ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选8节

发布时间:2022-03-07
ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选8节

ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选8节 第1节


(c) Discuss the factors that might influence whether the initial bid is likely to be accepted by the shareholders of Wragger plc.

正确答案:

(c) The type of payment might influence the success of the bid. Paxis is proposing a share for share exchange which offers a continuation in ownership of the entity, albeit as part of the successful bidder. However, relative share prices will change during the period of the bid, and the owner of shares in the potential victim company will not know the precise postacquisition value of the bid. An alternative might be cash payments which provides a known, precise sum, and might be favoured for this reason. However, in some countries payment in cash might lead to an immediate capital gains tax liability for the investor.

The effective price offered would of course be a major influence. Paxis would need to offer a premium over the existing share price, but the size of the premium that would be acceptable is unknown. Informal discussions with major shareholders of Wragger might assist in determining this (subject to such discussions being permitted by the regulatory authorities).


(b) Calculate the value of the closing stocks of finished goods at the end of the three-month period, and the value

of cost of sales for the period. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Opening stock of finished goods = £69,800
Closing stock of finished goods = 2,000 x 18·66 = £37,320
Cost of sales for three-month period = 69,800 + 2,262,380 – 37,320 = £2,294,860


(b) Provide the directors of Acrux Ltd with a detailed explanation of the maximum rate of tax that will be suffered

on both the distributed and non-distributed profits of the non-UK resident investee companies where:

(1) there is a double tax treaty between the UK and the country in which the individual companies are

resident; and

(2) there is no such double tax treaty.

Note: you are not required to explain the position of the overseas resident branches. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Rate of tax on profits of non-UK resident investee companies
Undistributed profits
The companies will be subject to tax in the countries in which they are resident; this is because of their residency status or
because they have a permanent establishment in that country. Undistributed profits will not be taxed in the UK.
The rate of tax on undistributed profits will therefore be the rate of tax in the country of residency of the respective companies.
Distributed profits with double tax treaty
The dividends received by Acrux Ltd from each of the overseas companies will be grossed up in respect of underlying tax (the
overseas corporation tax paid on the distributed profits) because Acrux Ltd will own at least 10% of the overseas companies.
The gross amount will then be included in Acrux Ltd’s profits chargeable to corporation tax.
The treaty will provide double tax relief in the UK for the overseas tax suffered in respect of each dividend up to a maximum
of the UK tax on the grossed up overseas dividend. As a result of the double tax relief, the overall rate of tax suffered will be
the higher of the UK rate paid by Acrux Ltd and the overseas tax rate borne by the overseas company.
Where the rate of overseas tax in respect of a particular dividend exceeds the rate of corporation tax in the UK, excess foreign
tax will arise. This can be relieved, via onshore pooling, against the UK tax due on those dividends where the rate of tax in
the UK exceeds the rate overseas. This will reduce the overall rate of tax suffered on the total overseas profits of the overseas
companies as a whole.
Distributed profits with no double tax treaty
Where there is no double tax treaty, unilateral double tax relief will be available in the UK. This relief will operate in the same
way as double tax relief under a double tax treaty such that the overall rate of tax on each dividend will be the higher of the
UK rate paid by Acrux Ltd and the overseas rate borne by the overseas company. Relief via onshore pooling will also be
available.


(b) Advise Sergio on the appropriateness of investing in a domestic rental property in view of his personal

circumstances and recommend suitable alternative investments giving reasons for your advice. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Sergio’s investments
Sergio aims to leave a substantial asset to his family on his death. Accordingly, in view of his age, he is right to be considering
investing in an asset whose value is unlikely to fall suddenly, such as a domestic rental property. However, it must be
recognised that although the value of land and buildings can usually be relied on to increase over a long period of time, its
value may fall over a shorter period. The only investments that cannot fall in value are cash deposits, although they do, of
course, fall in real terms due to the effects of inflation.
Sergio should consider whether or not he wishes to increase his annual income. The return on capital invested in a domestic
rental property is unlikely to be very high due to the recent increases in property values in the UK. Also, there are likely to be
periods when the house is unoccupied during which no income will be generated. If it is important to Sergio to generate
additional income he should consider other low-risk investments with a more reliable and higher rate of return, for example,
gilt edged stocks, unit trusts and cash deposits.
Sergio must also decide whether it is important to him to be able to access capital quickly, as it is usually not possible to
realise the capital invested in land and buildings at short notice. If this is important, Sergio should consider holding some of
his capital in cash deposits or other liquid investments, eg unit trusts.
Sergio could invest up to £7,000 each year in an individual savings account (ISA). A maximum of £3,000 can be held as a
cash deposit with the balance invested in quoted shares. The income and gains arising on the funds invested would be
exempt from both income tax and capital gains tax. This would be a relatively low-risk investment and would also be
accessible quickly if required.


21 Which of the following statements about contingent assets and contingent liabilities are correct?

1 A contingent asset should be disclosed by note if an inflow of economic benefits is probable.

2 A contingent liability should be disclosed by note if it is probable that a transfer of economic benefits to settle it

will be required, with no provision being made.

3 No disclosure is required for a contingent liability if it is not probable that a transfer of economic benefits to settle

it will be required.

4 No disclosure is required for either a contingent liability or a contingent asset if the likelihood of a payment or

receipt is remote.

A 1 and 4 only

B 2 and 3 only

C 2, 3 and 4

D 1, 2 and 4

正确答案:A


ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选8节 第2节


(b) (i) Calculate Amanda’s income tax payable for the tax year 2006/07; (11 marks)

正确答案:

 


(b) (i) Advise Alasdair of the tax implications and relative financial risks attached to the following property

investments:

(1) buy to let residential property;

(2) commercial property; and

(3) shares in a property investment company/unit trust. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Income tax:
Direct investment in residential or commercial property
The income will be taxed under Schedule A for both residential and commercial property investment. Expenses can be
offset against income under the normal trading rules. These will include interest charges incurred in borrowing funds to
acquire the properties. Schedule A losses are restricted to use against future Schedule A profits, with the earliest profits
being relieved first.
When acquiring commercial properties, it may be possible to claim capital allowances on the fixtures and plant held in
the building. In addition, industrial buildings allowances (IBA) may also be available if the property qualifies as an
industrial building.
Capital allowances are not normally available for fixtures and fittings included in a residential property. Instead, a wear
and tear allowance can be claimed if the property is furnished. This is equal to 10% of the rental income after any
tenants cost (for example, council tax) paid by the landlord.
Income tax is levied at the normal tax rates (10/22/40%) as appropriate.
Collective investment (shares in a property investment company/unit trust)
With collective investments, the investor either buys shares (in an investment company) or units (in an equity unit trust).
The income tax treatment of both is the same in that the investor receives dividends. These are taxed at 10% and 32·5%
respectively (for basic and higher rate taxpayers).
Investors are not able to claim income tax relief on either interest costs (of borrowing) or any other expenses.
Capital gains tax (CGT):
The normal rules apply for CGT purposes in all situations. Property investments do not normally qualify for business
rates of taper relief unless they are furnished holiday lets or in certain circumstances, commercial property. Investments
in unit trusts or property investment companies will never qualify for business taper rates.
It is possible to use an individual savings account (ISA) to make collective investments. If this is done, income and
capital gains will be exempt from tax.
Other taxes:
New commercial property is subject to value added tax (VAT) at the standard rate, but new residential property is subject
to VAT at the zero rate. If a commercial building is acquired second hand as an investment, VAT may be payable if a
previous owner has opted to tax the property. If this is the case, VAT at the standard rate will be payable on the purchase
price, and rental charges to tenants will also be subject to VAT, again at the standard rate.
The acquisition of shares is not subject ot VAT.
Stamp duty land tax (SDLT) will be payable broadly on the direct acquisition of any property. The rates vary from 0 to
4% depending on the value of the land and building and its nature (whether residential or non-residential). Stamp duty
is payable at a rate of 0·5% on the acquisition of shares.
Investment risks/benefits
Direct investment
Investing directly in property represents a long term investment, and unless this is the case, investment risks are high.
Substantial initial costs (such as SDLT, VAT and transactions costs) are incurred, and ongoing running costs (such as
letting agents’ fees and vacant periods) can be significant. The investments are illiquid, particularly commercial
properties which can take months to sell.
All types of properties are dependent on a cyclical market, and the values of property investments can vary significantly
as a result. However, residential property has (on a long term basis) proven to be a good hedge against inflation.
Collective investments
The nature of collective investments is that the investor’s risk is reduced by the investment being spread over a large
portfolio as opposed to one or a few properties. In addition, investors can take advantage of the higher levels of liquidity
afforded by such vehicles.


24 Sigma’s bank statement shows an overdrawn balance of $38,600 at 30 June 2005. A check against the company’s cash book revealed the following differences:

1 Bank charges of $200 have not been entered in the cash book.

2 Lodgements recorded on 30 June 2005 but credited by the bank on 2 July $14,700.

3 Cheque payments entered in cash book but not presented for payment at 30 June 2005 $27,800.

4 A cheque payment to a supplier of $4,200 charged to the account in June 2005 recorded in the cash book as a receipt.

Based on this information, what was the cash book balance BEFORE any adjustments?

