriate evidence is gathered, thus reducing the audit risk to an
acceptable level.


(ii) Briefly discuss TWO factors which could reduce the rate of return earned by the investment as per the

results in part (a). (4 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Two factors which might reduce the return earned by the investment are as follows:
(i) Poor product quality
The very nature of the product requires that it is of the highest quality i.e. the cakes are made for human
consumption. Bad publicity via a ‘product recall’ could potentially have a catastrophic effect on the total sales to
Superstores plc over the eighteen month period.
(ii) The popularity of the Mighty Ben character
There is always the risk that the popularity of the character upon which the product is based will diminish with a
resultant impact on sales volumes achieved. In this regard it would be advisable to attempt to negotiate with
Superstores plc in order to minimise potential future losses.


(b) Using the information provided in the case scenario, strategically evaluate the performance of the company

up to 2004, indicating any areas of particular concern. (20 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Essentially, Universal is a one product or service company selling its services into two main customer segments in the housing
market. From the performance information provided in Table 1, the company has achieved impressive rates of growth over
the 2001–4 period and this growth has come almost exclusively from private house owners. Universal is in the replacement
market. Its customers are looking to replace existing roofing systems with low maintenance/high attractiveness Universal
systems. To date growth has been exclusively within one region and been achieved by growing the area served through
investment in showrooms and depots.
Universal has chosen to grow its business through a differentiation focus strategy. It has identified a niche not served by the
major PVC doors and windows installers and poorly served by small independent installers. The value chain analysis
discussed above has shown the ways in which Universal has successfully distinguished itself from its competitors. Growth
has been through increasing its market penetration of one particular region. Such is the size of the private house owner market
and the lack of effective competition that the company has achieved a significant share of the market in its particular region.
However, in national terms, with 1% of the available market, Universal is a small operator. What is clear from the sales figures
is that as the firm grows bigger the relative rate of growth inevitably slows down, so that by 2004 it has an annual growth of
27% – still impressive by most companies standards. The move into supplying the commercial housing market has been
successful, but the share of total sales seems to have stabilised at around 5%. Universal clearly is finding it difficult to commit
sufficient new resources to this sector while coping with the growth from the domestic housing sector. Direct labour and other
direct costs seem to be a reasonable proportion of sales and predictably grow with the number of installation teams. Overall,
the gross margin, which sustains sales, marketing and overhead expenses, is moving in the right direction with a gross margin
of 52·6% achieved in 2004.
Labour, not surprisingly in a service business, consumes a considerable amount of costs. If one combines the direct labour
with the commission costs of sales canvassers and representatives together with salaries to staff in head office, one is in a
business where well over 50% of costs are attributable to people. Equally important is the fact that over 80% of the staff
employed by Universal is paid by results. This has significant consequences for the structure of reward systems and the
training and development of staff looking to maximise their incomes through either their individual or team performance.
Clearly, Universal sees no incompatibility between a reward system dominated by payments by results and the delivery of a
quality service differentiating it from its competitors.
Marketing has grown considerably over the period and reflects the recruitment of Mick Hendry as Sales and Marketing Director
in 2002. The marketing and sales model is very much one influenced by the one used by large PVC installers of doors and
windows. Here there is a heavy emphasis on direct selling techniques supported by increasing levels of advertising. Universal
sells to its customers directly and therefore avoids the costs and channel complications of using third parties to provide its
services. In many ways the direct selling techniques used are a very well established way of reaching the customer. Elements
of the marketing mix may be influenced by changes in communication technology, but the nature of the service requires
effective face-to-face contact with the customer. Sales to private house owners using credit generates significant finance
commission and is an important source of extra margin to Universal. Often in businesses depending on significant amounts
of credit sales the sales representative receives significant reward for selling a finance arrangement to the customer.
In terms of net profit achieved, 2001 and 2002 represents a significant change and, as argued in the scenario, this reflects
the recruitment of the Sales and Marketing Director. The achievement of this ‘step change’ in sales required commensurate
increases in most costs, but it is the significant increase in sales costs that explains the losses experienced in 2002. Sales
costs as a proportion of total sales rose from 14% in 2001 to almost 34% in 2002.
Particularly significant is the increase in sales commissions paid. The detailed changes in the way commission is paid is not
given in the case scenario, but it seems likely to reflect the previous experience of the Sales and Marketing Director in a closely
related industry. Similar levels of sales costs are incurred in 2003 and 2004 but the increase in sales, improvement in gross
margin and slower rate of growth in commissions paid explain the improved return on sales from –6·7% in 2002 to 4·2%
in 2003 and 5·8% in 2004.
Equally significant is the growth in showrooms and depots to support the growth in sales. Each additional facility costs in the
order of £30K with significant additions to costs in terms of staff and stock. Overall the performance of Universal over the
2001–2004 period is of a company achieving high rates of growth, incurring significant costs in so doing and moving into
modest levels of profit over the period. Its cost structure reflects the service it provides and the staff and reward systemsenabling the service to be provided.


2 Marrgrett, a public limited company, is currently planning to acquire and sell interests in other entities and has asked

for advice on the impact of IFRS3 (Revised) ‘Business Combinations’ and IAS27 (Revised) ‘Consolidated and Separate

Financial Statements’. The company is particularly concerned about the impact on earnings, net assets and goodwill

at the acquisition date and any ongoing earnings impact that the new standards may have.

The company is considering purchasing additional shares in an associate, Josey, a public limited company. The

holding will increase from 30% stake to 70% stake by offering the shareholders of Josey, cash and shares in

Marrgrett. Marrgrett anticipates that it will pay $5 million in transaction costs to lawyers and bankers. Josey had

previously been the subject of a management buyout. In order that the current management shareholders may remain

in the business, Marrgrett is going to offer them share options in Josey subject to them remaining in employment for

two years after the acquisition. Additionally, Marrgrett will offer the same shareholders, shares in the holding company

which are contingent upon a certain level of profitability being achieved by Josey. Each shareholder will receive shares

of the holding company up to a value of $50,000, if Josey achieves a pre-determined rate of return on capital

employed for the next two years.

Josey has several marketing-related intangible assets that are used primarily in marketing or promotion of its products.

These include trade names, internet domain names and non-competition agreements. These are not currently

recognised in Josey’s financial statements.

Marrgrett does not wish to measure the non-controlling interest in subsidiaries on the basis of the proportionate

interest in the identifiable net assets, but wishes to use the ‘full goodwill’ method on the transaction. Marrgrett is

unsure as to whether this method is mandatory, or what the effects are of recognising ‘full goodwill’. Additionally the

company is unsure as to whether the nature of the consideration would affect the calculation of goodwill.

To finance the acquisition of Josey, Marrgrett intends to dispose of a partial interest in two subsidiaries. Marrgrett will

retain control of the first subsidiary but will sell the controlling interest in the second subsidiary which will become

an associate. Because of its plans to change the overall structure of the business, Marrgrett wishes to recognise a

re-organisation provision at the date of the business combination.

Required:

Discuss the principles and the nature of the accounting treatment of the above plans under International Financial

Reporting Standards setting out any impact that IFRS3 (Revised) ‘Business Combinations’ and IAS27 (Revised)

‘Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements’ might have on the earnings and net assets of the group.

Note: this requirement includes 2 professional marks for the quality of the discussion.

(25 marks)

正确答案:
2 IFRS3 (Revised) is a further development of the acquisition model and represents a significant change in accounting for business
combinations. The consideration is the amount paid for the business acquired and is measured at fair value. Consideration will
include cash, assets, contingent consideration, equity instruments, options and warrants. It also includes the fair value of all equity
interests that the acquirer may have held previously in the acquired business. The principles to be applied are that:
(a) a business combination occurs only in respect of the transaction that gives one entity control of another
(b) the identifiable net assets of the acquiree are re-measured to their fair value on the date of the acquisition
(c) NCI are measured on the date of acquisition under one of the two options permitted by IFRS3 (Revised).
An equity interest previously held in the acquiree which qualified as an associate under IAS28 is similarly treated as if it were
disposed of and reacquired at fair value on the acquisition date. Accordingly, it is re-measured to its acquisition date fair value, and
any resulting gain or loss compared to its carrying amount under IAS28 is recognised in profit or loss. Thus the 30% holding in
the associate which was previously held will be included in the consideration. If the carrying amount of the interest in the associate
is not held at fair value at the acquisition date, the interest should be measured to fair value and the resulting gain or loss should
be recognised in profit or loss. The business combination has effectively been achieved in stages.
The fees payable in transaction costs are not deemed to be part of the consideration paid to the seller of the shares. They are not
assets of the purchased business that are recognised on acquisition. Therefore, they should be expensed as incurred and the
services received. Transaction costs relating to the issue of debt or equity, if they are directly attributable, will not be expensed but
deducted from debt or equity on initial recognition.
It is common for part of the consideration to be contingent upon future events. Marrgrett wishes some of the existing
shareholders/employees to remain in the business and has, therefore, offered share options as an incentive to these persons. The
issue is whether these options form. part of the purchase consideration or are compensation for post-acquisition services. The
conditions attached to the award will determine the accounting treatment. In this case there are employment conditions and,
therefore, the options should be treated as compensation and valued under IFRS2 ‘Share based payment’. Thus a charge will
appear in post-acquisition earnings for employee services as the options were awarded to reward future services of employees
rather than to acquire the business.
The additional shares to a fixed value of $50,000 are contingent upon the future returns on capital employed. Marrgrett only wants
to make additional payments if the business is successful. All consideration should be fair valued at the date of acquisition,
including the above contingent consideration. The contingent consideration payable in shares where the number of shares varies
to give the recipient a fixed value ($50,000) meets the definition of a financial liability under IAS32 ‘Financial Instruments:
Presentation’. As a result the liability will have to be fair valued and any subsequent remeasurement will be recognised in the
income statement. There is no requirement under IFRS3 (Revised) for the payments to be probable.
Intangible assets should be recognised on acquisition under IFRS3 (Revised). These include trade names, domain names, and
non-competition agreements. Thus these assets will be recognised and goodwill effectively reduced. The additional clarity in
IFRS3 (Revised) could mean that more intangible assets will be recognised on acquisition. As a result of this, the post-combination
income statement may have more charges for amortisation of the intangibles than was previously the case.
The revised standard gives entities the option, on a transaction by transaction basis, to measure non-controlling interests (NCI) at
the fair value of the proportion of identifiable net assets or at full fair value. The first option results in measurement of goodwill on
consolidation which would normally be little different from the previous standard. The second approach records goodwill on the
NCI as well as on the acquired controlling interest. Goodwill is the residual but may differ from that under the previous standard
because of the nature of the valuation of the consideration as previously held interests are fair valued and also because goodwill
can be measured in the above two ways (full goodwill and partial goodwill). The standard gives entities a choice for each separate
business combination of recognising full or partial goodwill. Recognising full goodwill will increase reported net assets and may
result in any future impairment of goodwill being of greater value. Measuring NCI at fair value may have some difficulties but
goodwill impairment testing may be easier under full goodwill as there is no need to gross-up goodwill for partly-owned
subsidiaries. The type of consideration does not affect goodwill regardless of how the payment is structured. Consideration is
recognised in total at its fair value at the date of acquisition. The form. of the consideration will not affect goodwill but the structure
of the payments can affect post-acquisition profits. Contingent payments which are deemed to be debt instruments will be
remeasured at each reporting date with the change going to the income statement.
Marrgrett has a maximum period of 12 months to finalise the acquisition accounting but will not be able to recognise the
re-organisation provision at the date of the business combination. The ability of the acquirer to recognise a liability for reducing or
changing the activities of the acquiree is restricted. A restructuring provision can only be recognised in a business combination
when the acquiree has at the acquisition date, an existing liability which complies with IAS37 ‘Provisions, contingent liabilities and
contingent assets’. These conditions are unlikely to exist at the acquisition date. A restructuring plan that is conditional on the
completion of a business combination is not recognised in accounting for the acquisition but the expense will be met against
post-acquisition earnings.
IAS27 (Revised) uses the economic entity model whereas previous practice used the parent company approach. The economic
entity model treats all providers of equity capital as shareholders of the entity even where they are not shareholders in the parent.
A partial disposal of an interest in a subsidiary in which control is still retained is seen as a treasury transaction and accounted for
in equity. It does not result in a gain or loss but an increase or decrease in equity. However, where a partial disposal in a subsidiary
results in a loss of control but the retention of an interest in the form. of an associate, then a gain or loss is recognised in the whole
interest. A gain or loss is recognised on the portion that has been sold, and a holding gain or loss is recognised on the interest
retained being the difference between the book value and fair value of the interest. Both gains/losses are recognised in the income
statement.


