2022ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选7节 第1节

(ii) Upwards; (3 marks)

(ii) Upwards communication is generally non-directive in nature and often takes two forms: personal problems or suggestions and/or technical feedback as part of the organisation’s control system.

(b) Identify and explain the financial statement risks to be taken into account in planning the final audit.

(12 marks)

(b) Financial statement risks
Tutorial note: Note the timeframe. Financial statements for the year to 30 June 2006 are draft. Certain misstatements
may therefore exist due to year-end procedures not yet having taken place.
■ Revenue has increased by 11·8% ((161·5 – 144·4)/144·4 × 100). Overstatement could arise if rebates due to customers
have not yet been accounted for in full (as they are calculated in arrears). If rebates have still to be accounted for trade
receivables will be similarly overstated.
Materials expense
■ Materials expense has increased by 17·8% ((88.0 – 74·7)/74·7 × 100). This is more than the increase in revenue. This
could be legitimate (e.g. if fuel costs have increased significantly). However, the increase could indicate misclassification
– revenue expenditure (see fall in other expenses below);
– capital expenditure (e.g. on overhauls or major refurbishment) as revenue;
– finance lease payments as operating lease.
■ This has fallen by 10·5% ((8·5 – 9·5)/9·5 × 100). This could be valid (e.g. if Yates has significant assets already fully
depreciated or the asset base is lower since last year’s restructuring). However, there is a risk of understatement if, for
– not all assets have been depreciated (or depreciated at the wrong rates, or only for 11 months of the year);
– cost of non-current assets is understated (e.g. due to failure to recognise capital expenditure)1;
– impairment losses have not been recognised (as compared with the prior year).
Tutorial note: Depreciation on vehicles and transport equipment represents only 7% of cost. If all items were being
depreciated on a straight-line basis over eight years this should be 12·5%. The depreciation on other equipment looks more
reasonable as it amounts to 14% which would be consistent with an average age of vehicles of seven years (i.e. in the middle
of the range 3 – 13 years).
Other expenses
■ These have fallen by 15·5% ((19·6 – 23·2)/23·2 × 100). They may have fallen (e.g. following the restructuring) or may be
understated due to:
– expenses being misclassified as materials expense;
– underestimation of accrued expenses (especially as the financial reporting period has not yet expired).
■ Intangible assets have increased by $1m (16% on the prior year). Although this may only just be material to the
financial statements as a whole (see (a)) this is the net movement, therefore additions could be material.
■ Internally-generated intangibles will be overstated if:
– any of the IAS 38 recognition criteria cannot be demonstrated;
– any impairment in the year has not yet been written off in accordance with IAS 36 ‘Impairment of Assets’.
Tangible assets
■ The net book value of property (at cost) has fallen by 5%, vehicles are virtually unchanged (increased by just 2·5%)
and other equipment (though the least material category) has fallen by 20·4%.
■ Vehicles and equipment may be overstated if:
– disposals have not been recorded;
– depreciation has been undercharged (e.g. not for a whole year);
– impairments have not yet been accounted for.
■ Understatement will arise if finance leases are treated as operating leases.
■ Trade receivables have increased by just 2·2% (although sales increased by 11·8%) and may be understated due to a
cutoff error resulting in overstatement of cash receipts.
■ There is a risk of overstatement if sufficient allowances have not been made for the impairment of individually significant
balances and for the remainder assessed on a portfolio or group basis.
Restructuring provision
■ The restructuring provision that was made last year has fallen/been utilised by 10·2%. There is a risk of overstatement
if the provision is underutilised/not needed for the purpose for which it was established.
Finance lease liabilities
■ Although finance lease liabilities have increased (by $1m) there is a greater risk of understatement than overstatement
if leased assets are not recognised on the balance sheet (i.e. capitalised).
■ Disclosure risk arises if the requirements of IAS 17 ‘Leases’ (e.g. in respect of minimum lease payments) are not met.
Trade payables
■ These have increased by only 5·3% compared with the 17·8% increase in materials expense. There is a risk of
understatement as notifications (e.g. suppliers’ invoices) of liabilities outstanding at 30 June 2006 may have still to be
received (the month of June being an unexpired period).
Other (employee) liabilities
■ These may be understated as they have increased by only 7·5% although staff costs have increased by 14%. For
example, balances owing in respect of outstanding holiday entitlements at the year end may not yet be accurately
Tutorial note: Credit will be given to other financial statements risks specific to the scenario. For example, ‘time-sensitive
delivery schedules’ might give rise to penalties or claims, that could result in understated provisions or undisclosed
contingent liabilities. Also, given that this is a new audit and the result has changed significantly (from loss to profit) might
suggest a risk of misstatement in the opening balances (and hence comparative information).
1 Tutorial note: This may be unlikely as other expenses have fallen also.

3 Assume that today’s date is 10 May 2005.

You have recently been approached by Fred Flop. Fred is the managing director and 100% shareholder of Flop

Limited, a UK trading company with one wholly owned subsidiary. Both companies have a 31 March year-end.

Fred informs you that he is experiencing problems in dealing with aspects of his company tax returns. The company

accountant has been unable to keep up to date with matters, and Fred also believes that mistakes have been made

in the past. Fred needs assistance and tells you the following:

Year ended 31 March 2003

The corporation tax return for this period was not submitted until 2 November 2004, and corporation tax of £123,500

was paid at the same time. Profits chargeable to corporation tax were stated as £704,300.

A formal notice (CT203) requiring the company to file a self-assessment corporation tax return (dated 1 February

2004) had been received by the company on 4 February 2004.

A detailed examination of the accounts and tax computation has revealed the following.

– Computer equipment totalling £50,000 had been expensed in the accounts. No adjustment has been made in

the tax computation.

– A provision of £10,000 was made for repairs, but there is no evidence of supporting information.

– Legal and professional fees totalling £46,500 were allowed in full without any explanation. Fred has

subsequently produced the following analysis:

Analysis of legal & professional fees

Legal fees on a failed attempt to secure a trading loan 15,000

Debt collection agency fees 12,800

Obtaining planning consent for building extension 15,700

Accountant’s fees for preparing accounts 14,000

Legal fees relating to a trade dispute 19,000

– No enquiry has yet been raised by the Inland Revenue.

– Flop Ltd was a large company in terms of the Companies Act definition for the year in question.

– Flop Ltd had taxable profits of £595,000 in the previous year.

Year ended 31 March 2004

The corporation tax return has not yet been submitted for this year. The accounts are late and nearing completion,

with only one change still to be made. A notice requiring the company to file a self-assessment corporation tax return

(CT203) dated 27 July 2004 was received on 1 August 2004. No corporation tax has yet been paid.

1 – The computation currently shows profits chargeable to corporation tax of £815,000 before accounting

adjustments, and any adjustments for prior years.

– A company owing Flop Ltd £50,000 (excluding VAT) has gone into liquidation, and it is unlikely that any of this

money will be paid. The money has been outstanding since 3 September 2003, and the bad debt will need to

be included in the accounts.

1 Fred also believes there are problems in relation to the company’s VAT administration. The VAT return for the quarter

ended 31 March 2005 was submitted on 5 May 2005, and VAT of £24,000 was paid at the same time. The previous

return to 31 December 2004 was also submitted late. In addition, no account has been made for the VAT on the bad

debt. The VAT return for 30 June 2005 may also be late. Fred estimates the VAT liability for that quarter to be £8,250.


(a) (i) Calculate the revised corporation tax (CT) payable for the accounting periods ending 31 March 2003

and 2004 respectively. Your answer should include an explanation of the adjustments made as a result

of the information which has now come to light. (7 marks)

(ii) State, giving reasons, the due payment date of the corporation tax (CT) and the filing date of the

corporation tax return for each period, and identify any interest and penalties which may have arisen to

date. (8 marks)


(a) Calculation of corporation tax
Year ended 31 March 2003
Corporation tax payable
There are three adjusting items:.
(i) The computers are capital items, as they have an enduring benefit. These need to be added back in the Schedule D
Case I calculation, and capital allowances claimed instead. The company is not small or medium by Companies Act
definitions and therefore no first year allowances are available. Allowances of £12,500 (50,000 x 25%) can be claimed,
leaving a TWDV of £37,500.
(ii) The provision appears to be general in nature. In addition there is insufficient information to justify the provision and it
should be disallowed until such times as it is released or utilised.
(iii) Costs relating to trading loan relationships are allowable, as are costs relating to the trade (debt collection, trade disputes
and accounting work). Costs relating to capital items (£5,700) are not allowable so will have to be added back.
Total profit chargeable to corporation tax is therefore £704,300 + 50,000 – 12,500 + 10,000 + 5,700 = 757,500. There are two associates, and therefore the 30% tax rate starts at £1,500,000/2 = £750,000. Corporation tax payable is 30% x£757,500 = £227,250.
Payment date
Although the rate of tax is 30% and the company ‘large’, quarterly payments will not apply, as the company was not large in the previous year. The due date for payment of tax is therefore nine months and one day after the end of the tax accounting period (31 March 2003) i.e. 1 January 2004.
Filing date
This is the later of:
– 12 months after the end of the period of account: 31 March 2004
– 3 months after the date of the notice requiring the return 1 May 2004
i.e. 1 May 2004.

6 Charles and Jane Miro, aged 31 and 34 years respectively, have been married for ten years and have two children

aged six and eight years. Charles is a teacher but for the last five years he has stayed at home to look after their

children. Jane works as a translator for Speak Write Ltd.

Speak Write Ltd was formed and began trading on 6 April 2006. It provides translation services to universities. Jane,

who ceased employment with Barnham University to found the company, owns 100% of its ordinary share capital

and is its only employee.

Speak Write Ltd has translated documents for four different universities since it began trading. Its biggest client is

Barnham University which represents 70% of the company’s gross income. It is estimated that the company’s gross

fee income for its first 12 months of trading will be £110,000. Speak Write Ltd usually agrees fixed fees in advance

with its clients although it charges for some projects by reference to the number of days taken to do the work. None

of the universities makes any payment to Speak Write Ltd in respect of Jane being on holiday or sick.

All of the universities insist that Jane does the work herself. Jane carries out the work for three of the universities in

her office at home using a computer and specialised software owned by Speak Write Ltd. The work she does for

Barnham University is done in the university’s library on one of its computers as the documents concerned are too

delicate to move.

The first set of accounts for Speak Write Ltd will be drawn up for the year ending 5 April 2007. It is estimated that

the company’s tax adjusted trading profit for this period will be £52,500. This figure is after deducting Jane’s salary

of £4,000 per month and the related national insurance contributions but before any adjustments required by the

application of the personal service companies (IR 35) legislation. The company has no other sources of income or

capital gains.

Jane has not entered into any communication with HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) with respect to the company

and wants to know:

– When the corporation tax computation should be submitted and when the tax is due.

– When the corporation tax computation can be regarded as having been agreed by HMRC.

Charles and Jane have requested a meeting to discuss the family’s finances. In particular, they wish to consider the

shortfall in the family’s annual income and any other related issues if Jane were to die. Their mortgage is covered

by a term assurance policy but neither of them have made any pension contributions or carried out any other long

term financial planning.

Jane has estimated that her annual after tax income from Speak Write Ltd, on the assumption that she extracts all of

the company’s profits, will be £58,000. Charles owns two investment properties that together generate after tax

income of £8,500. He estimates that he could earn £28,000 after tax if he were to return to work.

The couple’s annual surplus income, after payment of all household expenditure including mortgage payments of

£900 per month, is £21,000. Charles and Jane have no other sources of income.


(a) Write a letter to Jane setting out:

(i) the arguments that HMRC could put forward, based only on the facts set out above, in support of

applying the IR 35 legislation to Speak Write Ltd; and

(ii) the additional income tax and national insurance contributions that would be payable, together with

their due date of payment, if HMRC applied the IR 35 legislation to all of the company’s income in

2006/07. (11 marks)



(c) At 1 June 2006, Router held a 25% shareholding in a film distribution company, Wireless, a public limited

company. On 1 January 2007, Router sold a 15% holding in Wireless thus reducing its investment to a 10%

holding. Router no longer exercises significant influence over Wireless. Before the sale of the shares the net asset

value of Wireless on 1 January 2007 was $200 million and goodwill relating to the acquisition of Wireless was

$5 million. Router received $40 million for its sale of the 15% holding in Wireless. At 1 January 2007, the fair

value of the remaining investment in Wireless was $23 million and at 31 May 2007 the fair value was

$26 million. (6 marks)


Discuss how the above items should be dealt with in the group financial statements of Router for the year ended

31 May 2007.Required:

Discuss how the above items should be dealt with in the group financial statements of Router for the year ended

31 May 2007.

(c) The investment in Wireless is currently accounted for using the equity method of accounting under IAS28 ‘Investments in
Associates’. On the sale of a 15% holding, the investment in Wireless will be accounted for in accordance with IAS39. Router
should recognise a gain on the sale of the holding in Wireless of $7 million (Working 1). The gain comprises the following:
(i) the difference between the sale proceeds and the proportion of the net assets sold and
(ii) the goodwill disposed of.
The total gain is shown in the income statement.
The remaining 10 per cent investment will be classified as an ‘available for sale’ financial asset or at ‘fair value through profit
or loss’ financial asset. Changes in fair value for these categories are reported in equity or in the income statement respectively.
At 1 January 2007, the investment will be recorded at fair value and a gain of $1 million $(23 – 22) recorded. At 31 May
2007 a further gain of $(26 – 23) million, i.e. $3 million will be recorded. In order for the investment to be categorised as
at fair value through profit or loss, certain conditions have to be fulfilled. An entity may use this designation when doing so
results in more relevant information by eliminating or significantly reducing a measurement or recognition inconsistency (an
‘accounting mismatch’) or where a group of financial assets and/or financial liabilities is managed and its performance is
evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy, and information
about the assets and/ or liabilities is provided internally to the entity’s key management personnel.

