22年ACCA/CAT考试题目下载6卷

发布时间:2022-03-07
22年ACCA/CAT考试题目下载6卷

22年ACCA/CAT考试题目下载6卷 第1卷


4 In addition to the application form. and interview, references provide further confidential information about the

prospective employee.

Required:

(a) Define the purpose of a reference. (3 marks)

正确答案:
4 Overview:
References are used by most employers as a key part of their selection process, but mainly to verify facts about the candidate rather
than as an aid to decision making. The reference check is usually the last stage in the selection process and referees should be
contacted only after permission has been given by the applicant. Good referees are almost certain to know more about the
applicant than the selector and it would be foolish not to seek their advice or treat the reference check as a mere formality.
Part (a)
References provide further confidential information about the prospective employee. This may be of varying value, as the reliability
of all but the most factual information must be in question.
The purpose of a reference is to obtain straightforward factual information confirming the nature of the applicant’s previous job(s),
the period of employment, current pay and the circumstances for wishing to leave the present employment and to seek opinions
about the applicant’s personality and other attributes. However, allowance must be made for prejudice and charity.


16 Which of the following events between the balance sheet date and the date the financial statements are

authorised for issue must be adjusted in the financial statements?

1 Declaration of equity dividends.

2 Decline in market value of investments.

3 The announcement of changes in tax rates.

4 The announcement of a major restructuring.

A 1

A 1 only

B 2 and 4

C 3 only

D None of them

正确答案:D


JOL Co was the market leader with a share of 30% three years ago. The managing director of JOL Co stated at a

recent meeting of the board of directors that: ‘our loss of market share during the last three years might lead to the

end of JOL Co as an organisation and therefore we must address this issue immediately’.

Required:

(b) Discuss the statement of the managing director of JOL Co and discuss six performance indicators, other than

decreasing market share, which might indicate that JOL Co might fail as a corporate entity. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(b) It would appear that JOL’s market share has declined from 30% to (80 – 26)/3 = 18% during the last three years. A 12%
fall in market share is probably very significant with a knock-on effect on profits and resultant cash flows. Obviously such a
declining trend needs to be arrested immediately and this will require a detailed investigation to be undertaken by the directors
of JOL. Consequently loss of market share can be seen to be an indicator of potential corporate failure. Other indicators of
corporate failure are as follows:
Six performance indicators that an organisation might fail are as follows:
Poor cash flow
Poor cash flow might render an organisation unable to pay its debts as and when they fall due for payment. This might mean,
for example, that providers of finance might be able to invoke the terms of a loan covenant and commence legal action against
an organisation which might eventually lead to its winding-up.
Lack of new production/service introduction
Innovation can often be seen to be the difference between ‘life and death’ as new products and services provide continuity
of income streams in an ever-changing business environment. A lack of new product/service introduction may arise from a
shortage of funds available for re-investment. This can lead to organisations attempting to compete with their competitors with
an out of date range of products and services, the consequences of which will invariably turn out to be disastrous.
General economic conditions
Falling demand and increasing interest rates can precipitate the demise of organisations. Highly geared organisations will
suffer as demand falls and the weight of the interest burden increases. Organisations can find themselves in a vicious circle
as increasing amounts of interest payable are paid from diminishing gross margins leading to falling profits/increasing losses
and negative cash flows. This leads to the need for further loan finance and even higher interest burden, further diminution
in margins and so on.
Lack of financial controls
The absence of sound financial controls has proven costly to many organisations. In extreme circumstances it can lead to
outright fraud (e.g. Enron and WorldCom).
Internal rivalry
The extent of internal rivalry that exists within an organisation can prove to be of critical significance to an organisation as
managerial effort is effectively channeled into increasing the amount of internal conflict that exists to the detriment of the
organisation as a whole. Unfortunately the adverse consequences of internal rivalry remain latent until it is too late to redress
them.
Loss of key personnel
In certain types of organisation the loss of key personnel can ‘spell the beginning of the end’ for an organisation. This is
particularly the case when individuals possess knowledge which can be exploited by direct competitors, e.g. sales contacts,
product specifications, product recipes, etc.