15 Which of the following statements about intangible assets are correct?

1 If certain criteria are met, research expenditure must be recognised as an intangible asset.

2 Goodwill may not be revalued upwards.

3 Internally generated goodwill should not be capitalised.

A 2 and 3 only

B 1 and 3 only

C 1 and 2 only

D All three statements are correct

正确答案:A


5 All managers need to understand the importance of motivation in the workplace.

Required:

(a) Explain the ‘content theory’ of motivation. (5 marks)

正确答案:
5 The way in which managers treat their employees can significantly influence the satisfaction that the employees derive from their work and thus the overall success of the organisation. Understanding the importance of motivation is therefore an important management skill.
(a) Content theories address the question ‘What are the things that motivate people?’
Content theories are also called need theories (because they concentrate on the needs fulfilled by work) and are based on the notion that all human beings have a set of needs or required outcomes, and according to this theory, these needs can be satisfied through work. The theory focuses on what arouses, maintains and regulates good, directed behaviour and what specific individual forces motivate people. However, content theories assume that everyone responds to motivating factors in the same way and that consequently there is one, best way to motivate everybody.


(c) In the context of a standard unmodified audit report, describe the content of a liability disclaimer paragraph,

and discuss the main arguments for and against the use of a liability disclaimer paragraph. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(c) It has become increasingly common for audit firms to include a disclaimer paragraph within the audit report. However, it is
not a requirement of auditing standards and individual audit firms need to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the
use of a disclaimer paragraph.
The wording is used to state the fact that the auditor’s report is intended solely for the use of the company’s members as a
body, and that no responsibility is accepted or assumed to anyone other than the company and the company’s members as
a body.
The main perceived advantage is that the disclaimer should help to reduce the exposure of the audit firm to liability claims
from anyone other than the company or the company’s body of shareholders. The disclaimer makes it clear that the audit
firm reports only to those who appointed the firm, i.e. the members of the company, and this may make it more difficult for
the audit firm to be sued by a third party.
It is also argued that the use of a disclaimer could help to bridge the ‘expectation gap’ by providing a clearer indication of the
responsibility of the auditor.
In this way the audit firm can manage its risk exposure in an increasingly litigious environment. Recent high profile legal cases
against audit firms, such as the Bannerman case in Scotland, illustrate that an audit firm’s duty of care can extend beyond
the company and its shareholders, and that audit firms should consider how to protect themselves against liability claims.
Tutorial note: It is appropriate here to quote recent cases such as the Bannerman case to illustrate the reason why audit
firms face increased potential exposure to claims from third parties. However, knowledge of specific legal cases is not
required to gain full marks for this requirement.
However, it can be argued that a disclaimer does not necessarily work to protect an audit firm. Each legal case has individual
circumstances, and while a disclaimer might protect the audit firm in one situation, equally it may not offer any protection
where the facts of the case are different.
In addition, it is often argued that if an audit firm conducts an audit using full due care and diligence, there is no need for a
disclaimer, as a high quality audit would be very unlikely to lead to any claims against the audit firm. Consequently, it could
be argued that the use of disclaimers as a means to limit liability could permit low quality audits to be performed, the auditors
being confident that legal cases against them are restricted due to the presence of a disclaimer within the audit report.


You are the manager responsible for performing hot reviews on audit files where there is a potential disagreement

between your firm and the client regarding a material issue. You are reviewing the going concern section of the audit

file of Dexter Co, a client with considerable cash flow difficulties, and other, less significant operational indicators of

going concern problems. The working papers indicate that Dexter Co is currently trying to raise finance to fund

operating cash flows, and state that if the finance is not received, there is significant doubt over the going concern

status of the company. The working papers conclude that the going concern assumption is appropriate, but it is

recommended that the financial statements should contain a note explaining the cash flow problems faced by the

company, along with a description of the finance being sought, and an evaluation of the going concern status of the

company. The directors do not wish to include the note in the financial statements.

Required:

(b) Consider and comment on the possible reasons why the directors of Dexter Co are reluctant to provide the

note to the financial statements. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Directors reluctance to disclose
The directors are likely to have several reasons behind their reluctance to disclose the note as recommended by the audit
manager. The first is that the disclosure of Dexter Co’s poor cash flow position and perilous going concern status may reflect
badly on the directors themselves. The company’s shareholders and other stakeholders will be displeased to see the company
in such a poor position, and the directors will be held accountable for the problems. Of course it may not be the case that
the directors have exercised poor management of the company – the problems could be caused by external influences outside
the control of the directors. However, it is natural that the directors will not want to highlight the situation in order to protect
their own position.
Secondly, the note could itself trigger further financial distress for the company. Dexter Co is trying to raise finance, and it is
probable that the availability of further finance will be detrimentally affected by the disclosure of the company’s financial
problems. In particular, if the cash flow difficulties are highlighted, providers of finance will consider the company too risky
an investment, and are not likely to make funds available for fear of non-repayment. Existing lenders may seek repayment of
their funds in fear that the company may be unable in the future to meet repayments.
In addition, the disclosures could cause operational problems, for example, suppliers may curtail trading relationships as they
become concerned that they will not be paid, or customers may be deterred from purchasing from the company if they feel
that there is no long-term future for the business. Unfortunately the mere disclosure of financial problems can be self-fulfilling,
and cause such further problems for the company that it is pushed into non-going concern status.
The directors may also be concerned that if staff were to hear of this they may worry about the future of the company and
seek alternative employment, which could lead in turn to the loss of key members of staff. This would be detrimental to the
business and trigger further operational problems.
Finally, the reluctance to disclose may be caused by an entirely different reason. The directors could genuinely feel that the
cash flow and operational problems faced by the company do not constitute factors affecting the going concern status. They
may be confident that although a final decision has not been made regarding financing, the finance is likely to be forthcoming,
and therefore there is no long-term material uncertainty over the future of the company. However audit working papers
conclude that there is a significant level of doubt over the going concern status of Dexter Co, and therefore it seems that the
directors may be over optimistic if they feel that there is no significant doubt to be disclosed in the financial statements.


9 Which of the following items must be disclosed in a company’s published financial statements (including notes)

if material, according to IAS1 Presentation of financial statements?

1 Finance costs.

2 Staff costs.

3 Depreciation and amortisation expense.

4 Movements on share capital.

A 1 and 3 only

B 1, 2 and 4 only

C 2, 3 and 4 only

D All four items

正确答案:D


21年ACCA/CAT考试试题题库5节 第3节


TQ Company, a listed company, recently went into administration (it had become insolvent and was being managed by a firm of insolvency practitioners). A group of shareholders expressed the belief that it was the chairman, Miss Heike Hoiku, who was primarily to blame. Although the company’s management had made a number of strategic errors that brought about the company failure, the shareholders blamed the chairman for failing to hold senior management to account. In particular, they were angry that Miss Hoiku had not challenged chief executive Rupert Smith who was regarded by some as arrogant and domineering. Some said that Miss Hoiku was scared of Mr Smith.

Some shareholders wrote a letter to Miss Hoiku last year demanding that she hold Mr Smith to account for a number of previous strategic errors. They also asked her to explain why she had not warned of the strategic problems in her chairman’s statement in the annual report earlier in the year. In particular, they asked if she could remove Mr Smith from office for incompetence. Miss Hoiku replied saying that whilst she understood their concerns, it was difficult to remove a serving chief executive from office.

Some of the shareholders believed that Mr Smith may have performed better in his role had his reward package been better designed in the first place. There was previously a remuneration committee at TQ but when two of its four non-executive members left the company, they were not replaced and so the committee effectively collapsed.

Mr Smith was then able to propose his own remuneration package and Miss Hoiku did not feel able to refuse him.

He massively increased the proportion of the package that was basic salary and also awarded himself a new and much more expensive company car. Some shareholders regarded the car as ‘excessively’ expensive. In addition, suspecting that the company’s performance might deteriorate this year, he exercised all of his share options last year and immediately sold all of his shares in TQ Company.