(c) Identify and discuss the implications for the audit report if:

(i) the directors refuse to disclose the note; (4 marks)

(c) (i) Audit report implications
Audit procedures have shown that there is a significant level of doubt over Dexter Co’s going concern status. IAS 1
requires that disclosure is made in the financial statements regarding material uncertainties which may cast significant
doubt on the ability of the entity to continue as a going concern. If the directors refuse to disclose the note to the financial
statements, there is a clear breach of financial reporting standards.
In this case the significant uncertainty is caused by not knowing the extent of the future availability of finance needed
to fund operating activities. If the note describing this uncertainty is not provided, the financial statements are not fairly
The audit report should contain a qualified or an adverse opinion due to the disagreement. The auditors need to make
a decision as to the significance of the non-disclosure. If it is decided that without the note the financial statements are
not fairly presented, and could be considered misleading, an adverse opinion should be expressed. Alternatively, it could
be decided that the lack of the note is material, but not pervasive to the financial statements; then a qualified ‘except
for’ opinion should be expressed.
ISA 570 Going Concern and ISA 701 Modifications to the Independent Auditor’s Report provide guidance on the
presentation of the audit report in the case of a modification. The audit report should include a paragraph which contains
specific reference to the fact that there is a material uncertainty that may cast significant doubt about the entity’s ability
to continue as a going concern. The paragraph should include a clear description of the uncertainties and would
normally be presented immediately before the opinion paragraph.

(b) The Sarbanes-Oxley Act contains provisions for the attestation (verification) and reporting to shareholders of

internal controls over financial reporting.


Describe the typical contents of an external report on internal controls. (8 marks)

(b) Internal control statement
The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) guidelines are to disclose in the annual report as follows:
A statement of management’s responsibility for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting
for the company. This will always include the nature and extent of involvement by the chairman and chief executive, but may
also specify the other members of the board involved in the internal controls over financial reporting. The purpose is for
shareholders to be clear about who is accountable for the controls.
A statement identifying the framework used by management to evaluate the effectiveness of this internal control. This will
usually involve a description of the key metrics, measurement methods (e.g. rates of compliance, fair value measures, etc)
and tolerances allowed within these. Within a rules-based environment, these are likely to be underpinned by law.
Management’s assessment of the effectiveness of this internal control as at the end of the company’s most recent fiscal year.
This may involve reporting on rates of compliance, failures, costs, resources committed and outputs (if measurable) achieved.
A statement that its auditor has issued an attestation report on management’s assessment. Any qualification to the attestation
should be reported in this statement.
Tutorial note: guidance from other corporate governance codes is also acceptable.

(b) Calculate the taxable benefit in 2005/06 if Jan were to use the accommodation offered by his employer. You

may assume that the rules for calculating benefits are the same as in 2004/05. (3 marks)

(b) Benefit – accommodation
If Jan accepts the offer, he will occupy the building for a period of eight months in the tax year 2005/06 (from 6 August 2005
– 5 April 2006). The benefit will last for six months.
The taxable benefit is the higher of:
(i) The rent borne by the company                                                      = 600 x 6 = 3,600
(ii) The annual (rateable) value                                                            = 6,000 x 6/12 = 3,000
i.e. £3,600.
In addition, as the property costs in excess of £75,000, an additional benefit arises. The excess is subject to the official rate
of interest, and is calculated as follows:
(155,000 – 75,000) x 5% = 4,000 x 6/12                                         = 2,000
Total taxable benefit is £3,600 + £2,000 = £5,600.
Tutorial note: strictly speaking the additional charge does not apply if the expensive property is rented rather than owned –
therefore the above answer, whilst the most commonly given is not technically correct. One mark was awarded if the
additional benefit calculation was performed as shown above and an alternative one mark was awarded if the additional
benefit was not calculated for the correct technical reason.

(ii) Explain the income tax (IT), national insurance (NIC) and capital gains tax (CGT) implications arising on

the grant to and exercise by an employee of an option to buy shares in an unapproved share option

scheme and on the subsequent sale of these shares. State clearly how these would apply in Henry’s

case. (8 marks)

(ii) Exercising of share options
The share option is not part of an approved scheme, and will not therefore enjoy the benefits of such a scheme. There
are three events with tax consequences – grant, exercise and sale.
Grant. If shares or options over shares are sold or granted at less than market value, an income tax charge can arise on
the difference between the price paid and the market value. [Weight v Salmon]. In addition, if options can be exercised
more than 10 years after the date of the grant, an employment income charge can arise. This is based on the market
value at the date of grant less the grant and exercise priced.
In Henry’s case, the options were issued with an exercise price equal to the then market value, and cannot be exercised
more than 10 years from the grant. No income tax charge therefore arises on grant.
Exercise. On exercise, the individual pays the agreed amount in return for a number of shares in the company. The price
paid is compared with the open market value at that time, and if less, the difference is charged to income tax. National
insurance also applies, and the company has to pay Class 1 NIC. If the company and shareholder agree, the national
insurance can be passed onto the individual, and the liability becomes a deductible expense in calculating the income
tax charge.
In Henry’s case on exercise, the difference between market value (£14) and the price paid (£1) per share will be taxed
as income. Therefore, £130,000 (10,000 x (£14 – £1)) will be taxed as income. In addition, national insurance will
be chargeable on the company at 12·8% (£16,640) and on Henry at the rate of 1% (£1,300).
Sale. The base cost of the shares is taken to be the market value at the time of exercise. On the sale of the shares, any
gain or loss arising falls under the capital gains tax rules, and CGT will be payable on any gain. Business asset taper
relief will be available as the company is an unquoted trading company, but the relief will only run from the time that
the share options are exercised – i.e. from the time when the shares were acquired.
In Henry’s case, the sale of the shares will immediately follow the exercise of the option (6 days later). The sale proceeds
and the market value at the time of exercise are likely to be similar; thus little to no gain is likely to arise.

2022ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选7节 第2节

There has been significant divergence in practice over recognition of revenue mainly because International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) have contained limited guidance in certain areas. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) as a result of the joint project with the US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has issued IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers. IFRS 15 sets out a five-step model, which applies to revenue earned from a contract with a customer with limited exceptions, regardless of the type of revenue transaction or the industry. Step one in the five-step model requires the identification of the contract with the customer and is critical for the purpose of applying the standard. The remaining four steps in the standard’s revenue recognition model are irrelevant if the contract does not fall within the scope of IFRS 15.


(a) (i) Discuss the criteria which must be met for a contract with a customer to fall within the scope of IFRS 15. (5 marks)

(ii) Discuss the four remaining steps which lead to revenue recognition after a contract has been identified as falling within the scope of IFRS 15. (8 marks)

(b) (i) Tang enters into a contract with a customer to sell an existing printing machine such that control of the printing machine vests with the customer in two years’ time. The contract has two payment options. The customer can pay $240,000 when the contract is signed or $300,000 in two years’ time when the customer gains control of the printing machine. The interest rate implicit in the contract is 11·8% in order to adjust for the risk involved in the delay in payment. However, Tang’s incremental borrowing rate is 5%. The customer paid $240,000 on 1 December 2014 when the contract was signed. (4 marks)

(ii) Tang enters into a contract on 1 December 2014 to construct a printing machine on a customer’s premises for a promised consideration of $1,500,000 with a bonus of $100,000 if the machine is completed within 24 months. At the inception of the contract, Tang correctly accounts for the promised bundle of goods and services as a single performance obligation in accordance with IFRS 15. At the inception of the contract, Tang expects the costs to be $800,000 and concludes that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised will occur. Completion of the printing machine is highly susceptible to factors outside of Tang’s influence, mainly issues with the supply of components.

At 30 November 2015, Tang has satisfied 65% of its performance obligation on the basis of costs incurred to date and concludes that the variable consideration is still constrained in accordance with IFRS 15. However, on 4 December 2015, the contract is modified with the result that the fixed consideration and expected costs increase by $110,000 and $60,000 respectively. The time allowable for achieving the bonus is extended by six months with the result that Tang concludes that it is highly probable that the bonus will be achieved and that the contract still remains a single performance obligation. Tang has an accounting year end of 30 November. (6 marks)


Discuss how the above two contracts should be accounted for under IFRS 15. (In the case of (b)(i), the discussion should include the accounting treatment up to 30 November 2016 and in the case of (b)(ii), the accounting treatment up to 4 December 2015.)

Note: The mark allocation is shown against each of the items above.

Professional marks will be awarded in question 4 for clarity and quality of presentation. (2 marks)


(a) (i) The definition of what constitutes a contract for the purpose of applying the standard is critical. The definition of contract is based on the definition of a contract in the USA and is similar to that in IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation. A contract exists when an agreement between two or more parties creates enforceable rights and obligations between those parties. The agreement does not need to be in writing to be a contract but the decision as to whether a contractual right or obligation is enforceable is considered within the context of the relevant legal framework of a jurisdiction. Thus, whether a contract is enforceable will vary across jurisdictions. The performance obligation could include promises which result in a valid expectation that the entity will transfer goods or services to the customer even though those promises are not legally enforceable.

The first criteria set out in IFRS 15 is that the parties should have approved the contract and are committed to perform. their respective obligations. It would be questionable whether that contract is enforceable if this were not the case. In the case of oral or implied contracts, this may be difficult but all relevant facts and circumstances should be considered in assessing the parties’ commitment. The parties need not always be committed to fulfilling all of the obligations under a contract. IFRS 15 gives the example where a customer is required to purchase a minimum quantity of goods but past experience shows that the customer does not always do this and the other party does not enforce their contract rights. However, there needs to be evidence that the parties are substantially committed to the contract.

It is essential that each party’s rights and the payment terms can be identified regarding the goods or services to be transferred. This latter requirement is the key to determining the transaction price.

The contract must have commercial substance before revenue can be recognised, as without this requirement, entities might artificially inflate their revenue and it would be questionable whether the transaction has economic consequences. Further, it should be probable that the entity will collect the consideration due under the contract. An assessment of a customer’s credit risk is an important element in deciding whether a contract has validity but customer credit risk does not affect the measurement or presentation of revenue. The consideration may be different to the contract price because of discounts and bonus offerings. The entity should assess the ability of the customer to pay and the customer’s intention to pay the consideration. If a contract with a customer does not meet these criteria, the entity can continually re-assess the contract to determine whether it subsequently meets the criteria.

Two or more contracts which are entered into around the same time with the same customer may be combined and accounted for as a single contract, if they meet the specified criteria. The standard provides detailed requirements for contract modifications. A modification may be accounted for as a separate contract or a modification of the original contract, depending upon the circumstances of the case.

(ii) Step one in the five-step model requires the identification of the contract with the customer. After a contract has been determined to fall under IFRS 15, the following steps are required before revenue can be recognised.

Step two requires the identification of the separate performance obligations in the contract. This is often referred to as ’unbundling’, and is done at the beginning of a contract. The key factor in identifying a separate performance obligation is the distinctiveness of the good or service, or a bundle of goods or services. A good or service is distinct if the customer can benefit from the good or service on its own or together with other readily available resources and is separately identifiable from other elements of the contract. IFRS 15 requires a series of distinct goods or services which are substantially the same with the same pattern of transfer, to be regarded as a single performance obligation. A good or service, which has been delivered, may not be distinct if it cannot be used without another good or service which has not yet been delivered. Similarly, goods or services which are not distinct should be combined with other goods or services until the entity identifies a bundle of goods or services which is distinct. IFRS 15 provides indicators rather than criteria to determine when a good or service is distinct within the context of the contract. This allows management to apply judgement to determine the separate performance obligations which best reflect the economic substance of a transaction.

Step three requires the entity to determine the transaction price, which is the amount of consideration which an entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for the promised goods or services. This amount excludes amounts collected on behalf of a third party, for example, government taxes. An entity must determine the amount of consideration to which it expects to be entitled in order to recognise revenue.

The transaction price might include variable or contingent consideration. Variable consideration should be estimated as either the expected value or the most likely amount. Management should use the approach which it expects will best predict the amount of consideration and should be applied consistently throughout the contract. An entity can only include variable consideration in the transaction price to the extent that it is highly probable that a subsequent change in the estimated variable consideration will not result in a significant revenue reversal. If it is not appropriate to include all of the variable consideration in the transaction price, the entity should assess whether it should include part of the variable consideration. However, this latter amount still has to pass the ’revenue reversal’ test.

Additionally, an entity should estimate the transaction price taking into account non-cash consideration, consideration payable to the customer and the time value of money if a significant financing component is present. The latter is not required if the time period between the transfer of goods or services and payment is less than one year. If an entity anticipates that it may ultimately accept an amount lower than that initially promised in the contract due to, for example, past experience of discounts given, then revenue would be estimated at the lower amount with the collectability of that lower amount being assessed. Subsequently, if revenue already recognised is not collectable, impairment losses should be taken to profit or loss.