(ii) Deema Co. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Deema Co
The claim is an event after the balance sheet date. If the accident occurred prior to the year end of 30 September 2007,
the claim gives additional evidence of a year end condition, and thus meets the definition of an adjusting post balance
sheet event. In this case the matter appears to have been properly disclosed in the notes to the financial statements per
IAS 10 Events After the Balance Sheet Date and IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. A
provision would only be necessary if the claim was probable to succeed and there is sufficient appropriate evidence that
this is not the case. There is therefore no disagreement, and no limitation on scope.
Therefore the senior is correct to propose an unqualified opinion.
However, it is not necessary for the audit report to contain an emphasis of matter paragraph.
ISA 701 Modifications to the Independent Auditor’s Report states that an emphasis of matter paragraph should be used
to highlight a matter where there is significant uncertainty.
Uncertainties are normally only regarded as significant if they involve a level of concern about the going concern status
of the company or would have an unusually great effect on the financial statements. This is not the case here as there
is enough cash to pay the damages in the unlikely event that the claim goes against Deema Co. This appears to be a
one-off situation with a low risk of the estimate being subject to change and thus there is no significant uncertainty.


(b) You are an audit manager with specific responsibility for reviewing other information in documents containing

audited financial statements before your firm’s auditor’s report is signed. The financial statements of Hegas, a

privately-owned civil engineering company, show total assets of $120 million, revenue of $261 million, and profit

before tax of $9·2 million for the year ended 31 March 2005. Your review of the Annual Report has revealed

the following:

(i) The statement of changes in equity includes $4·5 million under a separate heading of ‘miscellaneous item’

which is described as ‘other difference not recognized in income’. There is no further reference to this

amount or ‘other difference’ elsewhere in the financial statements. However, the Management Report, which

is required by statute, is not audited. It discloses that ‘changes in shareholders’ equity not recognized in

income includes $4·5 million arising on the revaluation of investment properties’.

The notes to the financial statements state that the company has implemented IAS 40 ‘Investment Property’

for the first time in the year to 31 March 2005 and also that ‘the adoption of this standard did not have a

significant impact on Hegas’s financial position or its results of operations during 2005’.

(ii) The chairman’s statement asserts ‘Hegas has now achieved a position as one of the world’s largest

generators of hydro-electricity, with a dedicated commitment to accountable ethical professionalism’. Audit

working papers show that 14% of revenue was derived from hydro-electricity (2004: 12%). Publicly

available information shows that there are seven international suppliers of hydro-electricity in Africa alone,

which are all at least three times the size of Hegas in terms of both annual turnover and population supplied.

Required:

Identify and comment on the implications of the above matters for the auditor’s report on the financial

statements of Hegas for the year ended 31 March 2005. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Implications for the auditor’s report
(i) Management Report
■ $4·5 million represents 3·75% of total assets, 1·7% of revenue and 48·9% profit before tax. As this is material
by any criteria (exceeding all of 2% of total assets, 1/2% revenue and 5% PBT), the specific disclosure requirements
of IASs need to be met (IAS 1 ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’).
■ The Management Report discloses the amount and the reason for a material change in equity whereas the financial
statements do not show the reason for the change and suggest that it is immaterial. As the increase in equity
attributable to this adjustment is nearly half as much as that attributable to PBT there is a material inconsistency
between the Management Report and the audited financial statements.
■ Amendment to the Management Report is not required.
Tutorial note: Marks will be awarded for arguing, alternatively, that the Management Report disclosure needs to
be amended to clarify that the revaluation arises from the first time implementation.
■ Amendment to the financial statements is required because the disclosure is:
– incorrect – as, on first adoption of IAS 40, the fair value adjustment should be against the opening balance
of retained earnings; and
– inadequate – because it is being ‘supplemented’ by additional disclosure in a document which is not within
the scope of the audit of financial statements.
■ Whilst it is true that the adoption of IAS 40 did not have a significant impact on results of operations, Hegas’s
financial position has increased by nearly 4% in respect of the revaluation (to fair value) of just one asset category
(investment properties). As this is significant, the statement in the notes should be redrafted.
■ If the financial statements are not amended, the auditor’s report should be qualified ‘except for’ on grounds of
disagreement (non-compliance with IAS 40) as the matter is material but not pervasive. Additional disclosure
should also be given (e.g. that the ‘other difference’ is a fair value adjustment).
■ However, it is likely that when faced with the prospect of a qualified auditor’s report Hegas’s management will
rectify the financial statements so that an unmodified auditor’s report can be issued.
Tutorial note: Marks will be awarded for other relevant points e.g. citing IAS 8 ‘Accounting Policies, Changes in
Accounting Estimates and Errors’.
(ii) Chairman’s statement
Tutorial note: Hegas is privately-owned therefore IAS 14 ‘Segment Reporting’ does not apply and the proportion of
revenue attributable to hydro-electricity will not be required to be disclosed in the financial statements. However, credit
will be awarded for discussing the implications for the auditor’s report if it is regarded as a material inconsistency on
the assumption that segment revenue (or similar) is reported in the financial statements.
■ The assertion in the chairman’s statement, which does not fall within the scope of the audit of the financial
statements, claims two things, namely that the company:
(1) is ‘one of the world’s largest generators of hydro-electricity’; and
(2) has ‘a dedicated commitment to accountable ethical professionalism’.
■ To the extent that this information does not relate to matters disclosed in the financial statements it may give rise
to a material misstatement of fact. In particular, the first statement presents a misleading impression of the
company’s size. In misleading a user of the financial statements with this statement, the second statement is not
true (as it is not ethical or professional to mislead the reader and potentially undermine the credibility of the
financial statements).
■ The first statement is a material misstatement of fact because, for example:
– the company is privately-owned, and publicly-owned international/multi-nationals are larger;
– the company’s main activity is civil engineering not electricity generation (only 14% of revenue is derived from
HEP);
– as the company ranks at best eighth against African companies alone it ranks much lower globally.
■ Hegas should be asked to reconsider the wording of the chairman’s statement (i.e. removing these assertions) and
consult, as necessary, the company’s legal advisor.
■ If the statement is not changed there will be no grounds for qualification of the opinion on the audited financial
statements. The audit firm should therefore take legal advice on how the matter should be reported.
■ However, an emphasis of matter paragraph may be used to report on matters other than those affecting the audited
financial statements. For example, to explain the misstatement of fact if management refuses to make the
amendment.
Tutorial note: Marks will also be awarded for relevant comments about the chairman’s statement being perceived by
many readers to be subject to audit and therefore that the unfounded statement might undermine the credibility of the
financial statements. Shareholders tend to rely on the chairman’s statement, even though it is not regulated or audited,
because modern financial statements are so complex.