It was noted that Mr Smith spent long periods of time travelling away on company business whilst less experienced directors struggled with implementing strategy at the company headquarters. This meant that operational procedures were often uncoordinated and this was one of the causes of the eventual strategic failure.

(a) Miss Hoiku stated that it was difficult to remove a serving chief executive from office.

Required:

(i) Explain the ways in which a company director can leave the service of a board. (4 marks)

(ii) Discuss Miss Hoiku’s statement that it is difficult to remove a serving chief executive from a board.

(4 marks)

(b) Assess, in the context of the case, the importance of the chairman’s statement to shareholders in TQ

Company’s annual report. (5 marks)

(c) Criticise the structure of the reward package that Mr Smith awarded himself. (4 marks)

(d) Criticise Miss Hoiku’s performance as chairman of TQ Company. (8 marks)

正确答案:

(a) (i) Leaving the service of a board
Resignation with or without notice. Any director is free to withdraw his or her labour at any time but there is normally
a notice period required to facilitate an orderly transition from the outgoing chief executive to the incoming one.
Not offering himself/herself for re-election. Terms of office, which are typically three years, are renewable if the director
offers him or herself for re-election and the shareholders support the renewal. Retirement usually takes place at the end
of a three-year term when the director decides not to seek re-election.
Death in service when, obviously, the director is unable to either provide notice or seek retirement.
Failure of the company. When a company fails, all directors’ contracts are cancelled although this need not signal the
end of the directors’ involvement with company affairs as there may be ongoing legal issues to be resolved.
Being removed e.g. by being dismissed for disciplinary offences. It is relatively easy to ‘prove’ a disciplinary offence but
much more difficult to ‘prove’ incompetence. The nature of disciplinary offences are usually made clear in the terms and
conditions of employment and company policy.
Prolonged absence. Directors unable to perform. their duties owing to protracted absence, for any reason, may be
removed. The length of qualifying absence period varies by jurisdiction.
Being disqualified from being a company director by a court. Directors can be banned from holding directorships by a
court for a number of reasons including personal bankruptcy and other legal issues.
Failing to be re-elected if, having offered him or herself for re-election, shareholders elect not to re-appoint.
An ‘agreed departure’ such as by providing compensation to a director to leave.

(ii) Discuss Miss Hoiku’s statement
The way that directors’ contracts and company law are written (in most countries) makes it difficult to remove a director
such as Mr Smith from office during an elected term of office so in that respect, Miss Hoiku is correct. Unless his contract
has highly specific performance targets built in to it, it is difficult to remove Mr Smith for incompetence in the
short-term as it is sometimes difficult to assess the success of strategies until some time has passed. If the alleged
incompetence is within Mr Smith’s term of office (typically three years) then it will usually be necessary to wait until the
director offers himself for re-election. The shareholders can then simply not re-elect the incompetent director (in this
case, Mr Smith). The most likely way to achieve the departure of Mr Smith within his term of office will be to ‘encourage’
him to resign by other directors failing to support him or by shareholders issuing a vote of no confidence at an AGM or
EGM. This would probably involve offering him a suitable financial package to depart at a time chosen by the other
members of the board or company shareholders.
(b) Importance of the chairman’s statement
The chairman’s statement (or president’s letter in some countries) is an important and usually voluntary item, typically carried
at the very beginning of an annual report. In general terms, it is intended to convey important messages to shareholders in
general, strategic terms. As a separate section from other narrative reporting sections of an annual report, it offers the
chairman the opportunity to inform. shareholders about issues that he or she feels it would be beneficial for them to be aware
of. This independent communication is an important part of the separation of the roles of CEO and chairman.
In the case of TQ Company, the role of the chairman is of particular importance because of the dominance of Mr Smith.
Miss Hoiku had a particular responsibility to use her most recent statement to inform. shareholders about going concern issues
notwithstanding the difficulties that might cause in her relationship with Mr Smith. Miss Hoiku has an ethical as well as an
agency responsibility to express her independence in the chairman’s statement and convey issues relevant to company value
to the company’s shareholders. She can use her chairman’s statement for this purpose.

(c) Criticise the structure of the reward package that Mr Smith awarded himself
The balance between basic to performance related pay was very poor. Mr Smith, perhaps being aware that the prospect of
gaining much performance related income was low, took the opportunity to increase the fixed element of his income to
compensate. This was not only unprofessional and unethical on Mr Smith’s part, but it also represented very bad value for
shareholders. Having exercised his share options and sold the resulting shares, there was now no element of alignment of
his package with shareholder interests at all. His award to himself of an ‘excessively’ expensive company car was also not
in the shareholders’ interests. The fact that he exercised and sold all of his share options means that he will now have no
personal financial motivation to take strategic decisions intended to increase TQ Company’s share value. This represents a
poor degree of alignment between Mr Smith’s package and the interests of TQ’s shareholders.
(d) Criticise Miss Hoiku’s performance as chairman of TQ Company
The case describes a particularly poor performance by a company chairman. It is a key function of the chairman to represent
the shareholders’ interests in the company and Miss Hoiku has clearly failed in this duty.
A key reason for her poor performance was her reported inability or unwillingness to face up to Mr Smith who was clearly a
domineering personality. A key quality of a company chairman is his or her ability and willingness to personally challenge the
chief executive if necessary.
She failed to ensure that a committee structure was in place, allowing as she did, the remunerations committee to atrophy
when two members left the company.
Linked to this, it appears from the case that the two non-executive directors that left were not replaced and again, it is a part
of the chairman’s responsibility to ensure that an adequate number of non-executives are in place on the board.
She inexplicably allowed Mr Smith to design his own rewards package and presided over him reducing the performance
related element of his package which was clearly misaligned with the shareholders’ interests.
When Mr Smith failed to co-ordinate the other directors because of his unspecified business travel, she failed to hold him to
account thereby allowing the company’s strategy to fail.
There seems to have been some under-reporting of potential strategic problems in the most recent annual report. A ‘future
prospects’ or ‘continuing business’ statement is often a required disclosure in an annual report (in many countries) and there is evidence that this statement may have been missing or misleading in the most recent annual report.


On 1 April 2009 Pandar purchased 80% of the equity shares in Salva. The acquisition was through a share exchange of three shares in Pandar for every five shares in Salva. The market prices of Pandar’s and Salva’s shares at 1 April

2009 were $6 per share and $3.20 respectively.

On the same date Pandar acquired 40% of the equity shares in Ambra paying $2 per share.

The summarised income statements for the three companies for the year ended 30 September 2009 are:

The following information is relevant:

(i) The fair values of the net assets of Salva at the date of acquisition were equal to their carrying amounts with the exception of an item of plant which had a carrying amount of $12 million and a fair value of $17 million. This plant had a remaining life of five years (straight-line depreciation) at the date of acquisition of Salva. All depreciation is charged to cost of sales.

In addition Salva owns the registration of a popular internet domain name. The registration, which had a

negligible cost, has a five year remaining life (at the date of acquisition); however, it is renewable indefinitely at a nominal cost. At the date of acquisition the domain name was valued by a specialist company at $20 million.

The fair values of the plant and the domain name have not been reflected in Salva’s financial statements.

No fair value adjustments were required on the acquisition of the investment in Ambra.

(ii) Immediately after its acquisition of Salva, Pandar invested $50 million in an 8% loan note from Salva. All interest accruing to 30 September 2009 had been accounted for by both companies. Salva also has other loans in issue at 30 September 2009.

(iii) Pandar has credited the whole of the dividend it received from Salva to investment income.

(iv) After the acquisition, Pandar sold goods to Salva for $15 million on which Pandar made a gross profit of 20%. Salva had one third of these goods still in its inventory at 30 September 2009. There are no intra-group current account balances at 30 September 2009.

(v) The non-controlling interest in Salva is to be valued at its (full) fair value at the date of acquisition. For this

purpose Salva’s share price at that date can be taken to be indicative of the fair value of the shareholding of the non-controlling interest.

(vi) The goodwill of Salva has not suffered any impairment; however, due to its losses, the value of Pandar’s

investment in Ambra has been impaired by $3 million at 30 September 2009.

(vii) All items in the above income statements are deemed to accrue evenly over the year unless otherwise indicated.

Required:

(a) (i) Calculate the goodwill arising on the acquisition of Salva at 1 April 2009; (6 marks)

(ii) Calculate the carrying amount of the investment in Ambra to be included within the consolidated

statement of financial position as at 30 September 2009. (3 marks)

(b) Prepare the consolidated income statement for the Pandar Group for the year ended 30 September 2009.(16 marks)

正确答案:


During the year the internal auditor of Mulligan Co discovered several discrepancies in the inventory records. In a

statement made to the board of directors, the internal auditor said:

‘I think that someone is taking items from the warehouse. A physical inventory count is performed every three months,

and it has become apparent that about 200 boxes of flat-packed chairs and tables are disappearing from the

warehouse every month. We should get someone to investigate what has happened and quantify the value of the

loss.’

Required:

(c) Define ‘forensic accounting’ and explain its relevance to the statement made by the internal auditor.

(5 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Forensic accounting is where an assurance provider investigates a specific issue, often with a legal consequence, such as a
suspected fraud. Specifically it is the process of gathering, analysing and reporting on data for the purpose of finding facts
and/or evidence in the context of financial/legal disputes and/or irregularities. The forensic accountant will also give
preventative advice based on evidence gathered. This advice is based usually on recommendations to improve the internal
control systems to prevent and detect fraud.
The relevance here is that Webb & Co are likely to be asked to provide a forensic accounting service to Mulligan Co.
The investigation will consider two issues – firstly whether the fraud actually happened, and secondly, if a fraud has taken
place, the financial value of the fraud. The investigation should determine who has perpetrated the fraud, and collect evidence
to help prosecute those involved in the deception.
In this case the suspicion that inventory is being stolen should be investigated, as there could be other reasons for the
discrepancy found in the inventory records. For example, the discrepancy could be caused by:
– Obsolete or damaged inventory thrown away but not eliminated from the inventory records
– Despatches from the warehouse not recorded in the inventory management system
– Incoming inventory being recorded incorrectly (e.g. recorded twice in the inventory management system)
– Inventory being held at a separate location and therefore not included in the count.
If it is found that thefts have taken place, then the forensic accountant should gather evidence to:
– Prove the identity of the persons involved
– Quantify the value of inventory taken.
The evidence gathered could be used to start criminal proceedings against those found to have been involved in the fraud.