A $43,100 overdrawn

B $16,900 overdrawn

C $60,300 overdrawn

D $34,100 overdrawn

正确答案:A


(ii) The UK value added tax (VAT) implications for Razor Ltd of selling tools to and purchasing tools from

Cutlass Inc; (2 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Value added tax (VAT)
Goods exported are zero-rated. Razor Ltd must retain appropriate documentary evidence that the export has taken place.
Razor Ltd must account for VAT on the value of the goods purchased from Cutlass Inc at the time the goods are brought
into the UK. The VAT payable should be included as deductible input tax on the company’s VAT return.


(d) Describe the three stages of a formal grievance interview that Oliver might seek with the appropriate partner

at Hoopers and Henderson following the formal procedure. (9 marks)

正确答案:
Part (d):
Oliver should arrange a formal grievance interview with the appropriate partner. Both Oliver and the partner need to be aware that
the grievance interview follows three steps in a particular and logical order. The meeting between Oliver and the partner responsible
for human resources must be in a formal atmosphere.
The first stage is exploration. The manager or supervisor – in this case the partner responsible for human resources – must gather
as much information as possible. No solution must be offered at this stage. The need is to establish what is actually the problem;
the background to the problem (in this case the icy relationship between Oliver and David Morgan) and the facts and causes of
the problem – in this case the resentment felt by David Morgan over Oliver’s appointment.
The second stage is the consideration stage. This is undertaken by the appropriate manager or partner here, who must firstly check
the facts, analyse the causes of the complaint and evaluate possible solutions. The meeting may be adjourned if at this stage the
partner requires more time to fulfil this step.
The final stage is the reply. This will be carried out by the partner after he or she has reached and reviewed a conclusion. It is
important that the outcome is recorded in writing; the meeting and therefore the interview and procedure is only successful when
an agreement is reached.
If no agreement is reached then the procedure should be taken to a higher level of management.


ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选8节 第3节


(b) Explain how the process of developing scenarios might help John better understand the macro-environmental

factors influencing Airtite’s future strategy. (8 marks)

正确答案:

(b) Carrying out a systematic PESTEL analysis is a key step in developing alternative scenarios about the future. Johnson and
Scholes define scenarios as ‘detailed and plausible views of how the business environment of an organisation might develop
in the future based on groupings of key environmental influences and drivers of change about which there is a high level of
uncertainty’. In developing scenarios it is necessary to isolate the key drivers of change, which have the potential to have a
significant impact on the company and are associated with high levels of uncertainty. Development of scenarios enables
managers to share assumptions about the future and the key variables shaping that future. This provides an opportunity for
real organisational learning. They are then in a position to monitor these key variables and amend strategies accordingly. It
is important to note that different stakeholder groups will have different expectations about the future and each may provide
a key input to the process of developing scenarios. By their very nature scenarios should not attempt to allocate probabilities
to the key factors and in so doing creating ‘spurious accuracy’ about those factors. A positive scenario is shown below and

should provide a shared insight into the external factors most likely to have a significant impact on Airtite‘s future strategy.
For most companies operating in global environments the ability to respond flexibly and quickly to macro-environmental
change would seem to be a key capability.
The scenario as illustrated below, clearly could have a major impact on the success or otherwise of Airtite’s strategy for the
future. The key drivers for change would seem to be the link between technology and global emissions, fuel prices and the
stability of the global political environment. Through creating a process which considers the drivers which will have most
impact on Airtite and which are subject to the greatest uncertainty, Airtite will have a greater chance of its strategy adaptingto changing circumstances.


(b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using franchising to develop La Familia Amable budget hotel

chain? (8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Franchising is typically seen as a quick and cost effective way of growing the business but Ramon should be aware of both
the advantages and disadvantages of using it as the preferred method of growth. Franchised chains are argued to benefit from
the sort of brand recognition and economies of scale not enjoyed by independent owner/managers. When combined with the
high levels of motivation normally associated with owner/managed businesses, franchises can be argued to get the best of
both worlds.
Franchising is defined as ‘a contractual agreement between two legally independent companies whereby the franchisor grants
the right to the franchisee to sell the franchisor’s product or do business under its trademarks in a given location for a specified
period of time. In return, the franchisee agrees to pay the franchisor a combination of fees, usually including an up-front
franchise fee, royalties calculated as a percentage of unit revenues, and an advertising conbribution that is also usually a
percentage of unit sales.’
Ramon is considering a type of franchising called ‘business-format franchising’, where the franchisor sells a way of doing
business to its franchisees. Business-format franchising is a model frequently found in the fast food and restaurant industry,
hotels and motels, construction and maintenance, and non-food retailing. Often these franchises are labour intensive and
relatively small-scale operations.
Franchising is seen as a safer alternative to growing the business organically, so while this may be true of well established
global franchises, failure rates among franchised small businesses were greater than those of independent businesses (in one
US study a 34·7% failure rate for franchises as opposed to 28·0% for independents over a six or seven year period). Often
it is the failure of the franchisor that brings down its franchisees. Failure stems from the franchisee not only having to rely on
their own skills and enthusiasm but also the capacity of the franchisor and other franchisees to make the overall operation
work.
The advantages to the franchisee are through gaining access to a well-regarded brand name that will generate a higher level
of demand and use of a tried and tested business model that should reduce the franchisee’s operating costs. Both of these
benefits stem from being a member of a well-established franchised system. Yet La Familia Amable along with many other
franchises will be new and small. These smaller franchises tend to be regional in scope, and fairly unknown outside their
regional market. This has a significant effect on what the franchisees can expect to gain from their franchisors and their
prospects of success. Both parties need to carefully assess the strengths and weaknesses of the system. Companies growing
via franchises need to take the time to understand their business model thoroughly and determine how franchising fits with
their long-term strategy. Care must be taken with the franchise agreement that creates a genuine partnership with the rightbalance between freedom and control over the franchisees.


(c) Outline the ways in which Arthur and Cindy can reduce their income tax liability by investing in unquoted

shares and recommend, with reasons, which form. of investment best suits their circumstances. You are not

required to discuss the qualifying conditions applicable to the investment vehicle recommended. (5 marks)

You should assume that the income tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 apply throughout this

question

正确答案:
(c) Reduction of income tax liability by investing in unquoted shares
The two forms of investment
Income tax relief is available for investments in venture capital trusts (VCTs) and enterprise investment scheme (EIS) shares.
A VCT is a quoted company that invests in shares in a number of unquoted trading companies. EIS shares are shares in
qualifying unquoted trading companies.
Recommendation
The most suitable investment for Arthur and Cindy is a VCT for the following reasons.
– An investment in a VCT is likely to be less risky than investing directly in EIS companies as the risk will be spread over
a greater number of companies.
– The tax deduction is 40% of the amount invested as opposed to 20% for EIS shares.
– Dividends from a VCT are not taxable whereas dividends on EIS shares are taxed in the normal way.


23 The capital structure of a company at 30 June 2005 is as follows:

$m

Ordinary share capital 100

Share premium account 40

Retained earnings 60

10% Loan notes 40

The company’s income statement for the year ended 30 June 2005 showed:

$m

Operating profit 44

Loan note interest (4)

___

Profit for year 40

____

What is the company’s return on capital employed?

A 40/240 = 162/3 per cent

B 40/100 = 40 per cent

C 44/240 = 181/3 per cent

D 44/200 = 22 per cent

正确答案:C


(b) Explain how the adoption of residual income (RI) using the annuity method of depreciation might prove to

be a superior basis for the management incentive plan operated by NCL plc.

(N.B. No illustrative calculations should be incorporated into your explanation). (4 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The use of residual income as a basis for the management incentive plan operated by NCL plc would have the following
advantages:
Divisional management would be more willing to accept a project with a positive residual income and this would contribute
to the improved performance of NCL plc. Also, the disincentive to accept a project with a positive residual income but a return
on investment regarded by divisional management as not being in their best interests would be removed, because divisional
management would be rewarded.
The use of annuity depreciation may improve performance appraisal by removing the effect of straight-line depreciation which
tends to distort project returns especially in the early years of a project’s life when invested capital remains relatively high due
to the constant depreciation charge. The residual income approach using annuity depreciation will only match the NPV if the
annual cashflows of a project are constant. Hence the method when applied to the North or South projects would produce
an NPV which does not exactly match that previously calculated. By way of contrast it is forecast that the East project will
have constant cashflows and in this instance the NPV and residual income based approach when discounted, will produce
the same result.


ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选8节 第4节


6 Communication is important for all organisations and requires an understanding of communication flows and channels.

Required:

(a) Briefly explain the main purposes of the three main formal communication channels in an organisation:

(i) Downwards; (3 marks)

正确答案:
6 There are many forms of communication within an organisation, both formal and informal. Formally communicated information often flows in one of three main directions: downwards, upwards and lateral. However, all organisations also have informal communication channels and management must understand their importance.
(a) Formal communicated information flows in three main directions.
(i) Downwards. This form. of communication is often the one most easily recognised and understood. The purpose of downward communication is to give specific directives, to provide information about procedures and practices and to provide information about work practices. It also serves to tell employees about their performance and provides information on organisational and departmental objectives.


(c) On the assumption that the administrators of Noland’s estate will sell quoted shares in order to fund the

inheritance tax due as a result of his death, calculate the value of the quoted shares that will be available to

transfer to Avril. You should include brief notes of your treatment of the house and the shares in Kurb Ltd.

(9 marks)

Note: you should assume that the tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2006/07 apply throughout this

question.

正确答案:

(c) Value of quoted shares that can be transferred to Avril
The value of shares to be transferred to Avril will be equal to £370,000 less the inheritance tax due by the estate.
IHT is payable on transfers in the seven years prior to Noland’s death and on the death estate.
The only chargeable gift in the seven years prior to Noland’s death is the transfer to the discretionary trust. No tax is due in
respect of this gift as it is covered by the nil rate band.


(b) Assess the extent to which social responsibility issues could and should affect his decision to move into the

new product area. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Recent corporate scandals have increased the critical awareness of the need for business to operate ethically and in a socially
responsible way. This is seen largely in the context of large firms and their governance but as the Concrete Solutions scenario
shows small owner-managed firms are not immune from taking difficult decisions that have differing and significant impacts
on the firm’s stakeholders and their expectations. Johnson, Scholes and Whittington see corporate social responsibility as
‘concerned with the ways in which an organisation exceeds the minimum obligation to stakeholders specified through
regulation and corporate governance’. They argue it is useful to distinguish between contractual stakeholders including
customers, suppliers and employees, who have a legal relationship with an organisation and community stakeholders – such
as local communities – who do not have the same degree of legal protection as the first group. Clyde’s local community and
its representatives will face a dilemma – jobs v pollution – not an easy choice! Clearly there will be considerable negotiation
between the key stakeholders and Clyde as the owner/manager should act ethically and with integrity in reaching a decisionhaving profound effects for all parties concerned.


(c) Prepare brief notes for the proposed meeting with Charles and Jane. Clearly identify the further information

you would need in order to advise them more fully and suggest appropriate personal financial planning

protection products, in respect of both death and serious illness. (9 marks)

You should assume that the income tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 and the corporation tax

rates for the financial year 2005 apply throughout this question.

正确答案:

 

When considering the shortfall
– The family’s expenditure is likely to increase as the children get older, particularly if there is a need for school fees.
– There will be a need for some cash immediately to pay for the cost of the funeral.
– It is assumed that the whole of Jane’s estate has been left to Charles such that there will be no inheritance tax on her
death.
– The shortfall may be reduced by:
(i) State benefits and tax credits.
(ii) Expenditure on non-essential items, e.g. holidays and entertainment included in the annual expenditure of
£45,500.
(iii) The income generated by Charles if he were to return to work.
– The shortfall may be increased by additional child-care costs due to Charles being a single parent, particularly if he
returns to work full-time.
Further information required
– The level of state benefits and tax credits available to Charles.
– The current level of expenditure on non-essential items.
– The costs of child-care if Charles were to return to work.
– Details of any wills made by Charles or Jane.
– Whether Charles’ investment properties could be sold and the proceeds invested in assets with a higher annual return.
– Whether there is any value in Speak Write Ltd independent of Jane, such that the company could be sold after Jane’s
death.
Other related issues
– The couple should consider making provision for their retirement via pension contributions or some other form. of long
term investment plan.
– The couple should recognise that there would be significant financial problems if Jane were to become seriously ill. In
addition to the family’s income falling as set out above, its expenditure would probably increase.
Protection products
– Term life assurance
A qualifying life policy would pay out a tax-free lump sum on Jane’s death.
– Permanent health insurance
Would provide a regular income if Jane were unable to work due to illness.
– Critical illness insurance
Would provide a capital sum in the event of Jane being diagnosed with an insured illness.


(b) You are the audit manager of Petrie Co, a private company, that retails kitchen utensils. The draft financial

statements for the year ended 31 March 2007 show revenue $42·2 million (2006 – $41·8 million), profit before

taxation of $1·8 million (2006 – $2·2 million) and total assets of $30·7 million (2006 – $23·4 million).

You are currently reviewing two matters that have been left for your attention on Petrie’s audit working paper file

for the year ended 31 March 2007:

(i) Petrie’s management board decided to revalue properties for the year ended 31 March 2007 that had

previously all been measured at depreciated cost. At the balance sheet date three properties had been

revalued by a total of $1·7 million. Another nine properties have since been revalued by $5·4 million. The

remaining three properties are expected to be revalued later in 2007. (5 marks)

Required:

Identify and comment on the implications of these two matters for your auditor’s report on the financial

statements of Petrie Co for the year ended 31 March 2007.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the matters above.

正确答案:
(b) Implications for auditor’s report
(i) Selective revaluation of premises
The revaluations are clearly material to the balance sheet as $1·7 million and $5·4 million represent 5·5% and 17·6%
of total assets, respectively (and 23·1% in total). As the effects of the revaluation on line items in the financial statements
are clearly identified (e.g. revalued amount, depreciation, surplus in statement of changes in equity) the matter is not
pervasive.
The valuations of the nine properties after the year end provide additional evidence of conditions existing at the year end
and are therefore adjusting events per IAS 10 Events After the Balance Sheet Date.
Tutorial note: It is ‘now’ still less than three months after the year end so these valuations can reasonably be expected
to reflect year end values.
However, IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment does not permit the selective revaluation of assets thus the whole class
of premises would need to have been revalued for the year to 31 March 2007 to change the measurement basis for this
reporting period.
The revaluation exercise is incomplete. Unless the remaining three properties are revalued before the auditor’s report on
the financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2007 is signed off:
(1) the $7·1 revaluation made so far must be reversed to show all premises at depreciated cost as in previous years;
OR
(2) the auditor’s report would be qualified ‘except for’ disagreement regarding non-compliance with IAS 16.
When it is appropriate to adopt the revaluation model (e.g. next year) the change in accounting policy (from a cost model
to a revaluation model) should be accounted for in accordance with IAS 16 (i.e. as a revaluation).
Tutorial note: IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors does not apply to the initial
application of a policy to revalue assets in accordance with IAS 16.
Assuming the revaluation is written back, before giving an unmodified opinion, the auditor should consider why the three
properties were not revalued. In particular if there are any indicators of impairment (e.g. physical dilapidation) there
should be sufficient evidence on the working paper file to show that the carrying amount of these properties is not
materially greater than their recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of value in use and fair value less costs to sell).
If there is insufficient evidence to confirm that the three properties are not impaired (e.g. if the auditor was prevented
from inspecting the properties) the auditor’s report would be qualified ‘except for’ on grounds of limitation on scope.
If there is evidence of material impairment but management fail to write down the carrying amount to recoverable
amount the auditor’s report would be qualified ‘except for’ disagreement regarding non-compliance with IAS 36
Impairment of Assets.


ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选8节 第5节


(b) Discuss the relevance of each of the following actions as steps in trying to remedy performance measurement

problems relating to the ‘365 Sports Complex’ and suggest examples of specific problem classifications that

may be reduced or eliminated by each action:

(i) Focusing on and improving the measurement of customer satisfaction

(ii) Involving staff at all levels in the development and implementation of performance measures

(iii) Being flexible in the extent to which formal performance measures are relied on