Step four requires the allocation of the transaction price to the separate performance obligations. The allocation is based on the relative standalone selling prices of the goods or services promised and is made at inception of the contract. It is not adjusted to reflect subsequent changes in the standalone selling prices of those goods or services. The best evidence of standalone selling price is the observable price of a good or service when the entity sells that good or service separately. If that is not available, an estimate is made by using an approach which maximises the use of observable inputs. For example, expected cost plus an appropriate margin or the assessment of market prices for similar goods or services adjusted for entity-specific costs and margins or in limited circumstances a residual approach. When a contract contains more than one distinct performance obligation, an entity allocates the transaction price to each distinct performance obligation on the basis of the standalone selling price.

Where the transaction price includes a variable amount and discounts, consideration needs to be given as to whether these amounts relate to all or only some of the performance obligations in the contract. Discounts and variable consideration will typically be allocated proportionately to all of the performance obligations in the contract. However, if certain conditions are met, they can be allocated to one or more separate performance obligations.

Step five requires revenue to be recognised as each performance obligation is satisfied. An entity satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control of a promised good or service to the customer, which could occur over time or at a point in time. The definition of control includes the ability to prevent others from directing the use of and obtaining the benefits from the asset. A performance obligation is satisfied at a point in time unless it meets one of three criteria set out in IFRS 15. Revenue is recognised in line with the pattern of transfer.

If an entity does not satisfy its performance obligation over time, it satisfies it at a point in time and revenue will be recognised when control is passed at that point in time. Factors which may indicate the passing of control include the present right to payment for the asset or the customer has legal title to the asset or the entity has transferred physical possession of the asset.

(b) (i) The contract contains a significant financing component because of the length of time between when the customer pays for the asset and when Tang transfers the asset to the customer, as well as the prevailing interest rates in the market. A contract with a customer which has a significant financing component should be separated into a revenue component (for the notional cash sales price) and a loan component. Consequently, the accounting for a sale arising from a contract which has a significant financing component should be comparable to the accounting for a loan with the same features. An entity should use the discount rate which would be reflected in a separate financing transaction between the entity and its customer at contract inception. The interest rate implicit in the transaction may be different from the rate to be used to discount the cash flows, which should be the entity’s incremental borrowing rate. IFRS 15 would therefore dictate that the rate which should be used in adjusting the promised consideration is 5%, which is the entity’s incremental borrowing rate, and not 11·8%.

Tang would account for the significant financing component as follows:

Recognise a contract liability for the $240,000 payment received on 1 December 2014 at the contract inception:

Dr Cash $240,000
Cr Contract liability $240,000

During the two years from contract inception (1 December 2014) until the transfer of the printing machine, Tang adjusts the amount of consideration and accretes the contract liability by recognising interest on $240,000 at 5% for two years.

Year to 30 November 2015
Dr Interest expense $12,000
Cr Contract liability $12,000

Contract liability would stand at $252,000 at 30 November 2015.

Year to 30 November 2016
Dr Interest expense $12,600
Cr Contract liability $12,600

Recognition of contract revenue on transfer of printing machine at 30 November 2016 of $264,600 by debiting contract liability and crediting revenue with this amount.

(ii) Tang accounts for the promised bundle of goods and services as a single performance obligation satisfied over time in accordance with IFRS 15. At the inception of the contract, Tang expects the following:

Transaction price $1,500,000
Expected costs $800,000
Expected profit (46·7%) $700,000

At contract inception, Tang excludes the $100,000 bonus from the transaction price because it cannot conclude that it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised will not occur. Completion of the printing machine is highly susceptible to factors outside the entity’s influence. By the end of the first year, the entity has satisfied 65% of its performance obligation on the basis of costs incurred to date. Costs incurred to date are therefore $520,000 and Tang reassesses the variable consideration and concludes that the amount is still constrained. Therefore at 30 November 2015, the following would be recognised:

Revenue $975,000
Costs $520,000
Gross profit $455,000

However, on 4 December 2015, the contract is modified. As a result, the fixed consideration and expected costs increase by $110,000 and $60,000, respectively. The total potential consideration after the modification is $1,710,000 which is $1,610,000 fixed consideration + $100,000 completion bonus. In addition, the allowable time for achieving the bonus is extended by six months with the result that Tang concludes that it is highly probable that including the bonus in the transaction price will not result in a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognised in accordance with IFRS 15. Therefore the bonus of $100,000 can be included in the transaction price. Tang also concludes that the contract remains a single performance obligation. Thus,Tang accounts for the contract modification as if it were part of the original contract. Therefore, Tang updates its estimates of costs and revenue as follows:

Tang has satisfied 60·5% of its performance obligation ($520,000 actual costs incurred compared to $860,000 total expected costs). The entity recognises additional revenue of $59,550 [(60·5% of $1,710,000) – $975,000 revenue recognised to date] at the date of the modification as a cumulative catch-up adjustment. As the contract amendment took place after the year end, the additional revenue would not be treated as an adjusting event.

(c) Briefly outline the corporation tax (CT) issues that Tay Limited should consider when deciding whether to

acquire the shares or the assets of Tagus LDA. You are not required to discuss issues relating to transfer

pricing. (7 marks)

(c) (1) Acquisition of shares
The acquisition of shares in Tagus LDA will add another associated company to the group. This may have an adverse
effect on the rates of corporation tax paid by the two existing group companies, particularly Tay Limited.
Taxation of profits
Profits will be taxed in Portugal. Any profits remitted to the UK as dividends will be taxable as Schedule D Case V income,
but will attract double tax relief. Double tax relief will be available against two types of tax suffered in Portugal. Credit
will be given for any tax withheld on payments from Tagus LDA to Tay Limited and relief will also be available for the
underlying tax as Tay Limited owns at least 10% of the voting power of Tagus LDA. The underlying tax is the tax
attributable to the relevant profits from which the dividend was paid. Double tax relief is given at the lower rate of the
UK tax and the foreign tax (withholding and underlying taxes) suffered.
As Tagus LDA is a non-UK resident company, losses arising in Tagus LDA cannot be group relieved against profits of the
two UK companies. Similarly, any UK trading losses cannot be used against profits generated by Tagus LDA.
(2) Acquisition of assets
The business of Tagus will be treated as a branch of Tay Limited i.e. an extension of the UK company’s activities. The
number of associated companies will be unaffected.
Taxation of profits
Tay Limited will be treated as having a permanent establishment in Portugal. Profits attributable to the Tagus business
will thus still be taxed in Portugal. In addition, the profits will be taxed in the UK as trading income. Double tax relief
will be available for the tax already suffered in Portugal at the lower of the two rates.
Capital allowances will be available. As the assets in question will not previously have been subject to a claim for UK
capital allowances, there will be no cost restriction and the consideration attributable to each asset will form. the basis
for the capital allowance claim.
The Tagus trade is part of Tay Limited’s trade, so any losses incurred by the Portuguese trade will automatically be offset
against the trading profits of the UK trade, and vice versa.

Under certain circumstances, profits made on transactions between members of a group need to be eliminated from the consolidated financial statements under IFRS.

Which of the following statements about intra-group profits in consolidated financial statements is/are correct?

(i) The profit made by a parent on the sale of goods to a subsidiary is only realised when the subsidiary sells the goods to a third party

(ii) Eliminating intra-group unrealised profits never affects non-controlling interests

(iii) The profit element of goods supplied by the parent to an associate and held in year-end inventory must be eliminated in full

A.(i) only

B.(i) and (ii)

C.(ii) and (iii)

D.(iii) only


(i) is the only correct elimination required by IFRS.

(c) Construct the arguments in favour of Professor Leroi’s remark that external reporting requirements on internal

controls were ‘too ambitious’ for small and medium companies. (4 marks)

(c) The external reporting requirements (from the Sarbanes-Oxley section 404) being ‘too ambitious’ for small and medium
There are several arguments to support Professor Leroi’s remark.
Fewer spare resources to carry out internal control. SMEs tend to operate with lower levels of spare resource than larger
businesses and conducting internal reviews would be more of a challenge for them.
The extra attestation fee (over and above normal audit fee) for the attestation of the internal control report could be a constraint
for many SMEs.
Lack of expertise from within existing employees (to internally audit/police as well as carry out internal activities) would be a
likely constraint.
SMEs will have fewer activities and less complexity, hence less need for shareholders to require the information (less to go

(ii) Briefly outline the tax consequences for Henry if the types of protection identified in (i) were to be

provided for him by Happy Home Ltd compared to providing them for himself. You are not required to

discuss the corporation tax (CT) consequences for Happy Home Ltd. (4 marks)

(ii) Provision of protection: company or individual
If any of the policies are taken out and paid for by Henry personally, then there will be no tax relief on the premiums,
but neither will there normally be any tax payable on the proceeds or benefits received.
If Happy Home Ltd were to pay the premiums on a policy taken out by Henry, and of which he was the direct beneficiary,
then this will constitute a benefit, on the grounds that the company will have satisfied a personal liability of Henry’s.
Accordingly, income tax and Class 1A national insurance contributions will be payable on the benefit.
If, however, Happy Home Ltd were to decide to offer protection benefits to their employees on a group basis (and not
just to Henry), then it would be possible to avoid a charge under the benefits rules and/or obtain a lower rate of premium
under a collective policy. For example:
– A death in service benefit of up to four times remuneration can be provided as part of an approved pension scheme.
No benefit charge arises on Henry and any lump sum will be paid tax free. This could be considered a substitute
for a term assurance policy.
– If a group permanent health insurance policy were taken out, no benefit charge would arise on Henry, but any
benefits payable under the policy would be paid to Happy Home Ltd in the first instance. When subsequently paid
on to Henry, such payments would be treated as arising from his employment and subject to PAYE and national
insurance as for normal salary payments.
– If a group critical illness policy were taken out, again no benefit charge would arise on Henry, but in this case also,
any benefits received by Henry directly from Happy Home Ltd as a result of the payments under the policy would
be considered as derived from his employment and subject to income tax and national insurance. Such a charge
to tax and national insurance would however be avoided if these payments were made in terms of a trust.

(ii) ‘job description’. (4 marks)

(ii) On the other hand, the job description is based on information gathered from a job analysis and defines the position and role
that has to be fulfilled. It is a statement of the component tasks, duties, objectives and standards. It describes the purpose
and relationships of the specific job together with the physical, social and economic factors which affect it. Fundamentally, it
describes the job to be done.

(b) Explain the corporation tax and value added tax (VAT) implications of the following aspects of the proposed

restructuring of the Rapier Ltd group.

(i) The immediate tax implications of the restructuring. (6 marks)

(b) The tax implications of the proposed restructuring of the Rapier Ltd group
(i) Immediate implications
Corporation tax
Rapier Ltd and its subsidiaries are in a capital gains group as Rapier Ltd owns at least 75% of the ordinary share capital
of each of the subsidiary companies. Any non-exempt items of plant and machinery owned by the subsidiaries will
therefore be transferred to Rapier Ltd at no gain, no loss.
No taxable credit or allowable debit will arise on the transfer of the subsidiaries’ goodwill to Rapier Ltd because the
companies are in a capital gains group.
The trading losses brought forward in Dirk Ltd will be transferred with the trade to Rapier Ltd as the effective ownership
of the three trades will not change (Rapier Ltd owns the subsidiaries which own the trades and, following the
restructuring, will own the three trades directly). The losses will be restricted to being offset against the future trading
profits of the Dirk trade only.
There will be no balancing adjustments in respect of the plant and machinery transferred to Rapier Ltd. Writing down
allowances will be claimed by the subsidiaries in respect of the year ending 30 June 2007 and by Rapier Ltd in respect
of future periods.
Value added tax (VAT)
No VAT should be charged on the sales of the businesses to Rapier Ltd as they are outside the scope of VAT. This is
because the trades are to be transferred as going concerns to a VAT registered person with no significant break in trading.
Switch Ltd must notify HM Revenue and Customs by 30 July 2007 that it has ceased to make taxable supplies.

(c) Define ‘market risk’ for Mr Allejandra and explain why Gluck and Goodman’s market risk exposure is

increased by failing to have an effective audit committee. (5 marks)

(c) Market risk
Definition of market risk
Market risks are those arising from any of the markets that a company operates in. Most common examples are those risks
from resource markets (inputs), product markets (outputs) or capital markets (finance).
[Tutorial note: markers should exercise latitude in allowing definitions of market risk. IFRS 7, for example, offers a technical
definition: ‘Market risk is the risk that the fair value or cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate due to changes in
market prices. Market risk reflects interest rate risk, currency risk, and other price risks’.]
Why non-compliance increases market risk
The lack of a fully compliant committee structure (such as having a non-compliant audit committee) erodes investor
confidence in the general governance of a company. This will, over time, affect share price and hence company value. Low
company value will threaten existing management (possibly with good cause in the case of Gluck and Goodman) and make
the company a possible takeover target. It will also adversely affect price-earnings and hence market confidence in Gluck and
Goodman’s shares. This will make it more difficult to raise funds from the stock market.

5 (a) IFAC’s ‘Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants’ is divided into three parts:

Part A – Applicable to All Professional Accountants

Part B – Applicable to Professional Accountants in Public Practice

Part C – Applicable to Employed Professional Accountants


Distinguish between ‘Professional Accountants’, ‘Professional Accountants in Public Practice’ and ‘Employed

Professional Accountants’. (3 marks)

(a) Professional Accountants
■ Professional Accountants are members of an IFAC member body. They may be:
– in public practice or employed professionals;
– a sole practitioner, partnership or corporate body.
■ Professional Accountants in Public Practice (‘practitioners’) are:
– each partner (or person occupying a position similar to that of a partner); and
– each employee in a practice providing professional services to a client irrespective of their functional classification
(e.g. audit, tax or consulting); and
– professional accountants in a practice having managerial responsibilities.
This term is also used to refer to a firm of professional accountants in public practice.
■ Employed Professional Accountants are professional accountants employed in industry, commerce, the public sector or

2022ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选7节 第3节

(ii) The UK value added tax (VAT) implications for Razor Ltd of selling tools to and purchasing tools from

Cutlass Inc; (2 marks)

(ii) Value added tax (VAT)
Goods exported are zero-rated. Razor Ltd must retain appropriate documentary evidence that the export has taken place.
Razor Ltd must account for VAT on the value of the goods purchased from Cutlass Inc at the time the goods are brought
into the UK. The VAT payable should be included as deductible input tax on the company’s VAT return.