Susan is aware of benchmarking as a useful input into performance measurement and strategic change.

(b) Assess the contribution benchmarking could make to improving the position of the Marlow Fashion Group

and any limitations to its usefulness. (8 marks)

正确答案:

(b) Benchmarking at Marlow Fashion will not be an easy exercise. Marlow Fashion has developed a distinctive way of reaching
its markets that means direct comparisons will be hard to make. Certainly, it can carry out historical benchmarking in
comparing how its own processes and activities have improved, or otherwise, over a relevant period of time. Unfortunately,
this is likely to simply confirm worsening performance. It can compare its own key operations against the ‘best in class’;
regardless of which industry the excellent performer comes from. It could and should have been carrying out competitive
benchmarking on the retail side of the business where information should be more easily available. There may be an
opportunity to benchmark itself against firms that have gone through a similar crisis and achieved a successful turnaround.

In terms of the advantages and disadvantages, the willingness of managers responsible for a key area of performance to
compare themselves against relevant external performance measures should make them take responsibility for any changes
necessary. In Marlow Fashion, the acceptance that things have to be done differently will be the first stage in the turnaround.
Getting managers face-to-face with the problems, accepting responsibility for change and recognising that the necessary
changes are ‘doable’ is an important stage in creating a willingness to change. The disadvantages are that every organisation
and situation is different and there is no one best way. Marlow Fashion thought it had discovered the best way and this created
an unwillingness to change. There is also the danger that you are solving today’s problems with yesterday’s solutions. A good
competitor will be trying to maintain its competitive advantage through constantly improving its processes. It also has a vested
interest in trying to prevent its improvements from being revealed to its competitors. Also, many of the ‘softer’ processes –
typically involving people – are difficult if not impossible to replicate in another organisation. These advantages are to do with
culture and leadership and not easily transferable to another organisation and the context in which it is operating.


(ii) An evaluation of the environmental and sustainability implications of the Giant Dam Project; (8 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Environmental and sustainability implications of the Giant Dam Project
In our preparation for the bid to act as principal contractor for the Giant Dam Project, we established that there were
two prominent negative implications of the project but these are, in our view, more than offset by two major
environmental positives.
The environmental arguments against the Giant Dam Project both concern the flooding of the valley behind the dam.
Regrettably, it seems that there will be some loss of important habitats. This, in turn, may mean the removal of balanced
environmental conditions for certain animal and plant species. In addition, the flooding of the valley will result in the
loss of productive farmland. This will mean reduced capacity for the host country to grow food and thus support citizens
such as the members of First Nation. From our point of view, as the board of R&M, however, we would remind
shareholders and other observers that the decisions involving the size and positioning of the Giant Dam were taken by
the client, the government. It is R&M’s job, having won the contract as principal contractor, to now carry out the plans,
regardless of our own views.
Happily, however, there are two very powerful environmental arguments in favour of the Giant Dam Project. It will create
a large source of clean energy for economic development that will be sustainable, as it will create no carbon emissions
nor will it consume any non-renewable resources as it does so (compared to, for example, fossil fuels).
At a time when people are becoming very concerned about greenhouse gases produced from conventional power
generation, the Giant Dam Project will contribute to the East Asian country’s internationally agreed carbon reduction
targets. This, in turn, will contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases in the environment.
It is clear that the construction of the Giant Dam Project is an environmental conundrum with strong arguments on both
sides. The deciding factor may be the opinion that we each have of the desirability of economic growth in the East Asian
country (which the energy from the dam is intended to support). It seems that Stop-the-dam values the preservation of
the original environment more than the economic growth that the energy from the dam would support. The client does
not agree with this assessment and we are happy to be involved with a project that will create such a useful source of
renewable and non-polluting energy.


You are the manager responsible for performing hot reviews on audit files where there is a potential disagreement

between your firm and the client regarding a material issue. You are reviewing the going concern section of the audit

file of Dexter Co, a client with considerable cash flow difficulties, and other, less significant operational indicators of

going concern problems. The working papers indicate that Dexter Co is currently trying to raise finance to fund

operating cash flows, and state that if the finance is not received, there is significant doubt over the going concern

status of the company. The working papers conclude that the going concern assumption is appropriate, but it is

recommended that the financial statements should contain a note explaining the cash flow problems faced by the

company, along with a description of the finance being sought, and an evaluation of the going concern status of the

company. The directors do not wish to include the note in the financial statements.

Required:

(b) Consider and comment on the possible reasons why the directors of Dexter Co are reluctant to provide the

note to the financial statements. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Directors reluctance to disclose
The directors are likely to have several reasons behind their reluctance to disclose the note as recommended by the audit
manager. The first is that the disclosure of Dexter Co’s poor cash flow position and perilous going concern status may reflect
badly on the directors themselves. The company’s shareholders and other stakeholders will be displeased to see the company
in such a poor position, and the directors will be held accountable for the problems. Of course it may not be the case that
the directors have exercised poor management of the company – the problems could be caused by external influences outside
the control of the directors. However, it is natural that the directors will not want to highlight the situation in order to protect
their own position.
Secondly, the note could itself trigger further financial distress for the company. Dexter Co is trying to raise finance, and it is
probable that the availability of further finance will be detrimentally affected by the disclosure of the company’s financial
problems. In particular, if the cash flow difficulties are highlighted, providers of finance will consider the company too risky
an investment, and are not likely to make funds available for fear of non-repayment. Existing lenders may seek repayment of
their funds in fear that the company may be unable in the future to meet repayments.
In addition, the disclosures could cause operational problems, for example, suppliers may curtail trading relationships as they
become concerned that they will not be paid, or customers may be deterred from purchasing from the company if they feel
that there is no long-term future for the business. Unfortunately the mere disclosure of financial problems can be self-fulfilling,
and cause such further problems for the company that it is pushed into non-going concern status.
The directors may also be concerned that if staff were to hear of this they may worry about the future of the company and
seek alternative employment, which could lead in turn to the loss of key members of staff. This would be detrimental to the
business and trigger further operational problems.
Finally, the reluctance to disclose may be caused by an entirely different reason. The directors could genuinely feel that the
cash flow and operational problems faced by the company do not constitute factors affecting the going concern status. They
may be confident that although a final decision has not been made regarding financing, the finance is likely to be forthcoming,
and therefore there is no long-term material uncertainty over the future of the company. However audit working papers
conclude that there is a significant level of doubt over the going concern status of Dexter Co, and therefore it seems that the
directors may be over optimistic if they feel that there is no significant doubt to be disclosed in the financial statements.


(d) Wader has decided to close one of its overseas branches. A board meeting was held on 30 April 2007 when a

detailed formal plan was presented to the board. The plan was formalised and accepted at that meeting. Letters

were sent out to customers, suppliers and workers on 15 May 2007 and meetings were held prior to the year

end to determine the issues involved in the closure. The plan is to be implemented in June 2007. The company

wish to provide $8 million for the restructuring but are unsure as to whether this is permissible. Additionally there

was an issue raised at one of the meetings. The operations of the branch are to be moved to another country

from June 2007 but the operating lease on the present buildings of the branch is non-cancellable and runs for

another two years, until 31 May 2009. The annual rent of the buildings is $150,000 payable in arrears on

31 May and the lessor has offered to take a single payment of $270,000 on 31 May 2008 to settle the

outstanding amount owing and terminate the lease on that date. Wader has additionally obtained permission to

sublet the building at a rental of $100,000 per year, payable in advance on 1 June. The company needs advice

on how to treat the above under IAS37 ‘Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets’. (7 marks)

Required:

Discuss the accounting treatments of the above items in the financial statements for the year ended 31 May

2007.

Note: a discount rate of 5% should be used where necessary. Candidates should show suitable calculations where

necessary.

正确答案:

(d) A provision under IAS37 ‘Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent assets’ can only be made in relation to the entity’s
restructuring plans where there is both a detailed formal plan in place and the plans have been announced to those affected.
The plan should identify areas of the business affected, the impact on employees and the likely cost of the restructuring and
the timescale for implementation. There should be a short timescale between communicating the plan and starting to
implement it. A provision should not be recognised until a plan is formalised.
A decision to restructure before the balance sheet date is not sufficient in itself for a provision to be recognised. A formal plan
should be announced prior to the balance sheet date. A constructive obligation should have arisen. It arises where there has
been a detailed formal plan and this has raised a valid expectation in the minds of those affected. The provision should only
include direct expenditure arising from the restructuring. Such amounts do not include costs associated with ongoing business
operations. Costs of retraining staff or relocating continuing staff or marketing or investment in new systems and distribution
networks, are excluded. It seems as though in this case a constructive obligation has arisen as there have been detailed formal
plans approved and communicated thus raising valid expectations. The provision can be allowed subject to the exclusion of
the costs outlined above.
Although executory contracts are outside IAS37, it is permissible to recognise a provision that is onerous. Onerous contracts
can result from restructuring plans or on a stand alone basis. A provision should be made for the best estimate of the excess
unavoidable costs under the onerous contract. This estimate should assess any likely level of future income from new sources.
Thus in this case, the rental income from sub-letting the building should be taken into account. The provision should be