(iv) Giving consideration to the auditing of the performance measurement system. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Trying to focus on and improve the measurement of customer satisfaction.
This is a vital goal. Without monitoring and improvement of levels of customer satisfaction, an organisation will tend to
underachieve and is likely to have problems with its future effectiveness. Positive signals from performance measures made
earlier in the value chain are only relevant if they contribute to the ultimate requirement of customer satisfaction. Tunnel vision
and sub-optimisation are examples of measurement problems that may be reduced through recognition of the need for a
management focus on customer satisfaction. For example undue focus on the importance of maximising opening hours may
lead to lack of focus on other quality issues seen as important by customers.
Involving staff at all levels in the development and implementation of performance measures.
People are involved in the achievement of performance measures at all levels and in all aspects of an organisation. It is
important that all staff are willing to accept and work towards any performance measures that are developed to monitor their
part in the operation of the organisation and in the achievement of its objectives. This should help, for example, to reduce
gaming. At the sports complex an example of gaming might be, a deliberate attempt to understate the potential benefits of
maintaining the buildings in order to ensure that funds would be used for other purposes such as an increased advertising
budget. The directors of Astrodome Sports Ltd must recognise that leisure facilities that appear dated and in a poor state of
repair will cause customers to look for more aesthetically appealing alternatives.
Being flexible in the extent to which formal performance measures are relied on.
It is best to acknowledge that measures should not be relied on exclusively for control. A performance measure may give a
short-term signal that does not relate directly to actions that are taking place to improve the level of performance in the longer
term. To some extent, improved performance may be achieved through the informal interaction between individuals and
groups. This flexibility should help to reduce measure fixation and misrepresentation. For example the percentage increase in
the quantity of bowling equipment purchased is seen as necessarily implying increased demand for use of the bowling greens.
Giving consideration to the audit of the performance measurement system.
Actions that may be taken may include:
– Seeking expert interpretation of the performance measures in place. It is important that any audit is ‘free from bias’ and
conducted independently on an ‘arm’s length’ basis. Thus it is essential that such audits should be ‘free from the
influence’ of those personnel involved in the operation of the system.
– Maintaining a careful audit of the data used. Any assessment scheme is only as good as the data on which it is founded
and how this data is analysed and interpreted.
The above actions should help, in particular, to reduce the incidence and impact of measure fixation, misinterpretation and
gaming.
For example, an audit may show that the directors of Astrodome Sports Ltd are fixated on equipment availability and
misinterpret this as being the key to customer volume and high profitability. The audit may also provide evidence of gaming
such as a deliberate attempt to underplay the benefits of one course of action in order to release funds for use on some
alternative.


(c) Explain the reasons for the concerns of the government of Happyland with companies such as TMC and

advise the directors of a strategy that might be considered in order to avoid being subject to any forthcoming

legislation concerning the environment. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(c) The government of Happyland will be concerned by the negative impact on the environment. The growth in the number of
children born in Happyland will have raised the demand for disposable nappies as is evidenced from the market size data
contained in the question. In some countries disposable nappies make up around 4% of all household waste and can take
up to five hundred years to decompose! The government will be concerned by the fact that trees are being destroyed in order
to keep babies and infant children in nappies. The disposal costs incurred by the government in terms of landfill etc will be
very high, hence its green paper on the effect of non-biodegradable products in Happyland. The costs of such operations as
the landfill for such products will need to be funded out of increased taxation.
It might be beneficial for the directors of TMC to develop more eco-friendly products such as washable nappies which, by
definition, are recyclable many times over during the life of the ‘product’. Many parents are now changing to ‘real nappies’
because they work out cheaper and better for the environment than disposables.


2 The risk committee at Southern Continents Company (SCC) met to discuss a report by its risk manager, Stephanie

Field. The report focused on a number of risks that applied to a chemicals factory recently acquired by SCC in another

country, Southland. She explained that the new risks related to the security of the factory in Southland in respect of

burglary, to the supply of one of the key raw materials that experienced fluctuations in world supply and also an

environmental risk. The environmental risk, Stephanie explained, was to do with the possibility of poisonous

emissions from the Southland factory.

The SCC chief executive, Choo Wang, who chaired the risk committee, said that the Southland factory was important

to him for two reasons. First, he said it was strategically important to the company. Second, it was important because

his own bonuses depended upon it. He said that because he had personally negotiated the purchase of the Southland

factory, the remunerations committee had included a performance bonus on his salary based on the success of the

Southland investment. He told Stephanie that a performance-related bonus was payable when and if the factory

achieved a certain level of output that Choo considered to be ambitious. ‘I don’t get any bonus at all until we reach

a high level of output from the factory,’ he said. ‘So I don’t care what the risks are, we will have to manage them.’

Stephanie explained that one of her main concerns arose because the employees at the factory in Southland were not

aware of the importance of risk management to SCC. She said that the former owner of the factory paid less attention

to risk issues and so the staff were not as aware of risk as Stephanie would like them to be. ‘I would like to get risk

awareness embedded in the culture at the Southland factory,’ she said.

Choo Wang said that he knew from Stephanie’s report what the risks were, but that he wanted somebody to explain

to him what strategies SCC could use to manage the risks.

Required:

(a) Describe four strategies that can be used to manage risk and identify, with reasons, an appropriate strategy

for each of the three risks mentioned in the case. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Risks at Southland and management strategies
Risk management strategies
There are four strategies for managing risk and these can be undertaken in sequence. In the first instance, the organisation
should ask whether the risk, once recognised, can be transferred or avoided.
Transference means passing the risk on to another party which, in practice means an insurer or a business partner in another
part of the supply chain (such as a supplier or a customer).
Avoidance means asking whether or not the organisation needs to engage in the activity or area in which the risk is incurred.
If it is decided that the risk cannot be transferred nor avoided, it might be asked whether or not something can be done to
reduce or mitigate the risk. This might mean, for example, reducing the expected return in order to diversify the risk or
re-engineer a process to bring about the reduction.
Risk sharing involves finding a party that is willing to enter into a partnership so that the risks of a venture might be spread
between the two parties. For example an investor might be found to provide partial funding for an overseas investment in
exchange for a share of the returns.
Finally, an organisation might accept or retain the risk, believing there to be no other feasible option. Such retention should
be accepted when the risk characteristics are clearly known (the possible hazard, the probability of the risk materialising and
the return expected as a consequence of bearing the risk).
Risks in the case and strategy
There are three risks to the Southland factory described in the case.
Risk to the security of the factory in Southland. This risk could be transferred. The transference of this risk would be through
insurance where an insurance company will assume the potential liability on payment, by SCC, of an appropriate insurance
premium.
Risk to the supply of one of the key raw materials that experienced fluctuations in world supply. This risk will probably have
to be accepted although it may be possible, with redesigning processes, to reduce the risk.
If the raw material is strategically important (i.e. its use cannot be substituted or reduced), risk acceptance will be the only
possible strategy. If products or process can be redesigned to substitute or replace its use in the factory, the supply risk can
be reduced.
The environmental risk that concerned a possibility of a poisonous emission can be reduced by appropriate environmental
controls in the factory. This may require some process changes such as inventory storage or amendments to internal systems
to ensure that the sources of emissions can be carefully monitored.
Tutorial note: the strategies for the individual risks identified in the case are not the only appropriate responses and other
strategies are equally valid providing they are supported with adequate explanation.


1 The scientists in the research laboratories of Swan Hill Company (SHC, a public listed company) recently made a very

important discovery about the process that manufactured its major product. The scientific director, Dr Sonja Rainbow,

informed the board that the breakthrough was called the ‘sink method’. She explained that the sink method would

enable SHC to produce its major product at a lower unit cost and in much higher volumes than the current process.

It would also produce lower unit environmental emissions and would substantially improve product quality compared

to its current process and indeed compared to all of the other competitors in the industry.

SHC currently has 30% of the global market with its nearest competitor having 25% and the other twelve producers

sharing the remainder. The company, based in the town of Swan Hill, has a paternalistic management approach and

has always valued its relationship with the local community. Its website says that SHC has always sought to maximise

the benefit to the workforce and community in all of its business decisions and feels a great sense of loyalty to the

Swan Hill locality which is where it started in 1900 and has been based ever since.

As the board considered the implications of the discovery of the sink method, chief executive Nelson Cobar asked

whether Sonja Rainbow was certain that SHC was the only company in the industry that had made the discovery and

she said that she was. She also said that she was certain that the competitors were ‘some years’ behind SHC in their

research.

It quickly became clear that the discovery of the sink method was so important and far reaching that it had the

potential to give SHC an unassailable competitive advantage in its industry. Chief executive Nelson Cobar told board

colleagues that they should clearly understand that the discovery had the potential to put all of SHC’s competitors out

of business and make SHC the single global supplier. He said that as the board considered the options, members

should bear in mind the seriousness of the implications upon the rest of the industry.

Mr Cobar said there were two strategic options. Option one was to press ahead with the huge investment of new plant

necessary to introduce the sink method into the factory whilst, as far as possible, keeping the nature of the sink

technology secret from competitors (the ‘secrecy option’). A patent disclosing the nature of the technology would not

be filed so as to keep the technology secret within SHC. Option two was to file a patent and then offer the use of the

discovery to competitors under a licensing arrangement where SHC would receive substantial royalties for the twentyyear

legal lifetime of the patent (the ‘licensing option’). This would also involve new investment but at a slower pace

in line with competitors. The licence contract would, Mr Cobar explained, include an ‘improvement sharing’

requirement where licensees would be required to inform. SHC of any improvements discovered that made the sink

method more efficient or effective.

The sales director, Edwin Kiama, argued strongly in favour of the secrecy option. He said that the board owed it to

SHC’s shareholders to take the option that would maximise shareholder value. He argued that business strategy was

all about gaining competitive advantage and this was a chance to do exactly that. Accordingly, he argued, the sink

method should not be licensed to competitors and should be pursued as fast as possible. The operations director said

that to gain the full benefits of the sink method with either option would require a complete refitting of the factory and

the largest capital investment that SHC had ever undertaken.