(b) Misson has purchased goods from a foreign supplier for 8 million euros on 31 July 2006. At 31 October 2006,

the trade payable was still outstanding and the goods were still held by Misson. Similarly Misson has sold goods

to a foreign customer for 4 million euros on 31 July 2006 and it received payment for the goods in euros on

31 October 2006. Additionally Misson had purchased an investment property on 1 November 2005 for

28 million euros. At 31 October 2006, the investment property had a fair value of 24 million euros. The company

uses the fair value model in accounting for investment properties.

Misson would like advice on how to treat these transactions in the financial statements for the year ended 31

October 2006. (7 marks)


Discuss the accounting treatment of the above transactions in accordance with the advice required by the


(Candidates should show detailed workings as well as a discussion of the accounting treatment used.)

(b) Inventory, Goods sold and Investment property
The inventory and trade payable initially would be recorded at 8 million euros ÷ 1·6, i.e. $5 million. At the year end, the
amount payable is still outstanding and is retranslated at 1 dollar = 1·3 euros, i.e. $6·2 million. An exchange loss of
$(6·2 – 5) million, i.e. $1·2 million would be reported in profit or loss. The inventory would be recorded at $5 million at the
year end unless it is impaired in value.
The sale of goods would be recorded at 4 million euros ÷ 1·6, i.e. $2·5 million as a sale and as a trade receivable. Payment
is received on 31 October 2006 in euros and the actual value of euros received will be 4 million euros ÷ 1·3,
i.e. $3·1 million.
Thus a gain on exchange of $0·6 million will be reported in profit or loss.
The investment property should be recognised on 1 November 2005 at 28 million euros ÷ 1·4, i.e. $20 million. At
31 October 2006, the property should be recognised at 24 million euros ÷ 1·3, i.e. $18·5 million. The decrease in fair value
should be recognised in profit and loss as a loss on investment property. The property is a non-monetary asset and any foreign
currency element is not recognised separately. When a gain or loss on a non-monetary item is recognised in profit or loss,
any exchange component of that gain or loss is also recognised in profit or loss. If any gain or loss is recognised in equity ona non-monetary asset, any exchange gain is also recognised in equity.

(c) Calculate the expected corporation tax liability of Dovedale Ltd for the year ending 31 March 2007 on the

assumption that all available reliefs are claimed by Dovedale Ltd but that Hira Ltd will not claim any capital

allowances in that year. (4 marks)



(b) Both divisions have recognised the need for a strategic alliance to help them achieve a successful entry into

European markets.

Critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the divisions using strategic alliances to develop their

respective businesses in Europe. (15 marks)

(b) Johnson, Scholes and Whittington define a strategic alliance as ‘where two or more organisations share resources and
activities to pursue a strategy’. There are a number of types of alliance ranging from a formal joint venture through to networks
where there is collaboration but no formal agreement. The type of strategic alliance will be affected by how quickly market
conditions are changing – swift rates of change may require flexible less formal types of alliance and determine whether
specific dedicated resources are required or whether the partners can use existing resources. Johnson, Scholes and
Whittington argue that for an alliance to be successful there needs to be a clear strategic purpose and senior management
support; compatibility between the partners at all levels – this may be complicated if it is a cross-border alliance; time spent
defining and meeting performance expectations including clear goals, governance and organisational arrangements; and
finally trust both in terms of respective competences and trustworthiness.

Paper 3.5
Paper 3.5
The advantages that may be gained by a successful strategic alliance include creating a joint operation that has a ‘critical
mass’ that may lead to lower costs or an improved offer to the customer. It may also allow each partner to specialise in areas
where they have a particular advantage or competence. Interestingly, alliances are often entered into where a company is
seeking to enter new geographical markets, as is the case with both divisions. The partner brings local knowledge and
expertise in distribution, marketing and customer support. A good strategic alliance will also enable the partners to learn from
one another and develop competences that may be used in other markets. Often firms looking to develop an e-business will
use an alliance with a partner with experience in website development. Once its e-business is up and running a firm may
eventually decide to bring the website design skills in-house and acquire the partner.
Disadvantages of alliances range from over-dependence on the partner, not developing own core competences and a tendency
for them not to have a defined end date. Clearly there is a real danger of the partner eventually becoming a competitor.
In assessing the suitability for each division in using a strategic alliance to enter European markets one clearly has to analyse
the very different positions of the divisions in terms of what they can offer a potential partner. The earlier analysis suggests
that the Shirtmaster division may have the greater difficulty in attracting a partner. One may seriously question the feasibility
of using the Shirtmaster brand in Europe and the competences the division has in terms of manufacturing and selling to large
numbers of small independent UK clothing retailers would seem inappropriate to potential European partners. Ironically, if
the management consultant recommends that the Shirtmaster division sources some or all of its shirts from low cost
manufacturers in Europe this may provide a reason for setting up an alliance with such a manufacturer.
The prospects of developing a strategic alliance in the Corporate Clothing division are much more favourable. The division
has developed a value added service for its corporate customers, indeed its relationship with its customers can be seen as a
relatively informal network or alliance and there seems every chance this could be replicated with large corporate customers
in Europe. Equally, there may be European workwear companies looking to grow and develop who would welcome sharingthe Corporate Clothing division’s expertise.

(ii) Calculate her income tax (IT) and national insurance (NIC) payable for the year of assessment 2006/07.

(4 marks)



3 An organisation has decided to compare the benefits of promoting existing staff with those of appointing external

candidates and to assess whether the use of external recruitment consultants is appropriate.


(a) Describe the advantages of internal promotion. (5 marks)

3 All organisations rely upon their staff for success. However, recruitment of staff can be time consuming; a drain on resources and the necessary expertise may not exist within the organisation.
(a) Internal promotion describes the situation where an organisation has an explicit policy to promote from within and where there is a clear and transparent career structure. This is typical of many professional bodies, large organisations and public services.
The advantages of internal promotion are that it acts as a source of motivation, provides good general morale amongst employees and illustrates the organisation’s commitment to encouraging advancement. Recruitment is expensive and internal promotion is relatively inexpensive in terms of time, money and induction costs and since staff seeking promotion are known to the employer, training costs are minimised. Finally, the culture of the organisation is better understood by the individual.

(b) Criticise the internal control and internal audit arrangements at Gluck and Goodman as described in the case

scenario. (10 marks)

(b) Criticisms
The audit committee is chaired by an executive director. One of the most important roles of an audit committee is to review
and monitor internal controls. An executive director is not an independent person and so having Mr Chester as chairman
undermines the purpose of the committee as far as its role in governance is concerned.
Mr Chester, the audit committee chairman, considers only financial controls to be important and undermines the purpose of
the committee as far as its role in governance is concerned. There is no recognition of other risks and there is a belief that
management accounting can provide all necessary information. This viewpoint fails to recognise the importance of other
control mechanisms such as technical and operational controls.
Mr Hardanger’s performance was trusted without supporting evidence because of his reputation as a good manager. An audit
committee must be blind to reputation and treat all parts of the business equally. All functions can be subject to monitor and
review without ‘fear or favour’ and the complexity of the production facility makes it an obvious subject of frequent attention.
The audit committee does not enjoy the full support of the non-executive chairman, Mr Allejandra. On the contrary in fact,
he is sceptical about its value. In most situations, the audit committee reports to the chairman and so it is very important
that the chairman protects the audit committee from criticism from executive colleagues, which is unlikely given the situation
at Gluck and Goodman.
There is no internal auditor to report to the committee and hence no flow of information upon which to make control decisions.
Internal auditors are the operational ‘arms’ of an audit committee and without them, the audit committee will have little or no
relevant data upon which to monitor and review control systems in the company.
The ineffectiveness of the internal audit could increase the cost of the external audit. If external auditors view internal controls
as weak they would be likely to require increased attention to audit trails, etc. that would, in turn, increase cost.

(b) Describe the principal matters that should be included in your firm’s submission to provide internal audit

services to RBG. (10 marks)

(b) Principal matters to be included in submission to provide internal audit services
■ Introduction/background – details about York including its organisation (of functions), offices (locations) and number of
internal auditors working within each office. The office that would be responsible for managing the contract should be
■ A description of York’s services most relevant to RBG’s needs (e.g. in the areas of risk management, IT audits, value for
money (VFM) and corporate governance).
■ Client-specific issues identified. For example, revenue audits will be required routinely for control purposes and to
substantiate the contingent rents due. Other areas of expertise that RBG may be interested in taking advantage of, for
example, special projects such as acquisitions and mergers.
■ York’s approach to assessing audit needs including the key stages and who will be involved. For example:
(1) Preliminary – review of business, industry and the entity’s operating characteristics
(2) Planning – including needs analysis and co-ordination with external audit plan
(3) Post-Audit – assurance that activities were effectively and efficiently executed
(4) Review – of services provided, reports issued and management’s responses.
■ A description of internal audit tools used and methodologies/approach to audit fieldwork including use of embedded
audit software and programs developed by York.
■ A description of York’s systems-based audit, the IT issues to be addressed and the technological support that can be
■ Any training that will be offered to RBG’s managers and staff, for example, in a risk management approach.
■ A description and quantity of resources, in particular the number of full-time staff, to be deployed in providing services
to RBG. An outline of RBG’s track record in human resource retention and development.
■ Relevant experience – e.g. in internal and external audit in the retail industry. The relative qualifications and skills of
each grade of audit staff and the contract manager in particular.
■ Insurance certifications covering, for example, public liability and professional indemnity insurance.
■ Work ethic policies relating to health and safety, equal opportunities’ and race relations.
■ How York ensures quality throughout the internal audit process including standards to be followed (e.g. Institute of
Internal Auditors’ standards).
■ Sample report templates – e.g. for reporting the results of risk analysis, audit plans and quarterly reporting of findings
to the Audit and Risk Management Committee.
■ Current clients to whom internal audit services are provided from whom RBG will be able to take up references, by
arrangement, if York is short-listed.
■ Any work currently carried out/competed for that could cause a conflict of interest (and the measures to avoid such
■ Fees (daily rates) for each grade of staff and travel and other expenses to be reimbursed. An indication of price increases,
if any, over the three-year contract period. Invoicing terms (e.g. on presentation of reports) and payment terms (e.g. the
end of the month following receipt of the invoice).
■ Performance targets to be met such as deadlines for completing work and submitting and issuing reports.

(d) Advise on any lifetime inheritance tax (IHT) planning that could be undertaken in respect of both Stuart and

Rebecca to help reduce the potential inheritance tax (IHT) liability calculated in (c) above. (7 marks)

Relevant retail price index figures are:

May 1994 144·7

April 1998 162·6

(d) Stuart is not making use of his nil rate band, as all assets are transferred, exempt from inheritance tax (IHT), to Rebecca (as
spouse) on death. He should consider altering his will to transfer an amount equivalent to the nil rate band to his son, Sam.
If Stuart dies before altering his will, Rebecca can elect to make a Deed of Variation in favour of Sam instead. This will have
the same effect as the above.
Care should be taken in determining which assets are subject to this legacy. The Omega plc shares should not be transferred
to Sam as they currently attract 50% BPR. Instead, assets not subject to any reliefs (such as the insurance payout or cash
deposits) should be used instead. By doing this, IHT of £105,200 (£263,000 x 40%) could be saved on the ultimate death
of Rebecca.
It is too late for Stuart to make use of potentially exempt transfers (PETs) as no relief is obtained until three years have passed,
and full relief only occurs seven years after making the gifts. The same would also apply to Rebecca if she were to die on 1
March 2008. However, as she is currently in good health, she may decide to make lifetime gifts, although she should also
not gift the Omega plc shares for the reasons stated above as any gift other than of the entire holding will result in the loss
of BPR on the remainder.
Both individuals should make use of their annual exemptions (£3,000 per person per year). The annual exemptions not used
up in the previous year can be used in this current year. This would give a saving of £2,400 each (3,000 x 2 x 40%).
Exemptions for items such as small gifts (£250 per donee per year) are also available.
Gifts out of normal income should also be considered. After making such gifts, the individual should be left with sufficient
income to maintain their usual standard of living. To obtain the exemption, it is usually necessary to demonstrate general
evidence of a prior commitment to make the gifts, or a settled pattern of expenditure.
While there are no details of income, both Stuart and Rebecca are wealthy in their own right, and are likely to earn reasonable
sums from their investments. They should therefore be able to satisfy the conditions on that basis.
If Rebecca were to make substantial lifetime gifts, the donees would be advised to consider taking out insurance policies on
Rebecca’s life to cover the potential tax liabilities that may arise on any PETs in the event of her early death.
Tutorial note: the answer has assumed that the shares could be bought for £2·10, their value for IHT.