(c) Explain how Perfect Shopper might re-structure its downstream supply chain to address the problems

identified in the scenario. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(c) A number of opportunities appear to exist in the downstream supply chain.
As already mentioned above, Perfect Shopper can revisit its contract distribution arrangements. At present, distribution to
neighbourhood shops is in the hands of locally appointed contract distributors. As already suggested, it may be possible to
contract one integrated logistics company to carry out both inbound and outbound logistics, so gaining economies of scale
and opportunities for branding.
One of the problems identified in the independent report was the inflexibility of the ordering and delivering system. The
ordering system appears to be built around a fixed standard delivery made every two weeks, agreed in advance for a three
month period. Variations can be made to this standard order, but only increases – not decreases. Presumably, this
arrangement is required to allow Perfect Shopper to forecast demand over a three month period and to place bulk orders to
reflect these commitments. However, this may cause at least two problems. The first is that participating shops place a
relatively low standard order and rely on variations to fulfil demand. This causes problems for Perfect Shopper. Secondly, any
unpredictable fall in demand during the three month period leads to the shop having storage problems and unsold stock. This
potentially creates problems for the shop owner, who may also begin to question the value of the franchise. Hence Perfect
Shopper might wish to consider a much more flexible system where orders can be made to match demand and deliveries
can be made as required. This would also remove the requirement for a three monthly meeting between the franchisee andthe sales representative from Perfect Shopper. Investments in IT systems will be required to support this, with participating
shops placing orders over the Internet to reflect their requirements. This move towards a more flexible purchasing arrangement
may also make the outsourcing of warehousing and distribution even more appealing.
Perfect Shopper may also wish to investigate whether they can also provide value added services to customers, which not
only simplify the ordering system but also allow the shop managers to better understand their customers and fulfil their
requirements. The supply chain may legitimately include the customer’s customers, particularly for franchisers. This is already
acknowledged because Perfect Shopper produces tailored marketing material aimed at the end-consumer. Point of Sales (PoS)
devices feeding information back to Perfect Shopper would allow sales information to be analysed and fed back to the
shopkeeper as well as allowing automatic replenishment based on purchasing trends. However, this may be culturally difficult
for independent neighbourhood shopkeepers to accept. Furthermore, it would potentially include information outside the
products offered by Perfect Shopper and the implications of this would have to be considered. However, a whole shop sales
analysis might be a useful service to offer existing and potential franchisees.
Customers are increasingly willing to order products over the Internet. It seems unlikely that individual shopkeepers would be
able to establish and maintain their own Internet-based service. It would be useful for Perfect Shopper to explore the potential
of establishing a central website with customers placing orders from local shops. Again there are issues about scope, because
Perfect Shopper does not offer a whole-shop service. However, Michael de Kare-Silver has identified groceries as a product
area that has good potential for Internet purchase. In his electronic shopping potential test any product scoring over 20 hasgood potential. Groceries scored 27.


(c) Pinzon, a limited liability company and audit client, is threatening to sue your firm in respect of audit fees charged

for the year ended 31 December 2004. Pinzon is alleging that Bartolome billed the full rate on air fares for audit

staff when substantial discounts had been obtained by Bartolome. (4 marks)

Required:

Comment on the ethical and other professional issues raised by each of the above matters and their implications,

if any, for the continuation of each assignment.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

正确答案:
(c) Threatened legal action
Ethical and professional issues
■ An advocacy threat has arisen as Bartolome and Pinzon are in opposition concerning the fee note for the 2004 audit.
■ If Pinzon’s allegations are true this may cast serious doubt on the integrity of Bartolome. Pinzon should be advised to
take their claims first to ACCA’s Disciplinary Committee.
■ If Bartolome has indeed charged full air fares when substantial discounts had been obtained this could be due to:
– Bartolome incorrectly believing this to be an acceptable industry practice; or
– a billing error/oversight.
In either case Bartolome should issue a credit note, although this may be insufficient to make amends and salvage the
auditor-client relationship.
■ Bartolome may have legitimately claimed for full airfares if this was agreed in its contract (i.e. the terms of engagement)
with Pinzon.
Implications for continuation with assignment
Unless the threat of legal action is amicably resolved very quickly (which is perhaps unlikely) Pinzon and Bartolome are in
conflict. Bartolome cannot therefore be seen to be independent and so should tender their resignation as auditor for the year
ending 31 December 2005 (assuming they were re-appointed and have not already been removed from office).


21年ACCA/CAT考试试题题库5节 第4节


(b) continuous auditing; (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Continuous auditing
Continuous auditing is a methodology that enables independent auditors to give written assurance on a subject matter (e.g.
inventory levels, receivables balances, financial statements) using a series of auditor’s reports issued simultaneously with (or
a short period of time after) the occurrence of events underlying the subject matter. Thus it increases the frequency of
reporting (e.g. may be issued daily, weekly).
Technological development is making increasingly sophisticated information systems available to more entities at a decreasing
cost. This has promoted a more widespread dependence on technology to produce more timely information. This has
increased the demand for timely assurance on the information provided. Auditors have had to respond with highly automated
procedures and audit tools that are integrated with the entity’s systems and controls.
Tutorial note: XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) increases the viability of continuous auditing. It provides a
widely agreed-upon set of descriptors for elements in a business report that can be read and interpreted by computer
systems. It allows an auditor to review data at any stage and determine the origin of the information and the controls that
have been incorporated.
Results of automated audit procedures must be communicated promptly, particularly if anomalies or errors identified require
that follow-up procedures be performed by audit personnel. Secure electronic communication links are therefore essential.
As entities’ reporting has moved from annual and interim reports to the monthly/daily/weekly reporting of key performance
indicators (‘KPIs’)/critical success factors (‘CSFs’), the professional accountant’s assignment has expanded from the audit of
financial statements. For example, to review reports (e.g. on interim financial statements), special purpose reports (e.g. on
the effectiveness of [outsourced] control procedures) to continuous auditing reports.
For continuous audits, auditors’ reports need to be produced automatically and safeguarded against unauthorised changes.
Reports may be ‘evergreen’ (i.e. always available to users and dated at the time of access to the information) or ‘on demand’
(i.e. available when specifically requested and dated at the time of request).
Auditors must be technically proficient to handle any engagement undertaken. For continuous audit assurance engagements
that will require a high level of expertise in various aspects of information technology as well as a sound grasp of the subject
matter being audited.
Continuous audit work requires the frequent or continuous use of audit tools integrated with the client’s systems. For example
embedded audit modules (EAMs) are subroutines that perform. control or audit procedures concurrently with the client’s
normal application processing.


(c) At 1 June 2006, Router held a 25% shareholding in a film distribution company, Wireless, a public limited

company. On 1 January 2007, Router sold a 15% holding in Wireless thus reducing its investment to a 10%

holding. Router no longer exercises significant influence over Wireless. Before the sale of the shares the net asset

value of Wireless on 1 January 2007 was $200 million and goodwill relating to the acquisition of Wireless was

$5 million. Router received $40 million for its sale of the 15% holding in Wireless. At 1 January 2007, the fair

value of the remaining investment in Wireless was $23 million and at 31 May 2007 the fair value was

$26 million. (6 marks)

Required:

Discuss how the above items should be dealt with in the group financial statements of Router for the year ended

31 May 2007.Required:

Discuss how the above items should be dealt with in the group financial statements of Router for the year ended

31 May 2007.

正确答案:
(c) The investment in Wireless is currently accounted for using the equity method of accounting under IAS28 ‘Investments in
Associates’. On the sale of a 15% holding, the investment in Wireless will be accounted for in accordance with IAS39. Router
should recognise a gain on the sale of the holding in Wireless of $7 million (Working 1). The gain comprises the following:
(i) the difference between the sale proceeds and the proportion of the net assets sold and
(ii) the goodwill disposed of.
The total gain is shown in the income statement.
The remaining 10 per cent investment will be classified as an ‘available for sale’ financial asset or at ‘fair value through profit
or loss’ financial asset. Changes in fair value for these categories are reported in equity or in the income statement respectively.
At 1 January 2007, the investment will be recorded at fair value and a gain of $1 million $(23 – 22) recorded. At 31 May
2007 a further gain of $(26 – 23) million, i.e. $3 million will be recorded. In order for the investment to be categorised as
at fair value through profit or loss, certain conditions have to be fulfilled. An entity may use this designation when doing so
results in more relevant information by eliminating or significantly reducing a measurement or recognition inconsistency (an
‘accounting mismatch’) or where a group of financial assets and/or financial liabilities is managed and its performance is
evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy, and information
about the assets and/ or liabilities is provided internally to the entity’s key management personnel.


5 International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) are primarily designed for use by publicly listed companies and

in many countries the majority of companies using IFRSs are listed companies. In other countries IFRSs are used as

national Generally Accepted Accounting Practices (GAAP) for all companies including unlisted entities. It has been

argued that the same IFRSs should be used by all entities or alternatively a different body of standards should apply

to small and medium entities (SMEs).

Required:

(a) Discuss whether there is a need to develop a set of IFRSs specifically for SMEs. (7 marks)

正确答案:
5 (a) IFRSs were not designed specifically for listed companies. However, in many countries the main users of IFRS are listed
companies. Currently SMEs who adopt IFRS have to follow all the requirements and not all SMEs take exception to applying
IFRS because it gives their financial statements enhanced reliability, relevance and credibility, and results in fair presentation.
However, other SMEs will wish to comply with IFRS for consistency and comparability purposes within their own country and
internationally but wish to apply simplified or different standards relevant to SMEs on the grounds that some IFRS are
unnecessarily demanding and some of the information produced is not used by users of SME financial statements.
The objectives of general purpose financial statements are basically appropriate for SMEs and publicly listed companies alike.
Therefore there is an argument that there is a need for only one set of IFRS which could be used nationally and internationally.
However, some SMEs require different financial information than listed companies. For example expanded related party
disclosures may be useful as SMEs often raise capital from shareholders, directors and suppliers. Additionally directors often
offer personal assets as security for bank finance.
The cost burden of applying the full set of IFRS may not be justified on the basis of user needs. The purpose and usage of
the financial statements, and the nature of the accounting expertise available to the SME, will not be the same as for listed
companies. These circumstances themselves may provide justification for a separate set of IFRSs for SMEs. A problem which
might arise is that users become familiar with IFRS as opposed to local GAAP thus creating a two tier system which could
lead to local GAAP being seen as an inferior or even a superior set of accounting rules.
One course of action would be for GAAP for SMEs to be developed on a national basis with IFRS being focused on accounting
for listed company activities. The main issue here would be that the practices developed for SMEs may not be consistent and
may lack comparability across national boundaries. This may mean that where SMEs wish to list their shares on a capital
market, the transition to IFRSs may be difficult. It seems that national standards setters are strongly supportive of thedevelopment of IFRSs for SMEs.


4 Whilst acknowledging the importance of high quality corporate reporting, the recommendations to improve it are

sometimes questioned on the basis that the marketplace for capital can determine the nature and quality of corporate

reporting. It could be argued that additional accounting and disclosure standards would only distort a market

mechanism that already works well and would add costs to the reporting mechanism, with no apparent benefit. It

could be said that accounting standards create costly, inefficient, and unnecessary regulation. It could be argued that

increased disclosure reduces risks and offers a degree of protection to users. However, increased disclosure has several

costs to the preparer of financial statements.