The financial director, Sean Nyngan, advised the board that pressing ahead with investment under the secrecy option

was not without risks. First, he said, he would have to finance the investment, probably initially through debt, and

second, there were risks associated with any large investment. He also informed the board that the licensing option

would, over many years, involve the inflow of ‘massive’ funds in royalty payments from competitors using the SHC’s

patented sink method. By pursuing the licensing option, Sean Nyngan said that they could retain their market

leadership in the short term without incurring risk, whilst increasing their industry dominance in the future through

careful investment of the royalty payments.

The non-executive chairman, Alison Manilla, said that she was looking at the issue from an ethical perspective. She

asked whether SHC had the right, even if it had the ability, to put competitors out of business.

Required:

(a) Assess the secrecy option using Tucker’s model for decision-making. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Tucker’s framework
Is the decision:
Profitable? For SHC, the answer to this question is yes. Profits would potentially be substantially increased by the loss of all
of its competitors and the emergence of SHC, in the short to medium term at least, as a near monopolist.
Legal? The secrecy option poses no legal problems as it is a part of normal competitive behaviour in industries. In some
jurisdictions, legislation forbids monopolies existing in some industries but there is no indication from the case that this
restriction applies to Swan Hill Company.
Fair? The fairness of the secrecy option is a moral judgment. It is probably fair when judged from the perspective of SHC’s
shareholders but the question is the extent to which it is fair to the employees and shareholders of SHC’s competitors.
Right? Again, a question of ethical perspective. Is it right to pursue the subjugation of competitors and the domination of an
industry regardless of the consequences to competitors? The secrecy option may be of the most benefit to the local community
of Swan Hill that the company has traditionally valued.
Sustainable or environmentally sound? The case says that the sink method emits at a lower rate per unit of output than the
existing process but this has little to do with the secrecy option as the rates of emissions would apply if SHC licensed the
process. This is also an argument for the licensing option, however, as environmental emissions would be lower if other
competitors switched to the sink method as well. There may be environmental implications in decommissioning the old plant
to make way for the new sink method investment.


(d) Comment on THREE factors other than NPV that the directors of ITL should consider when deciding whether

to manufacture the Snowballer. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(d) Factors that should be considered by the directors of ITL include:
(i) The cash flows are estimated. How accurate they are requires detailed consideration.
(ii) The cost of capital used by the finance director might be inappropriate. For example if the Snowballer proposal is less
risky than other projects undertaken by ITL then a lower cost of capital should be used.
(iii) The rate of inflation may vary from the anticipated rate of 4% per annum.
(iv) How strong is the Olympic brand name? The directors are proposing to pay royalties equivalent to 6% of sales revenue
during the six years of the anticipated life of the project. Should they market the Snowballer themselves?
(v) Would competitors enter the market and what would be the likely effect on sales volumes and selling prices?
N.B: Only three factors were required.


ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选8节 第6节


(c) Identify and discuss the ethical and professional matters raised at the inventory count of LA Shots Co.

(6 marks)

正确答案:
(c) There are several ethical and professional issues raised in relation to the inventory count of LA Shots Co.
Firstly, it was inappropriate of Brenda Mangle to offer the incentive to the audit juniors. As she is a new manager, it may be
that she didn’t realise how the incentive would be perceived. Brenda should be informed that her actions could have serious
implications.
The offer could be viewed as a bribe of the audit juniors, and could be perceived as a self-interest independence threat as
there is a financial benefit offered to members of the audit team.
The value of the ten bottles of ‘Super Juice’ should be considered, as it is only appropriate for a member of the audit team to
accept any goods or hospitality from the audit client if the value is ‘clearly insignificant’. Ultimately it would be the decision
of the audit partner as to whether the value is clearly insignificant. It is likely that this does not constitute a significant threat
to independence, however the offer should still be referred to the audit partner.
Also, if the juniors took ten bottles of ‘Super Juice’, this could interfere with the physical count of goods and/or with cut off
details obtained at the count. The juniors should therefore have declined the offer and informed a senior member of the audit
team of the situation.
There may be a need to adequately train new members of staff on ethical matters if the juniors were unsure of how to react
to the offer.
The work performed by the juniors at the inventory count must be reviewed. The audit procedures were performed very
quickly compared to last year and therefore sufficient evidence may not have been gathered. In an extreme situation the whole
inventory count may have to be reperformed if it is found that the procedures performed cannot be relied upon.
In addition, the juniors should not have attended the audit client’s office party without the permission of the audit manager.
The party appears to have taken place during work time, when the juniors should have been completing the inventory count
procedures. The two juniors have not acted with due professional consideration, and could be considered to lack integrity.
The actions of the juniors should be discussed with them, possibly with a view to disciplinary action.
There may also be questions over whether the direction and supervision of the juniors was adequate. As the two juniors are
both recent recruits, this is likely to be the first inventory count that they have attended. It appears that they may not have
been adequately briefed as to the importance of the inventory count as a source of audit evidence, or that they have
disregarded any such briefing that was provided to them. In either case possibly a more senior auditor should have
accompanied them to the inventory count and supervised their actions.


Which of the following statements relating to internal and external auditors is correct?

A.Internal auditors are required to be members of a professional body

B.Internal auditors’ scope of work should be determined by those charged with governance

C.External auditors report to those charged with governance

D.Internal auditors can never be independent of the company

正确答案:B

A is incorrect as internal auditors are not required to be members of any professional body. C is incorrect as external auditors report to shareholders rather than those charged with governance. D is incorrect as internal auditors can be independent of the company, if, for example, the internal audit function has been outsourced.


4 (a) Explain the auditor’s responsibilities in respect of subsequent events. (5 marks)

Required:

Identify and comment on the implications of the above matters for the auditor’s report on the financial

statements of Jinack Co for the year ended 30 September 2005 and, where appropriate, the year ending

30 September 2006.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the matters.

正确答案:
4 JINACK CO
(a) Auditor’s responsibilities for subsequent events
■ Auditors must consider the effect of subsequent events on:
– the financial statements;
– the auditor’s report.
■ Subsequent events are all events occurring after a period end (i.e. reporting date) i.e.:
– events after the balance sheet date (as defined in IAS 10); and
– events after the financial statements have been authorised for issue.
Events occurring up to date of auditor’s report
■ The auditor is responsible for carrying out procedures designed to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence that all
events up to the date of the auditor’s report that may require adjustment of, or disclosure in, the financial statements
have been identified.
■ These procedures are in addition to those applied to specific transactions occurring after the period end that provide
audit evidence of period-end account balances (e.g. inventory cut-off and receipts from trade receivables). Such
procedures should ordinarily include:
– reviewing minutes of board/audit committee meetings;
– scrutinising latest interim financial statements/budgets/cash flows, etc;
– making/extending inquiries to legal advisors on litigation matters;
– inquiring of management whether any subsequent events have occurred that might affect the financial statements
(e.g. commitments entered into).
■ When the auditor becomes aware of events that materially affect the financial statements, the auditor must consider
whether they have been properly accounted for and adequately disclosed in the financial statements.
Facts discovered after the date of the auditor’s report but before financial statements are issued
Tutorial note: After the date of the auditor’s report it is management’s responsibility to inform. the auditor of facts which
may affect the financial statements.
■ If the auditor becomes aware of such facts which may materially affect the financial statements, the auditor:
– considers whether the financial statements need amendment;
– discusses the matter with management; and
– takes appropriate action (e.g. audit any amendments to the financial statements and issue a new auditor’s report).
■ If management does not amend the financial statements (where the auditor believes they need to be amended) and the
auditor’s report has not been released to the entity, the auditor should express a qualified opinion or an adverse opinion
(as appropriate).
■ If the auditor’s report has been released to the entity, the auditor must notify those charged with governance not to issue
the financial statements (and the auditor’s report thereon) to third parties.
Tutorial note: The auditor would seek legal advice if the financial statements and auditor’s report were subsequently issued.
Facts discovered after the financial statements have been issued
■ The auditor has no obligation to make any inquiry regarding financial statements that have been issued.
■ However, if the auditor becomes aware of a fact which existed at the date of the auditor’s report and which, if known
at that date, may have caused the auditor’s report to be modified, the auditor should:
– consider whether the financial statements need revision;
– discuss the matter with management; and
– take appropriate action (e.g. issuing a new report on revised financial statements).


(c) (i) Compute Gloria’s capital gains tax liability for 2006/07 ignoring any claims or elections available to

reduce the liability. (3 marks)

正确答案:

 


(c) (i) Explain how Messier Ltd can assist Galileo with the cost of relocating to the UK and/or provide him with

interest-free loan finance for this purpose without increasing his UK income tax liability; (3 marks)

正确答案:
(c) (i) Relocation costs
Direct assistance
Messier Ltd can bear the cost of certain qualifying relocation costs of Galileo up to a maximum of £8,000 without
increasing his UK income tax liability. Qualifying costs include the legal, professional and other fees in relation to the
purchase of a house, the costs of travelling to the UK and the cost of transporting his belongings. The costs must be
incurred before the end of the tax year following the year of the relocation, i.e. by 5 April 2010.
Assistance in the form. of a loan
Messier Ltd can provide Galileo with an interest-free loan of up to £5,000 without giving rise to any UK income tax.


ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选8节 第7节


Susan is aware of benchmarking as a useful input into performance measurement and strategic change.

(b) Assess the contribution benchmarking could make to improving the position of the Marlow Fashion Group

and any limitations to its usefulness. (8 marks)

正确答案:

(b) Benchmarking at Marlow Fashion will not be an easy exercise. Marlow Fashion has developed a distinctive way of reaching
its markets that means direct comparisons will be hard to make. Certainly, it can carry out historical benchmarking in
comparing how its own processes and activities have improved, or otherwise, over a relevant period of time. Unfortunately,
this is likely to simply confirm worsening performance. It can compare its own key operations against the ‘best in class’;
regardless of which industry the excellent performer comes from. It could and should have been carrying out competitive
benchmarking on the retail side of the business where information should be more easily available. There may be an
opportunity to benchmark itself against firms that have gone through a similar crisis and achieved a successful turnaround.

In terms of the advantages and disadvantages, the willingness of managers responsible for a key area of performance to
compare themselves against relevant external performance measures should make them take responsibility for any changes
necessary. In Marlow Fashion, the acceptance that things have to be done differently will be the first stage in the turnaround.
Getting managers face-to-face with the problems, accepting responsibility for change and recognising that the necessary
changes are ‘doable’ is an important stage in creating a willingness to change. The disadvantages are that every organisation
and situation is different and there is no one best way. Marlow Fashion thought it had discovered the best way and this created
an unwillingness to change. There is also the danger that you are solving today’s problems with yesterday’s solutions. A good
competitor will be trying to maintain its competitive advantage through constantly improving its processes. It also has a vested
interest in trying to prevent its improvements from being revealed to its competitors. Also, many of the ‘softer’ processes –
typically involving people – are difficult if not impossible to replicate in another organisation. These advantages are to do with
culture and leadership and not easily transferable to another organisation and the context in which it is operating.


(e) Briefly discuss FOUR initiatives that management might consider in order to further enhance profitability.

(4 marks)

正确答案:
(e) In order to enhance profitability management might take the following actions:
(i) Increase the maximum capacity of the circus.
(ii) Undertake a detailed review of operating costs which are budgeted at £239,200,000. Such a review might identify nonvalue
added costs which may be eliminated thereby increasing profitability.
(iii) Enter into a strategic arrangement with large hotels and travel agencies to offer travel and accommodation inclusive
arrangements for visitors to Cinola Island. This might help to increase the number of visitors to the zoo thereby increasing
profits.
(iv) Change the price structure and entitlement of tickets so that purchasers might visit Cinola Island on two separate days
in order to attend the zoo and circus. Additional revenues would arise as a consequence of the increased number of
visitors to the zoo, thereby increasing profitability.
(v) Hold prize draws for free tickets to the zoo for families on an ‘all-inclusive basis’, including restaurants, photographs,
souvenirs etc.
N.B. Only four initiatives were required to be discussed.


3 The Global Hotel Group (GHG) operates hotels in most of the developed countries throughout the world. The directors

of GHG are committed to a policy of achieving ‘growth’ in terms of geographical coverage and are now considering

building and operating another hotel in Tomorrowland. Tomorrowland is a developing country which is situated 3,000

kilometres from the country in which GHG’s nearest hotel is located.

The managing director of GHG recently attended a seminar on ‘the use of strategic and economic information in

planning organisational performance’.

He has called a board meeting to discuss the strategic and economic factors which should be considered before a

decision is made to build the hotel in Tomorrowland.

Required:

(a) Discuss the strategic and economic factors which should be considered before a decision is made to build

the hotel. (14 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Of vital importance is the need for reliable information on which to base the decision regarding the potential investment within
Tomorrowland, since the lack of such information will only serve to increase the risk profile of GHG.
The strategic factors that ought to be considered prior to a decision being made to build and operate a hotel in Tomorrowland
are as follows:
The competition
The key notion here is that of the position of GHG relative to its competitors who may have a presence or intend to have a
presence in Tomorrowland. The strategic management accounting system should be capable of coping with changes that can
and will inevitably occur in a dynamic business environment. Hence it is crucial that changes such as, the emergence of a
new competitor, are detected and reflected within strategic plans at the earliest opportunity.
The government
The attitude of the government of Tomorrowland towards foreign organisations requires careful consideration as inevitably the
government will be the country’s largest supplier, employer, customer and investor. The directors need to recognise that the
political environment of Tomorrowland could change dramatically with a change in the national government.
Planning and control of operations within Tomorrowland
Planning and control of operations within Tomorrowland will inevitably be more difficult as GHG might not possess sufficient
knowledge of the business environment within Tomorrowland. Indeed their nearest hotel is at least 3,000 kilometres away.
It is vital the GHG gain such knowledge prior to commencing operations within Tomorrowland in order to avoid undue risks.
The sociological–cultural constraints
While it is generally recognised that there is a growing acceptability of international brands this might not be the case with
regard to Tomorrowland. The attitude towards work, managers (especially foreign nationals) and capitalist organisations could
severely impact on the degree of success achieved within Tomorrowland. In this respect it is vital that consideration is given
to recognition of the relationships in economic life including demand, price, wages, training, and rates of labour turnover and
absenteeism.
Resource utilisation
A primary consideration relates to whether or not to use local labour in the construction of the hotel. The perceived
‘remoteness’ of Tomorrowland might make it an unattractive proposition for current employees of GHG, thereby presenting the
directors of GHG with a significant problem.
Communication
Consideration needs to be given to the communication problems that arise between different countries and in this respect
Tomorrowland is probably no exception. Language barriers will inevitably exist and this needs to be addressed at the earliest
opportunity to minimise any risks to GHG.
The economic factors that ought to be considered prior to a decision being made to build and operate a hotel in Tomorrowland
are as follows:
Resource availability
The hotel should be designed having given due consideration to the prevailing climatic conditions within Tomorrowland which
might necessitate the use of specific types of building materials. It might well be the case that such building materials are not
available locally, or are in such scarce supply in which case local supply would prove to be uneconomic.
Another consideration relates to local labour being available and reliable in terms of its quality.
Currency stability/restrictions
The stability of the currency within Tomorrowland assumes critical significance because profit repatriation is problematic in
situations where those profits are made in an unstable currency or one that is likely to depreciate against the home currency,
thereby precipitating sizeable losses on exchange. Any currency restrictions need to be given careful consideration. For
example, it might be the case that hotel guests would be prohibited from paying accommodation bills in a foreign currency
which would be problematic if the local currency was weak.
Legislation
All local and International legislation should be given careful consideration. It might be the case that local legislation via
various licences or legal requirements favour local hotels.
Demand
The potential demand within Tomorrowland will be linked to the local economy. It is a developing economy and this may
bode well for GHG. However, again the need for reliable information about the size of the market, the extent of competition,
likely future trends etc is of fundamental importance.
Financing
An important decision lies in the availability and associated costs of financing in Tomorrowland which might not have mature
enough capital markets due to its developmental state. Hence GHG might need to finance using alternative currencies.
Note: Other relevant comments would be acceptable.


(a) An assistant of yours has been criticised over a piece of assessed work that he produced for his study course for giving the definition of a non-current asset as ‘a physical asset of substantial cost, owned by the company, which will last longer than one year’.

Required:

Provide an explanation to your assistant of the weaknesses in his definition of non-current assets when

compared to the International Accounting Standards Board’s (IASB) view of assets. (4 marks)

(b) The same assistant has encountered the following matters during the preparation of the draft financial statements of Darby for the year ending 30 September 2009. He has given an explanation of his treatment of them.

(i) Darby spent $200,000 sending its staff on training courses during the year. This has already led to an

improvement in the company’s efficiency and resulted in cost savings. The organiser of the course has stated that the benefits from the training should last for a minimum of four years. The assistant has therefore treated the cost of the training as an intangible asset and charged six months’ amortisation based on the average date during the year on which the training courses were completed. (3 marks)

(ii) During the year the company started research work with a view to the eventual development of a new

processor chip. By 30 September 2009 it had spent $1·6 million on this project. Darby has a past history

of being particularly successful in bringing similar projects to a profitable conclusion. As a consequence the

assistant has treated the expenditure to date on this project as an asset in the statement of financial position.