2022ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选7节 第4节

(b) Describe with suitable calculations how the goodwill arising on the acquisition of Briars will be dealt with in

the group financial statements and how the loan to Briars should be treated in the financial statements of

Briars for the year ended 31 May 2006. (9 marks)


(b) IAS21 ‘The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates’ requires goodwill arising on the acquisition of a foreign operation
and fair value adjustments to acquired assets and liabilities to be treated as belonging to the foreign operation. They should
be expressed in the functional currency of the foreign operation and translated at the closing rate at each balance sheet date.
Effectively goodwill is treated as a foreign currency asset which is retranslated at the closing rate. In this case the goodwillarising on the acquisition of Briars would be treated as follows:

At 31 May 2006, the goodwill will be retranslated at 2·5 euros to the dollar to give a figure of $4·4 million. Therefore this
will be the figure for goodwill in the balance sheet and an exchange loss of $1·4 million recorded in equity (translation
reserve). The impairment of goodwill will be expensed in profit or loss to the value of $1·2 million. (The closing rate has been
used to translate the impairment; however, there may be an argument for using the average rate.)
The loan to Briars will effectively be classed as a financial liability measured at amortised cost. It is the default category for
financial liabilities that do not meet the definition of financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. For most entities,
most financial liabilities will fall into this category. When a financial liability is recognised initially in the balance sheet, the
liability is measured at fair value. Fair value is the amount for which a liability can be settled, between knowledgeable, willing
parties in an arm’s length transaction. In other words, fair value is an actual or estimated transaction price on the reporting
date for a transaction taking place between unrelated parties that have adequate information about the asset or liability being
Since fair value is a market transaction price, on initial recognition fair value generally is assumed to equal the amount of
consideration paid or received for the financial asset or financial liability. Accordingly, IAS39 specifies that the best evidence
of the fair value of a financial instrument at initial recognition generally is the transaction price. However for longer-term
receivables or payables that do not pay interest or pay a below-market interest, IAS39 does require measurement initially at
the present value of the cash flows to be received or paid.
Thus in Briars financial statements the following entries will be made:

(c) State one advantage to a business of keeping its working capital cycle as short as possible.

(2 Marks)

(c) The advantage to a company of keeping its working capital cycle short is that fewer resources are tied up in working capital,
thus freeing them for other purposes.
(Other answers considered on their merits)

(b) Calculate the amount of input tax that will be recovered by Vostok Ltd in respect of the new premises in the

year ending 31 March 2009 and explain, using illustrative calculations, how any additional recoverable input

tax will be calculated in future years. (5 marks)

(b) Recoverable input tax in respect of new premises
Vostok Ltd will recover £47,880 (£446,500 x 7/47 x 72%) in the year ending 31 March 2009.
The capital goods scheme will apply to the purchase of the building because it is to cost more than £250,000. Under the
scheme, the total amount of input tax recovered reflects the use of the building over the period of ownership, up to a maximum
of ten years, rather than merely the year of purchase.
Further input tax will be recovered in future years as the percentage of exempt supplies falls. (If the percentage of exempt
supplies were to rise, Vostok Ltd would have to repay input tax to HMRC.)
The additional recoverable input tax will be computed by reference to the percentage of taxable supplies in each year including
the year of sale. For example, if the percentage of taxable supplies in a particular subsequent year were to be 80%, the
additional recoverable input tax would be computed as follows.
£446,500 x 7/47 x 1/10 x (80% – 72%) = £532.
Further input tax will be recovered in the year of sale as if Vostok Ltd’s supplies in the remaining years of the ten-year period
are fully vatable. For example, if the building is sold in year seven, the additional recoverable amount for the remaining three
years will be calculated as follows.
£446,500 x 7/47 x 1/10 x (100% – 72%) x 3 = £5,586.

The following financial information relates to HGR Co:

Statement of financial position at the current date (extracts)

The finance director has completed a review of accounts receivable management and has proposed staff training and operating procedure improvements, which he believes will reduce accounts receivable days to the average sector value of 53 days. This reduction would take six months to achieve from the current date, with an equal reduction in each month. He has also proposed changes to inventory management methods, which he hopes will reduce inventory days by two days per month each month over a three-month period from the current date. He does not expect any change in the current level of accounts payable.

HGR Co has an overdraft limit of $4,000,000. Overdraft interest is payable at an annual rate of 6·17% per year, with payments being made each month based on the opening balance at the start of that month. Credit sales for the year to the current date were $49,275,000 and cost of sales was $37,230,000. These levels of credit sales and cost of sales are expected to be maintained in the coming year. Assume that there are 365 working days in each year.


(a) Discuss the working capital financing strategy of HGR Co. (7 marks)

(b) For HGR Co, calculate:

(i) the bank balance in three months’ time if no action is taken; and

(ii) the bank balance in three months’ time if the finance director’s proposals are implemented.

Comment on the forecast cash flow position of HGR Co and recommend a suitable course of action.

(10 marks)

(c) Discuss how risks arising from granting credit to foreign customers can be managed and reduced.

(8 marks)


18 Which of the following statements about accounting ratios and their interpretation are correct?

1 A low-geared company is more able to survive a downturn in profit than a highly-geared company.

2 If a company has a high price earnings ratio, this will often indicate that the market expects its profits to rise.

3 All companies should try to achieve a current ratio (current assets/current liabilities) of 2:1.

A 2 and 3 only

B 1 and 3 only

C 1 and 2 only

D All three statements are correct


6 Sergio and Gerard each inherited a half interest in a property, ‘Hilltop’, in October 2005. ‘Hilltop’ had a probate value

of £124,000, but in November 2005 it was badly damaged by fire. In January 2006 the insurance company made

a payment of £81,700 each to Sergio and Gerard. In February 2006 Sergio and Gerard each spent £55,500 of the

insurance proceeds on restoring the property. ‘Hilltop’ was worth £269,000 following the restoration work. In July

2006, Sergio and Gerard sold ‘Hilltop’ for £310,000.

Sergio is 69 years old and a widower with three adult children and seven grandchildren. His annual income consists

of a pension of £9,900 and interest of £300 on savings of £7,600 in a bank deposit account. Sergio owns his home

but no other significant assets. He plans to buy a domestic rental property with the proceeds from the sale of ‘Hilltop’,

such that on his death he will have a significant asset which can be sold and divided between the members of his


Gerard is 34 years old. He is employed by Fizz plc on a salary of £66,500 per year together with a performance

related bonus. Gerard estimates that he will receive a bonus in December 2007 of £4,500, in line with previous

years, and that his taxable benefits in the tax year 2007/08 will amount to £7,140. He also expects to receive

dividends from UK companies of £1,935 and bank interest of £648 in the tax year 2007/08. Gerard intends to set

up a personal pension plan in August 2007. He has not made any pension contributions in the past and proposes to

use part of the proceeds from the sale of ‘Hilltop’ to make the maximum possible tax allowable contribution.

Fizz plc has announced that it intends to replace the performance related bonus scheme with a share incentive plan,

also linked to performance, with effect from 6 April 2008. Gerard estimates that Fizz plc will award him free shares

worth £2,100 each year. He will also purchase partnership shares worth £700 each year and, as a result, will be

awarded matching shares (further free shares) worth £1,400.


(a) Calculate the chargeable gains arising on the receipt of the insurance proceeds in January 2006 and the sale

of ‘Hilltop’ in July 2006. You should assume that any elections necessary to minimise the gain on the receipt

of the insurance proceeds have been submitted. (4 marks)



(ii) Explain why Galileo is able to pay the inheritance tax due in instalments, state when the instalments are

due and identify any further issues relevant to Galileo relating to the payments. (3 marks)

(ii) Payment by instalments
The inheritance tax can be paid by instalments because Messier Ltd is an unquoted company controlled by Kepler at
the time of the gift and is still unquoted at the time of his death.
The tax is due in ten equal annual instalments starting on 30 November 2008.
Interest will be charged on any instalments paid late; otherwise the instalments will be interest free because Messier is
a trading company that does not deal in property or financial assets.
All of the outstanding inheritance tax will become payable if Galileo sells the shares in Messier Ltd.
Tutorial note
Candidates were also given credit for stating that payment by instalments is available because the shares represent at
least 10% of the company’s share capital and are valued at £20,000 or more.

(c) (i) State the date by which Thai Curry Ltd’s self-assessment corporation tax return for the year ended

30 September 2005 should be submitted, and advise the company of the penalties that will be due if

the return is not submitted until 31 May 2007. (3 marks)

(ii) State the date by which Thai Curry Ltd’s corporation tax liability for the year ended 30 September 2005

should be paid, and advise the company of the interest that will be due if the liability is not paid until

31 May 2007. (3 marks)


(c) Self-assessment tax return
(1) Thai Curry Ltd’s self-assessment corporation tax return for the year ended 30 September 2005 must be submitted by
30 September 2006.
(2) If the company does not submit its self-assessment tax return until 31 May 2007, then there will be an automatic fixed
penalty of £200 since the return is more than three months late.
(3) There will also be an additional corporation tax related penalty of £4,415 (44,150 × 10%) being 10% of the tax unpaid,
since the self-assessment tax return is more than six months late.
Corporation tax liability
(1) Thai Curry Ltd’s corporation tax liability for the year ended 30 September 2005 must be paid by 1 July 2006.
(2) If the company does not pay its corporation tax until 31 May 2007, then interest of £3,035 (44,150 at 7·5% = 3,311
× 11/12) will be charged by HM Revenue & Customs for the period 1 July 2006 to 31 May 2007.

(b) What research techniques could Mark use to get an accurate assessment of staff attitudes to the proposed

changes? (8 marks)

(b) As the term internal marketing implies, the methods of ascertaining staff reactions to the proposed growth strategy have close
parallels with the ways you find out about customer reaction to the company or its products. The benefits of taking a
structured research approach are considerable and often firms may prefer that attitude surveys are carried out by outside
consultants in order to improve objectivity and to remove some of the problems with Mark’s power and position. As with
external market research you are looking to see whether staff will ‘buy into’ the proposed strategy and the accurate
measurement of attitudes and consequent behaviour is very important.
Creating the framework for undertaking the research involves defining the issue to be researched – in this case staff attitudes
towards the growth strategy, designing the research methods, including the use of questionnaires and interviews, determining
the sample of staff to be involved, the use or otherwise of focus groups and ways of ensuring the data collected gives an
accurate picture of staff attitudes. The data generated must be analysed and presented to Mark in an appropriate way. How
the insights into staff attitudes are gained through the research is important, as is the communication of the results to the
staff. Mark should be aware that such research will inevitably create expectations among staff and managing those
expectations will be a test of his leadership powers.

2022ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选7节 第5节

4 (a) For this part, assume today’s date is 1 March 2006.

Bill and Ben each own 50% of the ordinary share capital in Flower Limited, an unquoted UK trading company

that makes electronic toys. Flower Limited was incorporated on 1 August 2005 with 1,000 £1 ordinary shares,

and commenced trading on the same day. The business has been successful, and the company has accumulated

a large cash balance of £180,000, which is to be used to purchase a new factory. However, Bill and Ben have

received an offer from a rival company, which they are considering. The offer provides Bill and Ben with two

alternative methods of payment for the purchase of their shares:

(i) £480,000 for the company, inclusive of the £180,000 cash balance.

(ii) £300,000 for the company assuming the cash available for the factory purchase is extracted prior to sale.

Bill and Ben each currently receive a gross salary of £3,750 per month from Flower Limited. Part of the offer

terms is that Bill and Ben would be retained as employees of the company on the same salary.

Neither Bill nor Ben has used any of their capital gains tax annual exemption for the tax year 2005/06.


(i) Calculate which of the following means of extracting the £180,000 from Flower Limited on 31 March

2006 will result in the highest after tax cash amount for Bill and Ben:

(1) payment of a dividend, or

(2) payment of a salary bonus.

You are not required to consider the corporation tax (CT) implications for Flower Limited in your

answer. (5 marks)



As a result, Bill and Ben would each be better off by £15,005 (69,142 – 54,137). If the cash were extracted by way
of dividend.
Tutorial note: In this answer the employers’ national insurance liability on the salary has been ignored. Credit would be
given to a candidate who recognised this issue.

During the year the internal auditor of Mulligan Co discovered several discrepancies in the inventory records. In a

statement made to the board of directors, the internal auditor said:

‘I think that someone is taking items from the warehouse. A physical inventory count is performed every three months,

and it has become apparent that about 200 boxes of flat-packed chairs and tables are disappearing from the

warehouse every month. We should get someone to investigate what has happened and quantify the value of the



(c) Define ‘forensic accounting’ and explain its relevance to the statement made by the internal auditor.

(5 marks)

(c) Forensic accounting is where an assurance provider investigates a specific issue, often with a legal consequence, such as a
suspected fraud. Specifically it is the process of gathering, analysing and reporting on data for the purpose of finding facts
and/or evidence in the context of financial/legal disputes and/or irregularities. The forensic accountant will also give
preventative advice based on evidence gathered. This advice is based usually on recommendations to improve the internal
control systems to prevent and detect fraud.
The relevance here is that Webb & Co are likely to be asked to provide a forensic accounting service to Mulligan Co.
The investigation will consider two issues – firstly whether the fraud actually happened, and secondly, if a fraud has taken
place, the financial value of the fraud. The investigation should determine who has perpetrated the fraud, and collect evidence
to help prosecute those involved in the deception.
In this case the suspicion that inventory is being stolen should be investigated, as there could be other reasons for the
discrepancy found in the inventory records. For example, the discrepancy could be caused by:
– Obsolete or damaged inventory thrown away but not eliminated from the inventory records
– Despatches from the warehouse not recorded in the inventory management system
– Incoming inventory being recorded incorrectly (e.g. recorded twice in the inventory management system)
– Inventory being held at a separate location and therefore not included in the count.
If it is found that thefts have taken place, then the forensic accountant should gather evidence to:
– Prove the identity of the persons involved
– Quantify the value of inventory taken.
The evidence gathered could be used to start criminal proceedings against those found to have been involved in the fraud.