2 Which of the following are correct?

1. The balance sheet value of inventory should be as close as possible to net realisable value.

2. The valuation of finished goods inventory must include production overheads.

3. Production overheads included in valuing inventory should be calculated by reference to the company’s normal

level of production during the period.

4. In assessing net realisable value, inventory items must be considered separately, or in groups of similar items,

not by taking the inventory value as a whole.

A 1 and 2 only

B 3 and 4 only

C 1 and 3 only

D 2, 3 and 4

正确答案:D


(iii) State the value added tax (VAT) and stamp duty (SD) issues arising as a result of inserting Bold plc as

a holding company and identify any planning actions that can be taken to defer or minimise these tax

costs. (4 marks)

You should assume that the corporation tax rates for the financial year 2005 and the income tax rates

and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 apply throughout this question.

正确答案:
(iii) Bold plc will be making a taxable supply of services, likely to exceed the VAT threshold. It should therefore consider
registering for VAT – either immediately on a voluntary basis, or when its cumulative taxable supplies in the previous
twelve months exceed £60,000.
As an alternative, the new group can apply for a group VAT registration. This will simplify its VAT administration as intragroup
transactions are broadly disregarded for VAT purposes, and only one VAT return is required for the group as a
whole.
Stamp duty normally applies at 0·5% on the consideration payable in respect of transactions in shares. However, an
exemption is available in the case of a takeover, reconstruction or amalgamation where there is no real change in
ownership, i.e. the new shareholdings mirror the old shareholdings, and the transaction is for commercial purposes. The
insertion of a new holding company over an existing company, as proposed here, would qualify for this exemption.
There is no VAT on transactions in shares.


(b) Comment (with relevant calculations) on the performance of the business of Quicklink Ltd and Celer

Transport during the year ended 31 May 2005 and, insofar as the information permits, its projected

performance for the year ending 31 May 2006. Your answer should specifically consider:

(i) Revenue generation per vehicle

(ii) Vehicle utilisation and delivery mix

(iii) Service quality. (14 marks)