Darby was also commissioned by a customer to research and, if feasible, produce a computer system to

install in motor vehicles that can automatically stop the vehicle if it is about to be involved in a collision. At

30 September 2009, Darby had spent $2·4 million on this project, but at this date it was uncertain as to

whether the project would be successful. As a consequence the assistant has treated the $2·4 million as an

expense in the income statement. (4 marks)

(iii) Darby signed a contract (for an initial three years) in August 2009 with a company called Media Today to

install a satellite dish and cabling system to a newly built group of residential apartments. Media Today will

provide telephone and television services to the residents of the apartments via the satellite system and pay

Darby $50,000 per annum commencing in December 2009. Work on the installation commenced on

1 September 2009 and the expenditure to 30 September 2009 was $58,000. The installation is expected

to be completed by 31 October 2009. Previous experience with similar contracts indicates that Darby will

make a total profit of $40,000 over the three years on this initial contract. The assistant correctly recorded

the costs to 30 September 2009 of $58,000 as a non-current asset, but then wrote this amount down to

$40,000 (the expected total profit) because he believed the asset to be impaired.

The contract is not a finance lease. Ignore discounting. (4 marks)

Required:

For each of the above items (i) to (iii) comment on the assistant’s treatment of them in the financial

statements for the year ended 30 September 2009 and advise him how they should be treated under

International Financial Reporting Standards.

Note: the mark allocation is shown against each of the three items above.

正确答案:
(a)Therearefourelementstotheassistant’sdefinitionofanon-currentassetandheissubstantiallyincorrectinrespectofallofthem.Thetermnon-currentassetswillnormallyincludeintangibleassetsandcertaininvestments;theuseoftheterm‘physicalasset’wouldbespecifictotangibleassetsonly.Whilstitisusuallythecasethatnon-currentassetsareofrelativelyhighvaluethisisnotadefiningaspect.Awastepaperbinmayexhibitthecharacteristicsofanon-currentasset,butonthegroundsofmaterialityitisunlikelytobetreatedassuch.Furthermorethepastcostofanassetmaybeirrelevant;nomatterhowmuchanassethascost,itistheexpectationoffutureeconomicbenefitsflowingfromaresource(normallyintheform.offuturecashinflows)thatdefinesanassetaccordingtotheIASB’sFrameworkforthepreparationandpresentationoffinancialstatements.Theconceptofownershipisnolongeracriticalaspectofthedefinitionofanasset.Itisprobablythecasethatmostnoncurrentassetsinanentity’sstatementoffinancialpositionareownedbytheentity;however,itistheabilityto‘control’assets(includingpreventingothersfromhavingaccesstothem)thatisnowadefiningfeature.Forexample:thisisanimportantcharacteristicintreatingafinanceleaseasanassetofthelesseeratherthanthelessor.Itisalsotruethatmostnon-currentassetswillbeusedbyanentityformorethanoneyearandapartofthedefinitionofproperty,plantandequipmentinIAS16Property,plantandequipmentreferstoanexpectationofuseinmorethanoneperiod,butthisisnotnecessarilyalwaysthecase.Itmaybethatanon-currentassetisacquiredwhichprovesunsuitablefortheentity’sintendeduseorisdamagedinanaccident.Inthesecircumstancesassetsmaynothavebeenusedforlongerthanayear,butneverthelesstheywerereportedasnon-currentsduringthetimetheywereinuse.Anon-currentassetmaybewithinayearoftheendofitsusefullifebut(unlessasaleagreementhasbeenreachedunderIFRS5Non-currentassetsheldforsaleanddiscontinuedoperations)wouldstillbereportedasanon-currentassetifitwasstillgivingeconomicbenefits.Anotherdefiningaspectofnon-currentassetsistheirintendedusei.e.heldforcontinuinguseintheproduction,supplyofgoodsorservices,forrentaltoothersorforadministrativepurposes.(b)(i)TheexpenditureonthetrainingcoursesmayexhibitthecharacteristicsofanassetinthattheyhaveandwillcontinuetobringfutureeconomicbenefitsbywayofincreasedefficiencyandcostsavingstoDarby.However,theexpenditurecannotberecognisedasanassetonthestatementoffinancialpositionandmustbechargedasanexpenseasthecostisincurred.Themainreasonforthislieswiththeissueof’control’;itisDarby’semployeesthathavethe‘skills’providedbythecourses,buttheemployeescanleavethecompanyandtaketheirskillswiththemor,throughaccidentorinjury,maybedeprivedofthoseskills.AlsothecapitalisationofstafftrainingcostsisspecificallyprohibitedunderInternationalFinancialReportingStandards(specificallyIAS38Intangibleassets).(ii)Thequestionspecificallystatesthatthecostsincurredtodateonthedevelopmentofthenewprocessorchipareresearchcosts.IAS38statesthatresearchcostsmustbeexpensed.Thisismainlybecauseresearchistherelativelyearlystageofanewprojectandanyfuturebenefitsaresofarinthefuturethattheycannotbeconsideredtomeetthedefinitionofanasset(probablefutureeconomicbenefits),despitethegoodrecordofsuccessinthepastwithsimilarprojects.Althoughtheworkontheautomaticvehiclebrakingsystemisstillattheresearchstage,thisisdifferentinnaturefromthepreviousexampleastheworkhasbeencommissionedbyacustomer,Assuch,fromtheperspectiveofDarby,itisworkinprogress(acurrentasset)andshouldnotbewrittenoffasanexpense.Anoteofcautionshouldbeaddedhereinthatthequestionsaysthatthesuccessoftheprojectisuncertainwhichpresumablymeansitmaynotbecompleted.ThisdoesnotmeanthatDarbywillnotreceivepaymentfortheworkithascarriedout,butitshouldbecheckedtothecontracttoensurethattheamountithasspenttodate($2·4million)willberecoverable.Intheeventthatsay,forexample,thecontractstatedthatonly$2millionwouldbeallowedforresearchcosts,thiswouldplacealimitonhowmuchDarbycouldtreatasworkinprogress.Ifthiswerethecasethen,forthisexample,Darbywouldhavetoexpense$400,000andtreatonly$2millionasworkinprogress.(iii)Thequestionsuggeststhecorrecttreatmentforthiskindofcontractistotreatthecostsoftheinstallationasanon-currentassetand(presumably)depreciateitoveritsexpectedlifeof(atleast)threeyearsfromwhenitbecomesavailableforuse.Inthiscasetheassetwillnotcomeintouseuntilthenextfinancialyear/reportingperiodandnodepreciationneedstobeprovidedat30September2009.Thecapitalisedcoststodateof$58,000shouldonlybewrittendownifthereisevidencethattheassethasbecomeimpaired.Impairmentoccurswheretherecoverableamountofanassetislessthanitscarryingamount.Theassistantappearstobelievethattherecoverableamountisthefutureprofit,whereas(inthiscase)itisthefuture(net)cashinflows.Thusanyimpairmenttestat30September2009shouldcomparethecarryingamountof$58,000withtheexpectednetcashflowfromthesystemof$98,000($50,000perannumforthreeyearslessfuturecashoutflowstocompletiontheinstallationof$52,000(seenotebelow)).Asthefuturenetcashflowsareinexcessofthecarryingamount,theassetisnotimpairedanditshouldnotbewrittendownbutshownasanon-currentasset(underconstruction)atcostof$58,000.Note:asthecontractisexpectedtomakeaprofitof$40,000onincomeof$150,000,thetotalcostsmustbe$110,000,withcoststodateat$58,000thisleavescompletioncostsof$52,000.


(b) (i) Calculate Amanda’s income tax payable for the tax year 2006/07; (11 marks)

正确答案:

 


ACCA/CAT考试历年真题精选8节 第8节


12 Which of the following statements are correct?

(1) Contingent assets are included as assets in financial statements if it is probable that they will arise.

(2) Contingent liabilities must be provided for in financial statements if it is probable that they will arise.

(3) Details of all adjusting events after the balance sheet date must be given in notes to the financial statements.

(4) Material non-adjusting events are disclosed by note in the financial statements.

A 1 and 2

B 2 and 4

C 3 and 4

D 1 and 3

正确答案:B


24 Sigma’s bank statement shows an overdrawn balance of $38,600 at 30 June 2005. A check against the company’s cash book revealed the following differences:

1 Bank charges of $200 have not been entered in the cash book.

2 Lodgements recorded on 30 June 2005 but credited by the bank on 2 July $14,700.

3 Cheque payments entered in cash book but not presented for payment at 30 June 2005 $27,800.

4 A cheque payment to a supplier of $4,200 charged to the account in June 2005 recorded in the cash book as a receipt.

Based on this information, what was the cash book balance BEFORE any adjustments?

A $43,100 overdrawn

B $16,900 overdrawn

C $60,300 overdrawn

D $34,100 overdrawn

正确答案:A


6 An important part of managing people in a professional organisation is to be able to distinguish between aggressiveness and assertiveness in an employee.