(b) Comment on the need for ethical guidance for accountants on money laundering. (4 marks)

(b) Need for ethical guidance
■ Accountants (firms and individuals) working in a country that criminalises money laundering are required to comply with
anti-money laundering legislation and failure to do so can lead to severe penalties. Guidance is needed because:
– legal requirements are onerous;
– money laundering is widely defined; and
– accountants may otherwise be used, unwittingly, to launder criminal funds.
■ Accountants need ethical guidance on matters where there is conflict between legal responsibilities and professional
responsibilities. In particular, professional accountants are bound by a duty of confidentiality to their clients. Guidance
is needed to explain:
– how statutory provisions give protection against criminal action for members in respect of their confidentiality
– when client confidentiality over-ride provisions are available.
■ Further guidance is needed to explain the interaction between accountants’ responsibilities to report money laundering
offences and other reporting responsibilities, for example:
– reporting to regulators;
– auditor’s reports on financial statements (ISA 700);
– reports to those charged with governance (ISA 260);
– reporting misconduct by members of the same body.
■ Professional accountants are required to communicate with each other when there is a change in professional
appointment (i.e. ‘professional etiquette’). Additional ethical guidance is needed on how to respond to a ‘clearance’ letter
where a report of suspicion has been made (or is being contemplated) in respect of the client in question.
Tutorial note: Although the term ‘professional clearance’ is widely used, remember that there is no ‘clearance’ that the
incumbent accountant can give or withhold.
■ Ethical guidance is needed to make accountants working in countries that do not criminalise money laundering aware
of how anti-money laundering legislation may nevertheless affect them. Such accountants may commit an offence if,
for example, they conduct limited assignments or have meetings in a country having anti-money laundering legislation
(e.g. UK, Ireland, Singapore, Australia and the United States).

(b) Describe with suitable calculations how the goodwill arising on the acquisition of Briars will be dealt with in

the group financial statements and how the loan to Briars should be treated in the financial statements of

Briars for the year ended 31 May 2006. (9 marks)


(b) IAS21 ‘The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates’ requires goodwill arising on the acquisition of a foreign operation
and fair value adjustments to acquired assets and liabilities to be treated as belonging to the foreign operation. They should
be expressed in the functional currency of the foreign operation and translated at the closing rate at each balance sheet date.
Effectively goodwill is treated as a foreign currency asset which is retranslated at the closing rate. In this case the goodwillarising on the acquisition of Briars would be treated as follows:

At 31 May 2006, the goodwill will be retranslated at 2·5 euros to the dollar to give a figure of $4·4 million. Therefore this
will be the figure for goodwill in the balance sheet and an exchange loss of $1·4 million recorded in equity (translation
reserve). The impairment of goodwill will be expensed in profit or loss to the value of $1·2 million. (The closing rate has been
used to translate the impairment; however, there may be an argument for using the average rate.)
The loan to Briars will effectively be classed as a financial liability measured at amortised cost. It is the default category for
financial liabilities that do not meet the definition of financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. For most entities,
most financial liabilities will fall into this category. When a financial liability is recognised initially in the balance sheet, the
liability is measured at fair value. Fair value is the amount for which a liability can be settled, between knowledgeable, willing
parties in an arm’s length transaction. In other words, fair value is an actual or estimated transaction price on the reporting
date for a transaction taking place between unrelated parties that have adequate information about the asset or liability being
Since fair value is a market transaction price, on initial recognition fair value generally is assumed to equal the amount of
consideration paid or received for the financial asset or financial liability. Accordingly, IAS39 specifies that the best evidence
of the fair value of a financial instrument at initial recognition generally is the transaction price. However for longer-term
receivables or payables that do not pay interest or pay a below-market interest, IAS39 does require measurement initially at
the present value of the cash flows to be received or paid.
Thus in Briars financial statements the following entries will be made:

(b) Explain the major benefits of pursuing a policy of internal development. (4 marks)

(b) The major benefits of pursuing a policy of internal development that may accrue to Taliesin Ltd are as follows:
– By confining their activities to its internal environment the company avoids the need to manage the integration of
businesses which is necessitated by an acquisition. Management teams, when considering the acquisition of another
organisation, very often underestimate the costs of integration.
– There is no need for the board of directors of Taliesin Ltd to familiarise itself with different organisational and national
cultures, values etc, thereby avoiding many potential problems.
– The board of directors of Taliesin Ltd is better able to control the activities of the business and the need for more complex
supply chains and strategic alliances with foreign organisations is rendered unnecessary.
– All investments are made at market price whereas if the board of directors was to attempt to grow the business
acquisition then significant outlays would probably be made in respect of purchased goodwill.
– As the organisation develops and expands, staff are provided with development and learning activities that may
precipitate an increase in the level of their commitment to the organisation.

(b) Explain in the context of Flavours Fine Foods, what is meant by:

(i) responsibility; (4 marks)

(b) (i) RESPONSIBILITY is the liability of a person to be called to account for their actions and results, and is therefore an obligation to take some action to discharge that responsibility. Unlike authority, responsibility cannot be delegated. There is however some discussion on the extent to which this statement is true: the idea that responsibility cannot be delegated is too simplistic. Any task contains an element of responsibility. It is the idea of accountability and the direction of responsibility that is the relevant concept and is the problem at Flavours Fine Foods; ultimate responsibility resides with the owners. It is self evident that it is impossible to exercise authority without responsibility because this could lead to problems of control and therefore undesirable outcomes for the organisation. However, the superior (the owner) is always ultimately responsible for the actions of his or her subordinates. The key element here is the recognition of discretion by virtue of the person’s position. This underlines the doctrine of absolute responsibility; the superior is always ultimately accountable.

2 Which of the following are correct?

1. The balance sheet value of inventory should be as close as possible to net realisable value.

2. The valuation of finished goods inventory must include production overheads.

3. Production overheads included in valuing inventory should be calculated by reference to the company’s normal

level of production during the period.

4. In assessing net realisable value, inventory items must be considered separately, or in groups of similar items,

not by taking the inventory value as a whole.

A 1 and 2 only

B 3 and 4 only

C 1 and 3 only

D 2, 3 and 4


(d) Advise Trent Limited of the consequences arising from the submission of the incorrect value added tax (VAT)

return, assuming that the company has previously had a good compliance record with regard to accounting

for VAT. (6 marks)

(d) Default surcharge
Although the VAT return was submitted on time (i.e. within one month of the end of the tax period), part of the quarterly VAT
liability has not yet been paid. As a result this payment will be made late and a surcharge liability notice will be issued on
the company. The surcharge period will run from the date of the notice until the anniversary of the end of the period for which
the VAT was paid late (i.e. until 31 March 2007). During this period any further default will extend the surcharge period and
any further late payments of VAT will attract a surcharge penalty of 2% on the first occasion, rising to 15% for successive late
Mis-declaration penalty
As the return understates the VAT payable, a potential mis-declaration penalty arises. The amount understated exceeds 30%
of the sum of the true input tax and output tax, known as the gross amount of tax (GAT) ((30% of (87,500 + 55,000) +
40,000) = 54,750). There has, thus, been a significant understatement of the true VAT return liability, resulting in a penalty
rate of 15% of the VAT which would have been lost had the error not been discovered. However, where an under declaration
arises out of a true error i.e. there is no intention to evade tax involved, and it is voluntarily disclosed, then a mis-declaration
penalty is not normally imposed. Although the company is still within the ‘period of grace’ allowed by HMRC for the correction
of errors in the next following VAT return, it would be advisable for Trent Limited to notify HMRC of the error immediately, in
writing, unless it has a ‘reasonable excuse’ for the error having occurred.
Default interest
Default interest is chargeable when an assessment to VAT arises for an amount that has been under declared in a previous
period, whether as a result of voluntary disclosure or as identified by HMRC. Interest is charged on a daily basis from the
date the under declaration should have been declared (i.e. 1 May 2006) to the date shown on the notice of assessment or
notice of voluntary disclosure. As given the size of the error the de minimis relief for voluntarily declared errors of less than
£2,000 is not applicable, the only way for Trent Limited to minimise the interest charge is by means of early disclosure and
payment of the additional VAT due.

12 Which of the following statements are correct?

(1) Contingent assets are included as assets in financial statements if it is probable that they will arise.

(2) Contingent liabilities must be provided for in financial statements if it is probable that they will arise.

(3) Details of all adjusting events after the balance sheet date must be given in notes to the financial statements.

(4) Material non-adjusting events are disclosed by note in the financial statements.

A 1 and 2

B 2 and 4

C 3 and 4

D 1 and 3


2022ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选7节 第6节

(iii) State any disadvantages to the relief in (i) that Sharon should be aware of, and identify and describe

another relief that she might use. (4 marks)

(iii) There are several disadvantages to incorporation relief as follows:
1. The requirement to transfer all business assets to the company means that it will not be possible to leave behind
certain assets, such as the property. This might lead to a double tax charge (sale of the property, then extraction
of sale proceeds) at a future date.
2. Taper relief is lost on the transfer of the business. This means that any disposal of chargeable business assets (the
shares) within two years of the incorporation will lead to a higher chargeable gain, as the full rate of business asset
taper relief will not be available.
3. The relief does not eliminate the tax charge, it merely defers the payment of tax until some future event. The
deferred gain will become taxable when Sharon sells her shares in the company.
Gift relief could be used instead of incorporation relief. The assets would be gifted to the company for no consideration,
with the base cost of the assets to the company being reduced by the deferred gain arising. Unlike incorporation relief,
gift relief applies to individual assets used in a trade and not to an entire business. This is particularly useful if the
transferor wishes to retain some assets, such as property outside the company, as not all assets have to be transferred.
Note: If the business was non-trading, incorporation relief would still be available, but gift relief would not. However,
this restriction should not apply to Sharon and gift relief remains an option in this case.

(b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using franchising to develop La Familia Amable budget hotel

chain? (8 marks)

(b) Franchising is typically seen as a quick and cost effective way of growing the business but Ramon should be aware of both
the advantages and disadvantages of using it as the preferred method of growth. Franchised chains are argued to benefit from
the sort of brand recognition and economies of scale not enjoyed by independent owner/managers. When combined with the
high levels of motivation normally associated with owner/managed businesses, franchises can be argued to get the best of
both worlds.
Franchising is defined as ‘a contractual agreement between two legally independent companies whereby the franchisor grants
the right to the franchisee to sell the franchisor’s product or do business under its trademarks in a given location for a specified
period of time. In return, the franchisee agrees to pay the franchisor a combination of fees, usually including an up-front
franchise fee, royalties calculated as a percentage of unit revenues, and an advertising conbribution that is also usually a
percentage of unit sales.’
Ramon is considering a type of franchising called ‘business-format franchising’, where the franchisor sells a way of doing
business to its franchisees. Business-format franchising is a model frequently found in the fast food and restaurant industry,
hotels and motels, construction and maintenance, and non-food retailing. Often these franchises are labour intensive and
relatively small-scale operations.
Franchising is seen as a safer alternative to growing the business organically, so while this may be true of well established
global franchises, failure rates among franchised small businesses were greater than those of independent businesses (in one
US study a 34·7% failure rate for franchises as opposed to 28·0% for independents over a six or seven year period). Often
it is the failure of the franchisor that brings down its franchisees. Failure stems from the franchisee not only having to rely on
their own skills and enthusiasm but also the capacity of the franchisor and other franchisees to make the overall operation
The advantages to the franchisee are through gaining access to a well-regarded brand name that will generate a higher level
of demand and use of a tried and tested business model that should reduce the franchisee’s operating costs. Both of these
benefits stem from being a member of a well-established franchised system. Yet La Familia Amable along with many other
franchises will be new and small. These smaller franchises tend to be regional in scope, and fairly unknown outside their
regional market. This has a significant effect on what the franchisees can expect to gain from their franchisors and their
prospects of success. Both parties need to carefully assess the strengths and weaknesses of the system. Companies growing
via franchises need to take the time to understand their business model thoroughly and determine how franchising fits with
their long-term strategy. Care must be taken with the franchise agreement that creates a genuine partnership with the rightbalance between freedom and control over the franchisees.

5 An organisation’s goals can only be achieved through the efforts of motivated individuals.


Explain what is meant by the following terms:

(a) Hygiene factors. (8 marks)

5 Overview
Understanding what motivates people is necessary at all levels of management. It is important that professional accountants
understand the relevance of individual motivation. Unless individuals are well managed and motivated they are unlikely to cooperate
to achieve the organisation’s objectives.
Part (a):
(a) Hygiene (or maintenance) factors lead to job dissatisfaction because of the need to avoid unpleasantness. They are so called
because they can in turn be avoided by the use of ‘hygienic’ methods, that is, they can be prevented. Attention to these
hygiene factors prevents dissatisfaction but does not on its own provide motivation.
Hygiene factors (or ‘dissatisfiers’) are concerned with those factors associated with, but not directly a part of, the job itself.
Herzberg suggested that these are mainly salary and the perceived differences with others’ salaries, job security, working
conditions, the level and quality of supervision, organisational policy and administration and the nature of interpersonal
relationships. Resolution of hygiene factors, however, is short term, longer term resolution requires motivator factors.