Required:

(a) Explain why accounting standards are needed to help the market mechanism work effectively for the benefit

of preparers and users of corporate reports. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(a) It could be argued that the marketplace already offers powerful incentives for high-quality reporting as it rewards such by
easing or restricting access to capital or raising or lowering the cost of borrowing capital depending on the quality of the entity’s
reports. However, accounting standards play an important role in helping the market mechanism work effectively. Accounting
standards are needed because they:
– Promote a common understanding of the nature of corporate performance and this facilitates any negotiations between
users and companies about the content of financial statements. For example, many loan agreements specify that a
company provide the lender with financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting
principles or International Financial Reporting Standards. Both the company and the lender understand the terms and
are comfortable that statements prepared according to those standards will meet certain information needs. Without
standards, the statements would be less useful to the lender, and the company and the lender would have to agree to
create some form. of acceptable standards which would be inefficient and less effective.
– Assist neutral and unbiased reporting. Companies may wish to portray their past performance and future prospects in
the most favourable light. Users are aware of this potential bias and are sceptical about the information they receive.
Standards build credibility and confidence in the capital marketplace to the benefit of both users and companies.
– Improve the comparability of information across companies and national boundaries. Without standards, there would be
little basis to compare one company with others across national boundaries which is a key feature of relevant
information.
– Create credibility in financial statements. Auditors verify that information is reported in accordance with standards and
this creates public confidence in financial statements
– Facilitate consistency of information by producing data in accordance with an agreed conceptual framework. A consistent
approach to the development and presentation of information assists users in accessing information in an efficient
manner and facilitates decision-making.


(ii) Recommend further audit procedures that should be carried out. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Further audit procedures:
Request from Peter Sheffield a written representation detailing:
– the exact nature of his control over Jarvis Co, i.e. if he is a shareholder then state his percentage shareholding, if
he is a member of senior management then state his exact position within the entity,
– a comment on whether in his opinion the balance is recoverable,
– a specific date by which the amount should be expected to be repaid, and
– a confirmation that there are no further balances outstanding from Jarvis Co, or any further transactions between
Jarvis Co and Pulp Co.
Tutorial note: Reference to the Exposure Draft ISA 550 Related Parties (Revised and Redrafted) requirement for both
general and specific management representations will be awarded credit.
Review the terms of any written confirmation of the amount, such as a signed agreement or invoice, checking whether
any interest is due to Pulp Co. The terms should be reviewed for details of any security offered, and the nature of the
consideration to be provided in settlement.
From discussion with Peter Sheffield, develop an understanding of the business purpose of the transaction, particularly
to understand whether the balance is a trade receivable or an investment.
Review the board minutes for evidence of any discussion of the transaction and the recoverability of the balance
outstanding.
Obtain the most recent audited financial statements of Jarvis Co and:
– ascertain whether Peter Sheffield is disclosed as the ultimate controlling party or disclosed as a member of key
management personnel,
– scrutinise the disclosure notes to find any disclosure of the transaction, where it should be described as a related
party liability, and
– perform. a liquidity analysis to establish whether the amount can be repaid from liquid assets.


4 David Silvester is the founder and owner of a recently formed gift packaging company, Gift Designs Ltd. David has

spotted an opportunity for a new type of gift packaging. This uses a new process to make waterproof cardboard and

then shapes and cuts the card in such a way to produce a container or vase for holding cut flowers. The containers

can be stored flat and in bulk and then simply squeezed to create the flowerpot into which flowers and water are then

put. The potential market for the product is huge. In the UK hospitals alone there are 200,000 bunches of flowers

bought each year for patients. David’s innovative product does away with the need for hospitals to provide and store

glass vases. The paper vases are simple, safe and hygienic. He has also identified two other potential markets; firstly,

the market for fresh flowers supplied by florists and secondly, the corporate gift market where clients such as car

dealers present a new owner with an expensive bunch of flowers when the customer takes delivery of a new car. The

vase can be printed using a customer’s design and logo and creates an opportunity for real differentiation and impact

at sales conferences and other high profile PR events.

David anticipates a rapid growth in Gift Designs as its products become known and appreciated. The key question is

how quickly the company should grow and the types of funding needed to support its growth and development. The

initial financial demands of the business have been quite modest but David has estimated that the business needs

£500K to support its development over the next two years and is uncertain as to the types of funding best suited to

a new business as it looks to grow rapidly. He understands that business risk and financial risk is not the same thing

and is looking for advice on how he should organise the funding of the business. He is also aware of the need to avoid

reliance on friends and family for funding and to broaden the financial support for the business. Clearly the funding

required would also be affected by the activities David decides to carry out himself and those activities better provided

by external suppliers.

Required:

(a) Provide David with a short report on the key issues he should take into account when developing a strategy

for funding Gift Designs’ growth and development. (10 marks)

正确答案:

(a) To: David Silvester
From:
Funding strategy for Gift Designs Ltd
Clearly, you have identified a real business opportunity and face both business and financial risks in turning the opportunity
into reality. One possible model you can use is that of the product life cycle which as a one-product firm is effectively the life
cycle for the company. Linking business risk to financial risk is important – in the early stages of the business the business
risk is high and the high death rate amongst new start-ups is well publicised and, consequently, there is a need to go for low
financial risk. Funding the business is essentially deciding the balance between debt and equity finance, and equity offers the
low risk that you should be looking for. As the firm grows and develops so the balance between debt and equity will change.
A new business venture like this could in Boston Box terms be seen as a problem child with a non-existent market share but
high growth potential. The business risks are very high and consequently the financial risks taken should be very low and
avoid taking on large amounts of debt with a commitment to service the debt.
You need to take advantage of investors who are willing to accept the risks associated with a business start-up – venture
capitalists and business angels accept the risks associated with putting equity capital in but may expect a significant share
in the ownership of the business. This they will seek to realise once the business is successfully established. As the business
moves into growth and then maturity so the business risks will reduce and access to debt finance becomes feasible and cost
effective. In maturity the business should be able to generate significant retained earnings to finance further development.

Dividend policy will also be affected by the stage in the life cycle that the business has reached.
Yours,


(ii) The UK value added tax (VAT) implications for Razor Ltd of selling tools to and purchasing tools from

Cutlass Inc; (2 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Value added tax (VAT)
Goods exported are zero-rated. Razor Ltd must retain appropriate documentary evidence that the export has taken place.
Razor Ltd must account for VAT on the value of the goods purchased from Cutlass Inc at the time the goods are brought
into the UK. The VAT payable should be included as deductible input tax on the company’s VAT return.


3 Clyde Williams is facing a dilemma. He has successfully built up a small family-owned company, Concrete Solutions

Ltd, manufacturing a range of concrete based products used in making roads, pavements and walkways. The

production technology is very low tech and uses simple wooden moulds into which the concrete is poured. As a

consequence he is able to use low skilled and low cost labour, which would find it difficult to find alternative

employment in a region with high unemployment levels. The company has employed many of its workforce since its

creation in 1996. The company’s products are heavy, bulky and costly to transport. This means its market is limited

to a 30-mile area around the small rural town where the manufacturing facility is located. Its customers are a mix of

private sector building firms and public sector local councils responsible for maintaining roads and pavements. By its

nature much of the demand is seasonal and very price sensitive.

A large international civil engineering company has recently approached Clyde with an opportunity to become a

supplier of concrete blocks used in a sophisticated system for preventing coast and riverbank erosion. The process

involves interlocking blocks being placed on a durable textile base. Recent trends in global warming and pressure in

many countries to build in areas liable to flooding have created a growing international market for the patented erosion

prevention system. Clyde has the opportunity to become the sole UK supplier of the blocks and to be one of a small

number of suppliers able to export the blocks to Europe. To do it he will need to invest a significant amount in CAM

(computer aided manufacturing) technology with a linked investment in the workforce skills needed to operate the

new technology. The net result will be a small increase in the size of the labour force but redundancy for a significant

number of its existing workers either unwilling or unable to adapt to the demands of the new technology. Successful

entry into this new market will reduce his reliance on the seasonal low margin concrete products he currently produces

and significantly improve profitability.

One further complication exists. Concrete Solutions is located in a quiet residential area of its home town. Clyde is

under constant pressure from the local residents and their council representatives to reduce the amount of noise and

dust created in the production process. Any move into making the new blocks will increase the pollution problems

the residents face. There is a possibility of moving the whole manufacturing process to a site on a new industrial estate

being built by the council in a rival town. However closure of the existing site would lead to a loss of jobs in the current

location. Clyde has asked for your help in resolving his dilemma.

Required:

(a) Using models where appropriate, advise Clyde on whether he should choose to take advantage of the

opportunity offered by the international company. (12 marks)

正确答案:

SWOT analysis, including his personal liability to manage the strategic change would be useful. There may be a significant
investment in new technology and employee training to make the new blocks. In effect he will be forming a strategic alliance
with the international company and making significant changes to both the value chain and value system. There will be no
need to invest in sales and marketing as this will be the responsibility of its larger partner. As a major strategic option there
is a need to address issues of its suitability, acceptability and feasibility. In terms of suitability the option seems to address
many of the strategic problems attached to his current product range. It is a product that can be sold all year round and into
a much wider geographical market area. It is in terms of acceptability that the dilemma reveals itself and the impact on the
different stakeholders involved – he may find stakeholder mapping and scenario building useful in coming to a decision. As
the owner of the business he needs to assess the risk involved against the likely returns. Feasibility looks reasonably sound– new resources and skills will be needed but affordable and achievable with the support of the partner.


3 Mary Hobbes joined the board of Rosh and Company, a large retailer, as finance director earlier this year. Whilst she

was glad to have finally been given the chance to become finance director after several years as a financial

accountant, she also quickly realised that the new appointment would offer her a lot of challenges. In the first board

meeting, she realised that not only was she the only woman but she was also the youngest by many years.

Rosh was established almost 100 years ago. Members of the Rosh family have occupied senior board positions since

the outset and even after the company’s flotation 20 years ago a member of the Rosh family has either been executive

chairman or chief executive. The current longstanding chairman, Timothy Rosh, has already prepared his slightly

younger brother, Geoffrey (also a longstanding member of the board) to succeed him in two years’ time when he plans

to retire. The Rosh family, who still own 40% of the shares, consider it their right to occupy the most senior positions

in the company so have never been very active in external recruitment. They only appointed Mary because they felt

they needed a qualified accountant on the board to deal with changes in international financial reporting standards.