Required:

(a) Explain and give examples of aggressive behaviour. (8 marks)

正确答案:
6 To get the best out of people, managers need to have effective communication skills. Professional accountants as managers need to understand the difference between aggressive and assertive behaviour. Often an exchange of communication can be interpreted as a belligerent response from an employee. However, a slight difference in approach can communicate different feelings and achieve a more positive result.
(a) Aggressive behaviour is competitive and directed at defeating someone else. It is standing up for oneself at the expense of other people. It is defending one’s rights but doing so in such a way that violates the rights of other people. Aggressive behaviour ignores or dismisses the needs, wants, opinions, feelings or beliefs of others.
Characteristics of aggressive behaviour include excessive ‘I’ statements, boastfulness, and the individual’s opinions expressed as fact, threatening questions or postures from the individual, sarcasm and other throw-away remarks and a constant blaming of others.
Aggressive behaviour can be self defeating. It may cause such antagonism in the others in the organisation that they will refuse to co-operate or work with the person showing aggressive behaviour.


6 Communication is important for all organisations and requires an understanding of communication flows and channels.

Required:

(a) Briefly explain the main purposes of the three main formal communication channels in an organisation:

(i) Downwards; (3 marks)

正确答案:
6 There are many forms of communication within an organisation, both formal and informal. Formally communicated information often flows in one of three main directions: downwards, upwards and lateral. However, all organisations also have informal communication channels and management must understand their importance.
(a) Formal communicated information flows in three main directions.
(i) Downwards. This form. of communication is often the one most easily recognised and understood. The purpose of downward communication is to give specific directives, to provide information about procedures and practices and to provide information about work practices. It also serves to tell employees about their performance and provides information on organisational and departmental objectives.


(a) Contrast the role of internal and external auditors. (8 marks)

(b) Conoy Co designs and manufactures luxury motor vehicles. The company employs 2,500 staff and consistently makes a net profit of between 10% and 15% of sales. Conoy Co is not listed; its shares are held by 15 individuals, most of them from the same family. The maximum shareholding is 15% of the share capital.

The executive directors are drawn mainly from the shareholders. There are no non-executive directors because the company legislation in Conoy Co’s jurisdiction does not require any. The executive directors are very successful in running Conoy Co, partly from their training in production and management techniques, and partly from their ‘hands-on’ approach providing motivation to employees.

The board are considering a significant expansion of the company. However, the company’s bankers are

concerned with the standard of financial reporting as the financial director (FD) has recently left Conoy Co. The board are delaying provision of additional financial information until a new FD is appointed.

Conoy Co does have an internal audit department, although the chief internal auditor frequently comments that the board of Conoy Co do not understand his reports or provide sufficient support for his department or the internal control systems within Conoy Co. The board of Conoy Co concur with this view. Anders & Co, the external auditors have also expressed concern in this area and the fact that the internal audit department focuses work on control systems, not financial reporting. Anders & Co are appointed by and report to the board of Conoy Co.

The board of Conoy Co are considering a proposal from the chief internal auditor to establish an audit committee.

The committee would consist of one executive director, the chief internal auditor as well as three new appointees.

One appointee would have a non-executive seat on the board of directors.

Required:

Discuss the benefits to Conoy Co of forming an audit committee. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a)Roleofinternalandexternalauditors–differencesObjectivesThemainobjectiveofinternalauditistoimproveacompany’soperations,primarilyintermsofvalidatingtheefficiencyandeffectivenessoftheinternalcontrolsystemsofacompany.Themainobjectiveoftheexternalauditoristoexpressanopiniononthetruthandfairnessofthefinancialstatements,andotherjurisdictionspecificrequirementssuchasconfirmingthatthefinancialstatementscomplywiththereportingrequirementsincludedinlegislation.ReportingInternalauditreportsarenormallyaddressedtotheboardofdirectors,orotherpeoplechargedwithgovernancesuchastheauditcommittee.Thosereportsarenotpubliclyavailable,beingconfidentialbetweentheinternalauditorandtherecipient.Externalauditreportsareprovidedtotheshareholdersofacompany.Thereportisattachedtotheannualfinancialstatementsofthecompanyandisthereforepubliclyavailabletotheshareholdersandanyreaderofthefinancialstatements.ScopeofworkTheworkoftheinternalauditornormallyrelatestotheoperationsoftheorganisation,includingthetransactionprocessingsystemsandthesystemstoproducetheannualfinancialstatements.Theinternalauditormayalsoprovideotherreportstomanagement,suchasvalueformoneyauditswhichexternalauditorsrarelybecomeinvolvedwith.Theworkoftheexternalauditorrelatesonlytothefinancialstatementsoftheorganisation.However,theinternalcontrolsystemsoftheorganisationwillbetestedastheseprovideevidenceonthecompletenessandaccuracyofthefinancialstatements.RelationshipwithcompanyInmostorganisations,theinternalauditorisanemployeeoftheorganisation,whichmayhaveanimpactontheauditor’sindependence.However,insomeorganisationstheinternalauditfunctionisoutsourced.Theexternalauditorisappointedbytheshareholdersofanorganisation,providingsomedegreeofindependencefromthecompanyandmanagement.(b)BenefitsofauditcommitteeinConoyCoAssistancewithfinancialreporting(nofinanceexpertise)TheexecutivedirectorsofConoyCodonotappeartohaveanyspecificfinancialskills–asthefinancialdirectorhasrecentlyleftthecompanyandhasnotyetbeenreplaced.ThismaymeanthatfinancialreportinginConoyCoislimitedorthattheothernon-financialdirectorsspendasignificantamountoftimekeepinguptodateonfinancialreportingissues.AnauditcommitteewillassistConoyCobyprovidingspecialistknowledgeoffinancialreportingonatemporarybasis–atleastoneofthenewappointeesshouldhaverelevantandrecentfinancialreportingexperienceundercodesofcorporategovernance.ThiswillallowtheexecutivedirectorstofocusonrunningConoyCo.EnhanceinternalcontrolsystemsTheboardofConoyCodonotnecessarilyunderstandtheworkoftheinternalauditor,ortheneedforcontrolsystems.ThismeansthatinternalcontrolwithinConoyComaybeinadequateorthatemployeesmaynotrecognisetheimportanceofinternalcontrolsystemswithinanorganisation.TheauditcommitteecanraiseawarenessoftheneedforgoodinternalcontrolsystemssimplybybeingpresentinConoyCoandbyeducatingtheboardontheneedforsoundcontrols.Improvingtheinternalcontrol‘climate’willensuretheneedforinternalcontrolsisunderstoodandreducecontrolerrors.RelianceonexternalauditorsConoyCo’sinternalauditorscurrentlyreporttotheboardofConoyCo.Aspreviouslynoted,thelackoffinancialandcontrolexpertiseontheboardwillmeanthatexternalauditorreportsandadvicewillnotnecessarilybeunderstood–andtheboardmayrelytoomuchonexternalauditorsIfConoyCoreporttoanauditcommitteethiswilldecreasethedependenceoftheboardontheexternalauditors.Theauditcommitteecantaketimetounderstandtheexternalauditor’scomments,andthenviathenon-executivedirector,ensurethattheboardtakeactiononthosecomments.AppointmentofexternalauditorsAtpresent,theboardofConoyCoappointtheexternalauditors.Thisraisesissuesofindependenceastheboardmaybecometoofamiliarwiththeexternalauditorsandsoappointonthisfriendshipratherthanmerit.Ifanauditcommitteeisestablished,thenthiscommitteecanrecommendtheappointmentoftheexternalauditors.Thecommitteewillhavethetimeandexpertisetoreviewthequalityofserviceprovidedbytheexternalauditors,removingtheindependenceissue.Corporategovernancerequirements–bestpracticeConoyCodonotneedtofollowcorporategovernancerequirements(thecompanyisnotlisted).However,notfollowingthoserequirementsmaystarttohaveadverseeffectsonConoy.Forexample,ConoyCo’sbankisalreadyconcernedaboutthelackoftransparencyinreporting.EstablishinganauditcommitteewillshowthattheboardofConoyCoarecommittedtomaintainingappropriateinternalsystemsinthecompanyandprovidingthestandardofreportingexpectedbylargecompanies.Obtainingthenewbankloanshouldalsobeeasierasthebankwillbesatisfiedwithfinancialreportingstandards.Givennonon-executives–independentadvicetoboardCurrentlyConoyCodoesnothaveanynon-executivedirectors.Thismeansthatthedecisionsoftheexecutivedirectorsarenotbeingchallengedbyotherdirectorsindependentofthecompanyandwithlittleornofinancialinterestinthecompany.Theappointmentofanauditcommitteewithonenon-executivedirectorontheboardofConoyCowillstarttoprovidesomenon-executiveinputtoboardmeetings.Whilenotsufficientintermsofcorporategovernancerequirements(aboutequalnumbersofexecutiveandnon-executivedirectorsareexpected)itdoesshowtheboardofConoyCoareattemptingtoestablishappropriategovernancesystems.AdviceonriskmanagementFinally,thereareothergeneralareaswhereConoyCowouldbenefitfromanauditcommittee.Forexample,lackofcorporategovernancestructuresprobablymeansConoyCodoesnothaveariskmanagementcommittee.Theauditcommitteecanalsoprovideadviceonriskmanagement,helpingtodecreasetheriskexposureofthecompany.