5 A management accounting focus for performance management in an organisation may incorporate the following:

(1) the determination and quantification of objectives and strategies

(2) the measurement of the results of the strategies implemented and of the achievement of the results through a

number of determinants

(3) the application of business change techniques, in the improvement of those determinants.


(a) Discuss the meaning and inter-relationship of the terms (shown in bold type) in the above statement. Your

answer should incorporate examples that may be used to illustrate each term in BOTH profit-seeking

organisations and not-for-profit organisations in order to highlight any differences between the two types of

organisation. (14 marks)

5 (a) Objectives may be viewed as profit and market share in a profit-oriented organisation or the achievement of ‘value for money’
in a not-for-profit organisation (NFP). The overall objective of an organisation may be expressed in the wording of its mission
In order to achieve the objectives, long-term strategies will be required. In a profit-oriented organisation, this may incorporate
the evaluation of strategies that might include price reductions, product design changes, advertising campaign, product mix
change and methods changes, embracing change techniques such as BPR, JIT, TQM and ABM. In NFP situations, strategies
might address the need to achieve ‘economy’ through reduction in average cost per unit; ‘efficiency’ through maximisation of
the input:output ratio, whilst checking on ‘effectiveness’ through monitoring whether the objectives are achieved.
The annual budget will quantify the short-term results anticipated of the strategies. These results may be seen as the level of
financial performance and competitiveness achieved. This quantification may be compared with previous years and with
actual performance on an ongoing basis. Financial performance may be measured in terms of profit, liquidity, capital structure
and a range of ratios. Competitiveness may be measured by sales growth, market share and the number of new customers.
In a not-for-profit organisation, the results may be monitored by checking on the effectiveness of actions aimed at the
achievement of the objectives. For instance, the effectiveness of a University may be measured by the number of degrees
awarded and the grades achieved. The level of student ‘drop-outs’ each year may also be seen as a measure of ineffectiveness.
The determinants of results may consist of a number of measures. These may include the level of quality, customer
satisfaction, resource utilisation, innovation and flexibility that are achieved. Such determinants may focus on a range of nonfinancial
measures that may be monitored on an ongoing basis, as part of the feedback information in conjunction with
financial data.
A range of business change techniques may be used to enhance performance management.
Techniques may include:
Business process re-engineering (BPR) which involves the examination of business processes with a view to improving the
way in which each is implemented. A major focus may be on the production cycle, but it will also be applicable in areas such
as the accounting department.
Just-in-time (JIT) which requires commitment to the pursuit of ‘excellence’ in all aspects of an organisation.
Total quality management (TQM) which aims for continuous quality improvement in all aspects of the operation of an
Activity based management systems (ABM) which focus on activities that are required in an organisation and the cost drivers
for such activities, with a view to identifying and improving activities that add value and eliminating those activities that do
not add value.
Long-term performance management is likely to embrace elements of BPR, JIT, TQM and ABM. All of these will be reflected
in the annual budget on an ongoing basis.

(b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a balanced scorecard to better assess the overall

performance of Lawson Engineering? (8 marks)

(b) In many ways Lawson Engineering and its performance explains why Kaplan and Norton developed the balanced scorecard
to overcome the reliance on traditional, and they would argue flawed, financial measures of performance such as return on
capital employed (ROCE). Lawson Engineering as a privately owned company does not have the same pressure to maximise
shareholder wealth, which is the overarching long-term goal of publicly quoted companies. The intangible resources discussed
above – both internal and external – reflect the success of the company in meeting the expectations of the other key
stakeholders in the business, namely customers, employees and suppliers. In terms of the other measures of performance
used in the balanced scorecard the customer perspective seems to be very much a positive area of performance. Lawson
Engineering has developed a clear niche strategy based on the excellence of its products. Market share as a measure of
customer satisfaction is not too relevant as the company has chosen to develop its own markets and is not looking for large
volumes and a dominant market share. The growth of the company suggests that it is both retaining its existing customer
base and acquiring new ones. Clearly there need to be measures in place to show where its growth is coming from. Customer
acquisition is usually an expensive but necessary activity and cutomer retention a more positive route to profitability. Today
there is increasing emphasis on customer relationship management (CRM) and measures to show the share of a particular
customer’s business the company has, rather than the overall market share the company has achieved. Michael Porter has
drawn attention to the fact that having the biggest market share is not necessarily associated with being the most profitable
company in that market. Customer acquisition and retention are both useful indicators of customer satisfaction which many
companies have problems in measuring. Finally, knowing which customers are profitable ones is a key requirement.
Surprisingly there is a lot of evidence to suggest that many companies are unsure which of their products and which
customers actually contribute to their profits.
The third measure in the balanced scorecard is an internal one – the effectiveness or otherwise of the firm’s internal processes.
In turn there are three areas where performance should be measured – innovation, operational processes and after sales
service (where appropriate). Innovation itself is a result of effective internal processes and Lawson Engineering through its
patents and awards has tangible evidence of its success. Many firms are measuring the contribution of products introduced
in the last three or four years – 3M, a global manufacturer of consumer and industrial products looks to achieve 30% of its
sales from products that are less than four years old. Equally important in a company such as Lawson Engineering is the time
taken to develop and get new products to their customers. The strategy of being ‘first to market’ can be a very effective
competitive strategy.
Equally important for the customers are the operational processes that produce and deliver the inputs from their suppliers.
The introduction of JIT and the use of technology to shorten and simplify the links between supplier and customer are ways
of shortening lead times and increasing customer satisfaction. Lawson Engineering has looked to innovate its processes as
well as its products and can look to develop measures of key areas of operational performance. Finally it is worth stressing
that financial performance, customer satisfaction and effective internal processes are all dependent on the people who make
things happen in the firm. Employees and the way they learn and grow in their jobs will determine whether or not the firm
succeeds. Again there is evidence to suggest that Lawson Engineering’s employees are being trained and developed and as
a consequence are well motivated.
The balanced scorecard has been criticised on a number of accounts. Firstly, such a comprehensive set of performance
measures will take considerable time and commitment on the part of senior management to develop. There is a need to avoid
over-complexity and assess the costs and benefits of the process. Secondly, there is the question of whether all the key
stakeholders have shared goals and expectations and whether the measures are focused on short-, medium- or long-term
performance. Thirdly, its focus on internal and external processes may not come easily to firms that have organised themselves
on traditional lines. Most organisations have retained departments within which functional specialists are located, e.g.
production, marketing etc. Changing the way performance is measured may need a radical change in culture and meetsignificant resistance.

(d) Discuss the professional accountant’s liability for reporting on prospective financial information and the

measures that the professional accountant might take to reduce that liability. (6 marks)

(d) Professional accountant’s liability
Liability for reporting on PFI
Independent accountants may be required to report on PFI for many reasons (e.g. to help secure a bank loan). Such forecasts
and projections are inherently unreliable. If the forecast or projection does not materialise, and the client or lenders (or
investors) consequently sustain financial loss, the accountant may face lawsuits claiming financial loss.
Courts in different jurisdictions use various criteria to define the group of persons to whom independent accountants may be
held liable for providing a report on an inaccurate forecast or projection. The most common of these are that an accountant
is liable to persons with whom there is proximity:
(i) only (i.e. the client who engaged the independent accountant);
(ii) or whose relationship with the accountant sufficiently approaches privity;
(iii) and to persons or members of a limited group of persons for whose benefit and guidance the accountant supplied the
information or knew that the recipient of the information intended to supply it;
(iv) and to persons who reasonably can be foreseen to rely on the information.
Measures to reduce liability
As significant assumptions will be essential to a reader’s understanding of a financial forecast, the independent accountant
should ensure that they are adequately disclosed and clearly stated to be the management’s responsibility. Hypothetical
assumptions should be clearly distinguished from best estimates.
The introduction to any forecast (and/or report thereon) should include a caveat that the prospective results may not be
attained. Specific and extensive warnings (‘the actual results … will vary’) and disclaimers (‘we do not express an opinion’)
may be effective in protecting an independent accountant sued for inaccuracies in forecasts or projections that they have
reported on.
Any report to a third party should state:
■ for whom it is prepared, who is entitled to rely on it (if anyone) and for what purpose;
■ that the engagement was undertaken in accordance with the engagement terms;
■ the work performed and the findings.
An independent accountant’s report should avoid inappropriate and open-ended wording, for example, ‘we certify …’ and ‘we
obtained all the explanations we considered necessary’.
Engagement terms to report on PFI should include an appropriate liability cap that is reasonable given the specific
circumstances of the engagement.
The independent accountant may be able to obtain indemnity from a client in respect of claims from third parties. Such ‘hold
harmless’ clauses obligate the client to indemnify the independent accountant from third party claims.

(d) Prepare the statement for Mr Markovnikoff to read out at the AGM. The statement you construct should

contain the following.

(i) A definition and brief explanation of ‘sustainable development’; (3 marks)

(d) Chairman’s statement at AGM
Thank you for coming to the annual general meeting of Rowlands & Mendeleev. I would like to make a statement in response
to the concerns that a number of our investors have made in respect to our appointment as the principal contractor for the
prestigious and internationally important Giant Dam Project. We are very pleased and honoured to have won the contract but
as several have observed, this does leave us in a position of having a number of issues and risks to manage.
As a project with obvious environmental implications, the board and I wish to reassure investors that we are aware of these
implications and have taken them into account in our overall assessment of risks associated with the project.
(i) A definition of ‘sustainable development’
One investor asked if we could explain the sustainability issues and I begin with addressing that issue. According to the
well-established Brundtland definition, sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
This definition has implications for energy, land use, natural resources and waste emissions. In a sustainable
development, all of these should be consumed or produced at the same rate they can be renewed or absorbed so as to
prevent leaving future generations with an unwanted legacy of today’s economic activity. We believe that our involvement
in the Giant Dam Project has implications for environmental sustainability and it is to these matters that I now turn.
Tutorial note: other relevant definitions of sustainability will be equally acceptable.

(ii) the panel interview with more than one interviewer. (5 marks)

(ii) Panel interviews are often used for senior appointments and consist of two or more interviewers.

The advantages of such interviews are that they allow opinion and views to be shared amongst the panel. They provide a more complete and coherent approach, hence problems of bias inherent in face to face interviews can be reduced.

They may also be appropriate where an individual with specialist or technical skills has to support the interviewer in relation to assessing the technical competencies of the interviewee.The disadvantages are that panel interviews can be difficult to control, interviewers may deviate or ask irrelevant questions and they can be easily dominated by a strong personality who is able unduly to influence others. In addition,
such interviews can often result in disagreement amongst the panel members.

(iii) The extent to which Amy will be subject to income tax in the UK on her earnings in respect of duties

performed for Cutlass Inc and the travel costs paid for by that company. (5 marks)

Appropriateness of format and presentation of the report and the effectiveness with which its advice is

communicated. (2 marks)


You should assume that the income tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2006/07 and the corporation tax

rates and allowances for the financial year 2006 apply throughout this questio

(iii) Amy’s UK income tax position
Amy will remain UK resident and ordinarily resident as she is not leaving the UK permanently or for a complete tax year
under a full time contract of employment. Accordingly, she will continue to be subject to UK tax on her worldwide income
including her earnings in respect of the duties she performs for Cutlass Inc. The earnings from these duties will also be
taxable in Sharpenia as the income arises in that country.
The double tax treaty between the UK and Sharpenia will either exempt the employment income in one of the two
countries or give double tax relief for the tax paid in Sharpenia. The double tax relief will be the lower of the UK tax and
the Sharpenian tax on the income from Cutlass Inc.
Amy will not be subject to UK income tax on the expenses borne by Cutlass Inc in respect of her flights to and from
Sharpenia provided her journeys are wholly and exclusively for the purposes of performing her duties in Sharpenia.
The amounts paid by Cutlass Inc in respect of Amy’s family travelling to Sharpenia will be subject to UK income tax as
Amy will not be absent from the UK for a continuous period of at least 60 days.

2022ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选7节 第7节

2 The Information Technology division (IT) of the RJ Business Consulting Group provides consulting services to its

clients as well as to other divisions within the group. Consultants always work in teams of two on every consulting

day. Each consulting day is charged to external clients at £750 which represents cost plus 150% profit mark up. The

total cost per consulting day has been estimated as being 80% variable and 20% fixed.

The director of the Human Resources (HR) division of RJ Business Consulting Group has requested the services of

two teams of consultants from the IT division on five days per week for a period of 48 weeks, and has suggested that

she meets with the director of the IT division in order to negotiate a transfer price. The director of the IT division has

responded by stating that he is aware of the limitations of using negotiated transfer prices and intends to charge the

HR division £750 per consulting day.

The IT division always uses ‘state of the art’ video-conferencing equipment on all internal consultations which would

reduce the variable costs by £50 per consulting day. Note: this equipment can only be used when providing internal



(a) Calculate and discuss the transfer prices per consulting day at which the IT division should provide

consulting services to the HR division in order to ensure that the profit of the RJ Business Consulting Group

is maximised in each of the following situations:

(i) Every pair of consultants in the IT division is 100% utilised during the required 48-week period in

providing consulting services to external clients, i.e. there is no spare capacity.

(ii) There is one team of consultants who, being free from other commitments, would be available to

undertake the provision of services to the HR division during the required 48-week period. All other

teams of consultants would be 100% utilised in providing consulting services to external clients.

(iii) A major client has offered to pay the IT division £264,000 for the services of two teams of consultants

during the required 48-week period.