Several former executive members have been recruited as non-executives immediately after they retired from full-time

service. A recent death, however, has reduced the number of non-executive directors to two. These sit alongside an

executive board of seven that, apart from Mary, have all been in post for over ten years.

Mary noted that board meetings very rarely contain any significant discussion of strategy and never involve any debate

or disagreement. When she asked why this was, she was told that the directors had all known each other for so long

that they knew how each other thought. All of the other directors came from similar backgrounds, she was told, and

had worked for the company for so long that they all knew what was ‘best’ for the company in any given situation.

Mary observed that notes on strategy were not presented at board meetings and she asked Timothy Rosh whether the

existing board was fully equipped to formulate strategy in the changing world of retailing. She did not receive a reply.

Required:

(a) Explain ‘agency’ in the context of corporate governance and criticise the governance arrangements of Rosh

and Company. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Defining and explaining agency
Agency is defined in relation to a principal. A principal appoints an agent to act on his or her behalf. In the case of corporate
governance, the principal is a shareholder in a joint stock company and the agents (that have an agency relationship with
principals) are the directors. The directors remain accountable to the principals for the stewardship of their investment in the
company. In the case of Rosh, 60% of the shares are owned by shareholders external to the Rosh family and the board has
agency responsibility to those shareholders.
Criticisms of Rosh’s CG arrangements
The corporate governance arrangements at Rosh and Company are far from ideal. Five points can be made based on the
evidence in the case.
There are several issues associated with the non-executive directors (NEDs) at Rosh. It is doubtful whether two NEDs are
enough to bring sufficient scrutiny to the executive board. Some corporate governance codes require half of the board of larger
companies to be non-executive and Rosh would clearly be in breach of such a requirement. Perhaps of equal concern, there
is significant doubt over the independence of the current NEDs as they were recruited from retired executive members of the
board and presumably have relationships with existing executives going back many years. Some corporate governance codes
(such as the UK Combined Code) specify that NEDs should not have worked for the company within the last five years. Again,
Rosh would be in breach of this provision.
Succession planning for senior positions in the company seems to be based on Rosh family membership rather than any
meritocratic approach to appointments (there doesn’t appear to be a nominations committee). Whilst this may have been
acceptable before the flotation when the Rosh family owned all of the shares, the flotation introduced an important need for
external scrutiny of this arrangement. The lack of NED independence makes this difficult.
There is a poor (very narrow) diversity of backgrounds among board members. Whilst diversity can bring increased conflict,
it is generally assumed that it can also stimulate discussion and debate that is often helpful.
There is a somewhat entrenched executive board and Mary is the first new appointment to the board in many years (and is
the first woman). Whilst experience is very important on a board, the appointment of new members, in addition to seeding
the board with talent for the future, can also bring fresh ideas and helpful scrutiny of existing policies.
There is no discussion of strategy and there is evidence of a lack of preparation of strategic notes to the board. The assumption
seems to be that the ‘best’ option is obvious and so there is no need for discussion and debate. Procedures for preparing
briefing notes on strategy for board meetings appear to be absent. Most corporate governance codes place the discussion and
setting of strategy as a high priority for boards and Rosh would be in breach of such a provision.
There is no evidence of training for Mary to facilitate her introduction into the organisation and its systems. Thorough training
of new members and ongoing professional development of existing members is an important component of good governance.


21年ACCA/CAT考试试题题库5节 第5节


(c) Illustrate how:

(i) inquiry; and (4 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Due diligence review
(i) Inquiries
Tutorial note: These should be focussed on uncovering facts that may not be revealed by the audited financial
statements (e.g. off balance sheet finance, contingencies, commitments and contracts) especially where knowledge
may be confined to management.
■ Do any members of MCM’s senior/executive management have contractual terms that will result in significant
payouts to them (e.g. on change of ownership of the company or their being made redundant)?
■ What contracts with clients, if any, will lapse or be made void in the event that MCM is purchased from Frontiers?
■ What synergy or inter-company trading, if any, currently exists between MCM and Frontiers? For example, Frontiers
may publish MCM’s training materials.
■ Are there any major clients who are likely to be lost if MCM is purchased by Plaza (e.g. any competitor food
retailers)?
■ What are the principal terms of the operating leases relating to the International business’s premises?
■ What penalties should be expected to be incurred if operating leases and/or contracts with training consultants are
terminated?
■ Has MCM entered into any purchase commitments since 31 December 2004 (e.g. to buy or lease further
premises)?
■ Who are the best trainers that Plaza should seek to retain after the purchase of MCM?
■ What events since the audited financial statements to 31 December 2004 were published have made a significant
impact on MCM’s assets, liabilities, operating capability and/or cash flows? (For example, storm damage to
premises, major clients defaulting on payments, significant interest/foreign-exchange rate fluctuations, etc.)
■ Are there any unresolved tax issues which have not been provided for in full?
■ What effect will the purchase have on loan covenants? For example, term loans may be rendered repayable on a
change of ownership.


(b) Wallace Co; and (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Wallace Co
Being the audit manager, Valerie Hobson is clearly in a position to influence the outcome of the audit. She appears to have
entered into a private commercial transaction with her client. IFAC’s Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants does not
prohibit such commercial transactions so long as they are:
– In the normal course of business,
– At arm’s length, and
– The value is not material to either party.
In this case the transaction is in the normal course of business for the client. Rental of storage space is not the main business
of Wallace Co, but it appears that this type of transaction is quite common for the company. However the note on the invoice
indicates that a substantial discount has been offered and accepted, and so the transaction is not at arm’s length. The value
is not material to Wallace Co, but could represent a significant discount to normal commercial terms to the audit manager.
Goods and services can be received from an audit client, but only if the value is clearly insignificant.
A self-interest threat is clearly established. Valerie Hobson is benefiting financially from her position as audit manager. She
may compromise the audit approach – which has recently been planned – and furthermore she may compromise the audit
opinion to keep the client happy. She may also have other audit clients where bias could have occurred.
Action to be taken:
– The ethics partner will need to evaluate whether the value of the transaction and the discount received is ‘clearly
insignificant’.
– Her benefiting from a discount on services provided by Wallace Co, which was not disclosed, could result in disciplinary
action.
– Valerie should be removed from the audit immediately, and a new audit manager assigned to Wallace Co.
– The audit planning for year ended 31 May 2008 should be subject to independent review and amendments made where
necessary.
– The transaction should be disclosed to the audit committee of Wallace Co, or to those charged with governance.
– The ethics partner may wish to consider Valerie’s relationships with other audit clients for any evidence of transactions
or other indicators of potential bias.


4 Hogg Products Company (HPC), based in a developing country, was recently wholly acquired by American Overseas

Investments (AOI), a North American holding company. The new owners took the opportunity to completely review

HPC’s management, culture and systems. One of the first things that AOI questioned was HPC’s longstanding

corporate code of ethics.

The board of AOI said that it had a general code of ethics that HPC, as an AOI subsidiary, should adopt. Simon Hogg,

the chief executive of HPC, disagreed however, and explained why HPC should retain its existing code. He said that

HPC had adopted its code of ethics in its home country which was often criticised for its unethical business behaviour.

Some other companies in the country were criticised for their ‘sweat shop’ conditions. HPC’s adoption of its code of

ethics, however, meant that it could always obtain orders from European customers on the guarantee that products

were made ethically and in compliance with its own highly regarded code of ethics. Mr Hogg explained that HPC had

an outstanding ethical reputation both locally and internationally and that reputation could be threatened if it was

forced to replace its existing code of ethics with AOI’s more general code.

When Ed Tanner, a senior director from AOI’s head office, visited Mr Hogg after the acquisition, he was shown HPC’s

operation in action. Mr Hogg pointed out that unlike some other employers in the industry, HPC didn’t employ child

labour. Mr Hogg explained that although it was allowed by law in the country, it was forbidden by HPC’s code of

ethics. Mr Hogg also explained that in his view, employing child labour was always ethically wrong. Mr Tanner asked

whether the money that children earned by working in the relatively safe conditions at HPC was an important source

of income for their families. Mr Hogg said that the money was important to them but even so, it was still wrong to

employ children, as it was exploitative and interfered with their education. He also said that it would alienate the

European customers who bought from HPC partly on the basis of the terms of its code of ethics.

Required:

(a) Describe the purposes and typical contents of a corporate code of ethics. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Purposes of codes of ethics
To convey the ethical values of the company to interested audiences including employees, customers, communities and
shareholders.
To control unethical practice within the organisation by placing limits on behaviour and prescribing behaviour in given
situations.
To be a stimulant to improved ethical behaviour in the organisation by insisting on full compliance with the code.
[Tutorial note: other purposes, if relevant, will be rewarded]
Contents of a corporate code of ethics
The typical contents of a corporate code of ethics are as follows:
Values of the company. This might include notes on the strategic purpose of the organisation and any underlying beliefs,
values, assumptions or principles. Values may be expressed in terms of social and environmental perspectives, and
expressions of intent regarding compliance with best practice, etc.
Shareholders and suppliers of finance. In particular, how the company views the importance of sources of finances, how it
intends to communicate with them and any indications of how they will be treated in terms of transparency, truthfulness and
honesty.
Employees. Policies towards employees, which might include equal opportunities policies, training and development,
recruitment, retention and removal of staff. In the case of HPC, the policy on child labour will be covered by this part of the
code of ethics.
Customers. How the company intends to treat its customers, typically in terms of policy of customer satisfaction, product mix,
product quality, product information and complaints procedure.
Supply chain/suppliers. This is becoming an increasingly important part of ethical behaviour as stakeholders scrutinise where
and how companies source their products (e.g. farming practice, GM foods, fair trade issues, etc). Ethical policy on supply
chain might include undertakings to buy from certain approved suppliers only, to buy only above a certain level of quality, to
engage constructively with suppliers (e.g. for product development purposes) or not to buy from suppliers who do not meet
with their own ethical standards.
Community and wider society. This section concerns the manner in which the company aims to relate to a range of
stakeholders with whom it does not have a direct economic relationship (e.g. neighbours, opinion formers, pressure groups,
etc). It might include undertakings on consultation, ‘listening’, seeking consent, partnership arrangements (e.g. in community
relationships with local schools) and similar.
[Tutorial note: up to six points to be identified and described but similar valid general contents are acceptable]


(iii) State the value added tax (VAT) and stamp duty (SD) issues arising as a result of inserting Bold plc as

a holding company and identify any planning actions that can be taken to defer or minimise these tax

costs. (4 marks)

You should assume that the corporation tax rates for the financial year 2005 and the income tax rates

and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 apply throughout this question.