(12 marks)

(a) (i) The transfer price of £750 proposed by the IT division is based on cost plus 150% from which it can be deduced that
the total cost of a consulting day is (100/250) x £750 = £300. This comprises £240 (80%) variable cost and £60
(20%) fixed cost. In this instance the transfer price should be set at marginal costs plus opportunity cost. It is assumed
in this situation that transferring internally would result in the IT division having a lost contribution of £750 – £240 =
£510 per consulting day. The marginal cost of the transfer of services to the HR division is £190 (£240 external variable
costs less £50 saving due to use of internal video-conferencing equipment). Adding the opportunity cost of £510 gives
a transfer price of £700 per consulting day. This is equivalent to using market price as a basis for transfer pricing where
the transfer price is set at the external market price (£750) less any costs avoided (£50) by transferring internally.
(ii) There is in effect no external market available for one of the required pairs of consultants within the IT division and
therefore opportunity cost will not apply and transfers should be made at the variable cost per consulting day of £190.
The other pair of consultants, who would otherwise be 100% utilised in providing consulting services to external clients,
should be charged at a rate of £700 per day which represents marginal cost plus opportunity cost.
(iii) The lost contribution from the major client amounts to £264,000/(2 x 240) = £550 less variable costs of £240 =
£310 per consulting day. Thus, in this instance the transfer price should be the contribution foregone of £310 plus
internal variable costs of £190 making a total of £500 per consulting day.

(b) A recruitment service offered to clients. (7 marks)

(b) Recruitment service
IFAC’s Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants does not prohibit firms from offering a recruitment service to client
companies. However several ethical problems could arise if the service were offered. The severity of these problems would
depend on the exact nature of the service provided, and the role of the person recruited into the client’s organisation.
Specific ethical threats could include:
Self-interest – clearly the motive for Becker & Co to offer this service is to generate income from audit clients, thereby creating
a financial self-interest threat. The amount received for the recruitment service depends on the magnitude of the salary of the
person employed. The more senior the person recruited, the higher their salary is likely to be, and therefore the higher the
fee to be paid to Becker & Co.
In addition, the firm could be tempted to advise positively on the recruitment of an individual merely to receive the relevant
recruitment fee, without properly considering the suitability of the person for the role.
Familiarity – when performing the audit, the auditors may be less likely to criticise or challenge the work performed by a
person they helped to recruit, as any significant problems discovered may make the recruitment appear ill-advised.
Management involvement – there is also a threat that the audit firm could be perceived to be making management decisions
by selecting employees. The firm could offer services such as reviewing the professional qualifications of a number of
applicants, and providing advice on the applicant’s suitability for the post. In addition the firm could draw up a shortlist of
candidates for interview, using criteria specified by the client. However in all cases, the final decision as to whom to hire must
be made by the client, as the audit firm should not make, or be perceived to be making, management decisions.
The threats discussed above would increase in significance if the recruitee took on a role in key management pertaining to
the finance function, such as finance director or financial controller. The threats would be less severe if the audit firm advised
on the recruitment of a junior member of the client’s finance function.
If these threats could not be reduced to a level less than clearly insignificant, then the recruitment service should not be
Commercial evaluation
The firm should consider whether there is likely to be much demand for the potential service before developing such a
resource. Some form. of market research is essential.
Offering this type of service represents a significant departure from normal audit services. The firm should consider whether
there is sufficient knowledge and expertise to offer a recruitment service. Ingrid Sharapova seems to have some experience,
but her skills may be out of date, and may not be specifically relevant to the recruitment of finance professionals. It may be
that considerable training and possibly the attainment of a new professional qualification relevant to recruitment may be
necessary for a credible service to be offered to clients.
If the recruitment service proved successful, then Ingrid could be faced with too much work as she is the only person with
relevant experience, and has no one to delegate to. If the firm decides to offer this service, then one other person should
receive appropriate training, to cover for Ingrid’s holidays and any sick leave, and to provide someone for Ingrid to delegate
to. The financial cost of such training should be considered.
Finally, Becker & Co should consider the potential damage to the firm’s reputation if the service offered is not of a high quality.
If the partners decide to pursue this business opportunity, they may wish to consider setting it up as a separate entity, so that
if the business fails or its reputation is questioned, the damage to Becker & Co would be minimised.

2 Assume that today’s date is 1 July 2005.

Jan is aged 45 and single. He is of Danish domicile but has been working in the United Kingdom since 1 May 2004

and intends to remain in the UK for the medium to long term. Although Jan worked briefly in the UK in 1986, he

has forgotten how UK taxation works and needs some assistance before preparing his UK income tax return.

Jan’s salary from 1 May 2004 was £74,760 per annum. Jan also has a company car – a Jaguar XJ8 with a list price

of £42,550 including extras, and CO2 emissions of 242g/km. The car was available to him from 1 July 2004. Free

petrol is provided by the company. Jan has other taxable benefits amounting to £3,965.

Jan’s other 2004/05 income comprises:

Dividend income from UK companies (cash received) 3,240

Interest received on an ISA account 230

Interest received on a UK bank account 740

Interest remitted from an offshore account (net of 15% withholding tax) 5,100

Income remitted from a villa in Portugal (net of 45% withholding tax) 4,598

The total interest arising on the offshore account was £9,000 (gross). In addition, Jan has not remitted other

Portuguese rental income arising in the year, totalling a further £1,500 (gross).

Jan informs you that his employer is thinking of providing him with rented accommodation while he looks for a house

to buy. The accommodation would be a two bedroom flat, valued at £155,000 with an annual value of £6,000. It

would be made available from 6 August 2005. The company will pay the rent of £600 per month for the first six

months. All other bills will be paid by Jan.

Jan also informs you that he has 25,000 ordinary shares in Gilet Ltd (‘Gilet’), an unquoted UK trading company. He

has held these shares since August 1986 when he bought 2,500 shares at £4.07 per share. In January 1994, a

bonus issue gave each shareholder nine shares for each ordinary share held. In the last week all Gilet’s shareholders

have received an offer from Jumper plc (‘Jumper’) who wishes to acquire the shares. Jumper has offered the following:

– 3 shares in Jumper (currently trading at £3.55 per share) for every 5 shares in Gilet, and

– 25p cash per share


(a) Calculate Jan’s 2004/05 income tax (IT) payable. (11 marks)



22 Which of the following statements about limited liability companies’ accounting is/are correct?

1 A revaluation reserve arises when a non-current asset is sold at a profit.

2 The authorised share capital of a company is the maximum nominal value of shares and loan notes the company

may issue.

3 The notes to the financial statements must contain details of all adjusting events as defined in IAS10 Events after

the balance sheet date.

A All three statements

B 1 and 2 only

C 2 and 3 only

D None of the statements


The following trial balance relates to Sandown at 30 September 2009:

The following notes are relevant:

(i) Sandown’s revenue includes $16 million for goods sold to Pending on 1 October 2008. The terms of the sale are that Sandown will incur ongoing service and support costs of $1·2 million per annum for three years after the sale. Sandown normally makes a gross profit of 40% on such servicing and support work. Ignore the time value of money.

(ii) Administrative expenses include an equity dividend of 4·8 cents per share paid during the year.

(iii) The 5% convertible loan note was issued for proceeds of $20 million on 1 October 2007. It has an effective interest rate of 8% due to the value of its conversion option.

(iv) During the year Sandown sold an available-for-sale investment for $11 million. At the date of sale it had a

carrying amount of $8·8 million and had originally cost $7 million. Sandown has recorded the disposal of the

investment. The remaining available-for-sale investments (the $26·5 million in the trial balance) have a fair value of $29 million at 30 September 2009. The other reserve in the trial balance represents the net increase in the value of the available-for-sale investments as at 1 October 2008. Ignore deferred tax on these transactions.

(v) The balance on current tax represents the under/over provision of the tax liability for the year ended 30 September 2008. The directors have estimated the provision for income tax for the year ended 30 September 2009 at $16·2 million. At 30 September 2009 the carrying amounts of Sandown’s net assets were $13 million in excess of their tax base. The income tax rate of Sandown is 30%.

(vi) Non-current assets:

The freehold property has a land element of $13 million. The building element is being depreciated on a

straight-line basis.

Plant and equipment is depreciated at 40% per annum using the reducing balance method.

Sandown’s brand in the trial balance relates to a product line that received bad publicity during the year which led to falling sales revenues. An impairment review was conducted on 1 April 2009 which concluded that, based on estimated future sales, the brand had a value in use of $12 million and a remaining life of only three years.

However, on the same date as the impairment review, Sandown received an offer to purchase the brand for

$15 million. Prior to the impairment review, it was being depreciated using the straight-line method over a

10-year life.

No depreciation/amortisation has yet been charged on any non-current asset for the year ended 30 September

2009. Depreciation, amortisation and impairment charges are all charged to cost of sales.


(a) Prepare the statement of comprehensive income for Sandown for the year ended 30 September 2009.

(13 marks)

(b) Prepare the statement of financial position of Sandown as at 30 September 2009. (12 marks)

Notes to the financial statements are not required.

A statement of changes in equity is not required.


(c) In November 2006 Seymour announced the recall and discontinuation of a range of petcare products. The

product recall was prompted by the high level of customer returns due to claims of poor quality. For the year to

30 September 2006, the product range represented $8·9 million of consolidated revenue (2005 – $9·6 million)

and $1·3 million loss before tax (2005 – $0·4 million profit before tax). The results of the ‘petcare’ operations

are disclosed separately on the face of the income statement. (6 marks)


For each of the above issues:

(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and

(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,

in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Seymour Co for the year ended

30 September 2006.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.



■ The discontinuation of the product line after the balance sheet date provides additional evidence that, as at the
balance sheet date, it was of poor quality. Therefore, as at the balance sheet date:
– an allowance (‘provision’) may be required for credit notes for returns of products after the year end that were
sold before the year end;
– goods returned to inventory should be written down to net realisable value (may be nil);
– any plant and equipment used exclusively in the production of the petcare range of products should be tested
for impairment;
– any material contingent liabilities arising from legal claims should be disclosed.
(ii) Audit evidence
■ A copy of Seymour’s announcement (external ‘press release’ and any internal memorandum).
■ Credit notes raised/refunds paid after the year end for faulty products returned.
■ Condition of products returned as inspected during physical attendance of inventory count.
■ Correspondence from customers claiming reimbursement/compensation for poor quality.
■ Direct confirmation from legal adviser (solicitor) regarding any claims for customers including estimates of possible

(c) Lamont owns a residential apartment above its head office. Until 31 December 2006 it was let for $3,000 a

month. Since 1 January 2007 it has been occupied rent-free by the senior sales executive. (6 marks)


For each of the above issues:

(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and

(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,

in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Lamont Co for the year ended

31 March 2007.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

(c) Rent-free accommodation
(i) Matters
■ The senior sales executive is a member of Lamont’s key management personnel and is therefore a related party.
■ The occupation of Lamont’s residential apartment by the senior sales executive is therefore a related party
transaction, even though no price is charged (IAS 24 Related Party Disclosures).
■ Related party transactions are material by nature and information about them should be disclosed so that users of
financial statements understand the potential effect of related party relationships on the financial statements.
■ The provision of ‘housing’ is a non-monetary benefit that should be included in the disclosure of key management
personnel compensation (within the category of short-term employee benefits).
■ The financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2007 should disclose the arrangement for providing the
senior sales executive with rent-free accommodation and its fair value (i.e. $3,000 per month).
Tutorial note: Since no price is charged for the transaction, rote-learned disclosures such as ‘the amount of outstanding
balances’ and ‘expense recognised in respect of bad debts’ are irrelevant.
(ii) Audit evidence
■ Physical inspection of the apartment to confirm that it is occupied.
■ Written representation from the senior sales executive that he is occupying the apartment free of charge.
■ Written representation from the management board confirming that there are no related party transactions requiring
disclosure other than those that have been disclosed.
■ Inspection of the lease agreement with (or payments received from) the previous tenant to confirm the $3,000
monthly rental value.

The following information is available for a manufacturing company which produces multiple products:

(i) The product mix ratio

(ii) Contribution to sales ratio for each product

(iii) General fixed costs

(iv) Method of apportioning general fixed costs

Which of the above are required in order to calculate the break-even sales revenue for the company?

A.All of the above

B.(i), (ii) and (iii) only

C.(i), (iii) and (iv) only

D.(ii) and (iii) only


The method of apportioning general fixed costs is not required to calculate the break-even sales revenue.

(b) State the immediate tax implications of the proposed gift of the share portfolio to Avril and identify an

alternative strategy that would achieve Crusoe’s objectives whilst avoiding a possible tax liability in the

future. State any deadline(s) in connection with your proposed strategy. (5 marks)

(b) Gift of the share portfolio to Avril
Inheritance tax
The gift would be a potentially exempt transfer at market value. No inheritance tax would be due at the time of the gift.
Capital gains tax
The gift would be a disposal by Crusoe deemed to be made at market value for the purposes of capital gains tax. No gain
would arise as the deemed proceeds will equal Crusoe’s base cost of probate value.
Stamp duty
There is no stamp duty on a gift of shares for no consideration.
Strategy to avoid a possible tax liability in the future
Crusoe should enter into a deed of variation directing the administrators to transfer the shares to Avril rather than to him. This
will not be regarded as a gift by Crusoe. Instead, provided the deed states that it is intended to be effective for inheritance tax
purposes, it will be as if Noland had left the shares to Avril in a will.
This strategy is more tax efficient than Crusoe gifting the shares to Avril as such a gift would be a potentially exempt transfer
and inheritance tax may be due if Crusoe were to die within seven years.
The deed of variation must be entered into by 1 October 2009, i.e. within two years of the date of Noland’s death.