正确答案:
(iii) Bold plc will be making a taxable supply of services, likely to exceed the VAT threshold. It should therefore consider
registering for VAT – either immediately on a voluntary basis, or when its cumulative taxable supplies in the previous
twelve months exceed £60,000.
As an alternative, the new group can apply for a group VAT registration. This will simplify its VAT administration as intragroup
transactions are broadly disregarded for VAT purposes, and only one VAT return is required for the group as a
whole.
Stamp duty normally applies at 0·5% on the consideration payable in respect of transactions in shares. However, an
exemption is available in the case of a takeover, reconstruction or amalgamation where there is no real change in
ownership, i.e. the new shareholdings mirror the old shareholdings, and the transaction is for commercial purposes. The
insertion of a new holding company over an existing company, as proposed here, would qualify for this exemption.
There is no VAT on transactions in shares.


James died on 22 January 2015. He had made the following gifts during his lifetime:

(1) On 9 October 2007, a cash gift of £35,000 to a trust. No lifetime inheritance tax was payable in respect of this gift.

(2) On 14 May 2013, a cash gift of £420,000 to his daughter.

(3) On 2 August 2013, a gift of a property valued at £260,000 to a trust. No lifetime inheritance tax was payable in respect of this gift because it was covered by the nil rate band. By the time of James’ death on 22 January 2015, the property had increased in value to £310,000.

On 22 January 2015, James’ estate was valued at £870,000. Under the terms of his will, James left his entire estate to his children.

The nil rate band of James’ wife was fully utilised when she died ten years ago.

The nil rate band for the tax year 2007–08 is £300,000, and for the tax year 2013–14 it is £325,000.

Required:

(a) Calculate the inheritance tax which will be payable as a result of James’ death, and state who will be responsible for paying the tax. (6 marks)

(b) Explain why it might have been beneficial for inheritance tax purposes if James had left a portion of his estate to his grandchildren rather than to his children. (2 marks)

(c) Explain why it might be advantageous for inheritance tax purposes for a person to make lifetime gifts even when such gifts are made within seven years of death.

Notes:

1. Your answer should include a calculation of James’ inheritance tax saving from making the gift of property to the trust on 2 August 2013 rather than retaining the property until his death.

2. You are not expected to consider lifetime exemptions in this part of the question. (2 marks)

正确答案:

(a) James – Inheritance tax arising on death

Lifetime transfers within seven years of death

The personal representatives of James’ estate will be responsible for paying the inheritance tax of £348,000.

Working – Available nil rate band

(b) Skipping a generation avoids a further charge to inheritance tax when the children die. Gifts will then only be taxed once before being inherited by the grandchildren, rather than twice.

(c) (1) Even if the donor does not survive for seven years, taper relief will reduce the amount of IHT payable after three years.

(2) The value of potentially exempt transfers and chargeable lifetime transfers are fixed at the time they are made.

(3) James therefore saved inheritance tax of £20,000 ((310,000 – 260,000) at 40%) by making the lifetime gift of property.


(ii) The use of the trading loss of Tethys Ltd for the year ending 31 December 2008; (6 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Tethys Ltd – Use of trading loss
– The two companies will not be in a group relief group as Saturn Ltd will not own 75% of Tethys Ltd.
– For a consortium to exist, 75% of the ordinary share capital of Tethys Ltd must be held by companies which each
hold at least 5%. Accordingly, Tethys Ltd will be a consortium company if the balance of its share capital is owned
by Clangers Ltd but not if it is owned by Edith Clanger.
– If Tethys Ltd qualifies as a consortium company: 65% of its trading losses in the period from 1 August 2008 to
31 December 2008 can be surrendered to Saturn Ltd, i.e. £21,667 (£80,000 x 5/12 x 65%).
– If Tethys Ltd does not qualify as a consortium company: none of its loss can be surrendered to Saturn Ltd.
– The acquisition of 65% of Tethys Ltd is a change in ownership of the company. If there is a major change in the
nature or conduct of the trade of Tethys Ltd within three years of 1 August 2008, the loss arising prior to that date
cannot be carried forward for relief in the future.
Further information required:
– Ownership of the balance of the share capital of Tethys Ltd.


Ms Huang, a shareholder of the Daqing Limited Liability Company (Daqing), found that the general manager, Mr Ding, had accepted bribes from several suppliers, which materially caused losses to Daqing, and adversely affected the interests of all shareholders.

Further examination, through a Certified Public Accountant firm, disclosed that there were a lot of affiliated transactions between Daqing and Everbright Co, which was the majority shareholder of Daqing. Mr Ding was recommended by Everbright Co and appointed by Daqing’s board of directors, which was substantially influenced by Everbright Co. With a series of such transactions Daqing transferred huge profits to Everbright Co and adversely affected Daqing.

Required:

(a) State whether Ms Huang was entitled to take legal action against Mr Ding for his illegal behaviour of accepting bribes which adversely affected all the shareholders. (2 marks)

(b) State TWO different legal actions Ms Huang was entitled to take to protect the rights of Daqing and its shareholders due to the affiliated transactions with Everbright Co. (4 marks)

正确答案:

(a) Mr Ding’s act of accepting bribery violated the criminal law and the relevant rules of the Company Law as well. Besides the criminal charges, he should be liable for his fraudulent behaviour of damaging the interests of Daqing and its shareholders. Therefore, Ms Huang was entitled to bring a law suit against general manager Mr Ding on the ground that his acts caused her loss of interests.

(b) With respect to Daqing’s damage, Ms Huang should first request the board of directors or supervisory board to take legal action against Everbright Co. Where these two bodies refuse to take reasonable actions, Ms Huang might, in her own name but for the interests of the company, bring a shareholder representative litigation against Everbright Co. On the other hand, she might also bring a direct litigation against Everbright Co on the ground that the connected transactions caused indirect damage to the shareholder’s interests.


On 1 April 2009 Pandar purchased 80% of the equity shares in Salva. The acquisition was through a share exchange of three shares in Pandar for every five shares in Salva. The market prices of Pandar’s and Salva’s shares at 1 April

2009 were $6 per share and $3.20 respectively.

On the same date Pandar acquired 40% of the equity shares in Ambra paying $2 per share.

The summarised income statements for the three companies for the year ended 30 September 2009 are:

The following information is relevant:

(i) The fair values of the net assets of Salva at the date of acquisition were equal to their carrying amounts with the exception of an item of plant which had a carrying amount of $12 million and a fair value of $17 million. This plant had a remaining life of five years (straight-line depreciation) at the date of acquisition of Salva. All depreciation is charged to cost of sales.

In addition Salva owns the registration of a popular internet domain name. The registration, which had a

negligible cost, has a five year remaining life (at the date of acquisition); however, it is renewable indefinitely at a nominal cost. At the date of acquisition the domain name was valued by a specialist company at $20 million.

The fair values of the plant and the domain name have not been reflected in Salva’s financial statements.

No fair value adjustments were required on the acquisition of the investment in Ambra.

(ii) Immediately after its acquisition of Salva, Pandar invested $50 million in an 8% loan note from Salva. All interest accruing to 30 September 2009 had been accounted for by both companies. Salva also has other loans in issue at 30 September 2009.

(iii) Pandar has credited the whole of the dividend it received from Salva to investment income.

(iv) After the acquisition, Pandar sold goods to Salva for $15 million on which Pandar made a gross profit of 20%. Salva had one third of these goods still in its inventory at 30 September 2009. There are no intra-group current account balances at 30 September 2009.

(v) The non-controlling interest in Salva is to be valued at its (full) fair value at the date of acquisition. For this

purpose Salva’s share price at that date can be taken to be indicative of the fair value of the shareholding of the non-controlling interest.

(vi) The goodwill of Salva has not suffered any impairment; however, due to its losses, the value of Pandar’s

investment in Ambra has been impaired by $3 million at 30 September 2009.

(vii) All items in the above income statements are deemed to accrue evenly over the year unless otherwise indicated.

Required:

(a) (i) Calculate the goodwill arising on the acquisition of Salva at 1 April 2009; (6 marks)

(ii) Calculate the carrying amount of the investment in Ambra to be included within the consolidated

statement of financial position as at 30 September 2009. (3 marks)

(b) Prepare the consolidated income statement for the Pandar Group for the year ended 30 September 2009.(16 marks)

正确答案:


(b) Calculate the amount of input tax that will be recovered by Vostok Ltd in respect of the new premises in the

year ending 31 March 2009 and explain, using illustrative calculations, how any additional recoverable input

tax will be calculated in future years. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Recoverable input tax in respect of new premises
Vostok Ltd will recover £47,880 (£446,500 x 7/47 x 72%) in the year ending 31 March 2009.
The capital goods scheme will apply to the purchase of the building because it is to cost more than £250,000. Under the
scheme, the total amount of input tax recovered reflects the use of the building over the period of ownership, up to a maximum
of ten years, rather than merely the year of purchase.
Further input tax will be recovered in future years as the percentage of exempt supplies falls. (If the percentage of exempt
supplies were to rise, Vostok Ltd would have to repay input tax to HMRC.)
The additional recoverable input tax will be computed by reference to the percentage of taxable supplies in each year including
the year of sale. For example, if the percentage of taxable supplies in a particular subsequent year were to be 80%, the
additional recoverable input tax would be computed as follows.
£446,500 x 7/47 x 1/10 x (80% – 72%) = £532.
Further input tax will be recovered in the year of sale as if Vostok Ltd’s supplies in the remaining years of the ten-year period
are fully vatable. For example, if the building is sold in year seven, the additional recoverable amount for the remaining three
years will be calculated as follows.
£446,500 x 7/47 x 1/10 x (100% – 72%) x 3 = £5,586.