正确答案:

difference will reduce in the year ending 31 May 2006 due to the projected growth in sales volumes of the Celer Transport
business. The average mail/parcels delivery of mail/parcels per vehicle of the Quicklink Ltd part of the business is budgeted
at 12,764 which is still 30·91% higher than that of the Celer Transport business.
As far as specialist activities are concerned, Quicklink Ltd is budgeted to generate average revenues per vehicle amounting to
£374,850 whilst Celer Transport is budgeted to earn an average of £122,727 from each of the vehicles engaged in delivery
of processed food. It is noticeable that all contracts with major food producers were renewed on 1 June 2005 and it would
appear that there were no increases in the annual value of the contracts with major food producers. This might have been
the result of a strategic decision by the management of the combined entity in order to secure the future of this part of the
business which had been built up previously by the management of Celer Transport.
Each vehicle owned by Quicklink Ltd and Celer Transport is in use for 340 days during each year, which based on a
365 day year would give an in use % of 93%. This appears acceptable given the need for routine maintenance and repairs
due to wear and tear.
During the year ended 31 May 2005 the number of on-time deliveries of mail and parcel and industrial machinery deliveries
were 99·5% and 100% respectively. This compares with ratios of 82% and 97% in respect of mail and parcel and processed
food deliveries made by Celer Transport. In this critical area it is worth noting that Quicklink Ltd achieved their higher on-time
delivery target of 99% in respect of each activity whereas Celer Transport were unable to do so. Moreover, it is worth noting
that Celer Transport missed their target time for delivery of food products on 975 occasions throughout the year 31 May 2005
and this might well cause a high level of customer dissatisfaction and even result in lost business.
It is interesting to note that whilst the businesses operate in the same industry they have a rather different delivery mix in
terms of same day/next day demands by clients. Same day deliveries only comprise 20% of the business of Quicklink Ltd
whereas they comprise 75% of the business of Celer Transport. This may explain why the delivery performance of Celer
Transport with regard to mail and parcel deliveries was not as good as that of Quicklink Ltd.
The fact that 120 items of mail and 25 parcels were lost by the Celer Transport business is most disturbing and could prove
damaging as the safe delivery of such items is the very substance of the business and would almost certainly have resulted
in a loss of customer goodwill. This is an issue which must be addressed as a matter of urgency.
The introduction of the call management system by Quicklink Ltd on 1 June 2004 is now proving its worth with 99% of calls
answered within the target time of 20 seconds. This compares favourably with the Celer Transport business in which only
90% of a much smaller volume of calls were answered within a longer target time of 30 seconds. Future performance in this
area will improve if the call management system is applied to the Celer Transport business. In particular, it is likely that the
number of abandoned calls will be reduced and enhance the ‘image’ of the Celer Transport business.


2 Graeme, aged 57, is married to Catherine, aged 58. They work as medical consultants, and both are higher rate

taxpayers. Barry, their son, is aged 32. Graeme, Catherine and Barry are all UK resident, ordinarily resident and

domiciled. Graeme has come to you for some tax advice.

Graeme has invested in shares for some time, in particular shares in Thistle Dubh Limited. He informs you of the

following transactions in Thistle Dubh Limited shares:

(i) In December 1986, on the death of his grandmother, he inherited 10,000 £1 ordinary shares in Thistle Dubh

Limited, an unquoted UK trading company providing food supplies for sporting events. The probate value of the

shares was 360p per share.

(ii) In March 1992, he took up a rights issue, buying one share for every two held. The price paid for the rights

shares was £10 per share.

(iii) In October 1999, the company underwent a reorganisation, and the ordinary shares were split into two new

classes of ordinary share – ‘T’ shares and ‘D’ shares, each with differing rights. Graeme received two ‘T’ and three

‘D’ shares for each original Thistle Dubh Limited share held. The market values for the ‘T’ shares and the ‘D’

shares on the date of reorganisation were 135p and 405p per share respectively.

(iv) On 1 May 2005, Graeme sold 12,000 ‘T’ shares. The market values for the ‘T’ shares and the ‘D’ shares on that

day were 300p and 600p per share respectively.

(v) In October 2005, Graeme sold all of his ‘D’ shares for £85,000.

(vi) The current market value of ‘T’ shares is 384p per share. The shares remain unquoted.

Graeme and Catherine have owned a holiday cottage in a remote part of the UK for many years. In recent years, they

have used the property infrequently, as they have taken their holidays abroad and the cottage has been let out as

furnished holiday accommodation.

Graeme and Catherine are now considering selling the UK country cottage and purchasing a holiday villa abroad.

Initially they plan to let this villa out on a furnished basis, but following their anticipated retirement, would expect to

occupy the property for a significant part of the year themselves, possibly moving to live in the villa permanently.

Required:

(a) Calculate the total chargeable gains arising on Graeme’s disposals of ‘T’ and ‘D’ ordinary shares in May and

October 2005 respectively. (7 marks)

正确答案:

 


22年ACCA/CAT考试题目下载6卷 第2卷


(d) Discuss the main benefits that might accrue from the successful implementation of a Total Quality

Management programme by the management of the combined entity. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(d) The benefits that might accrue from the successful implementation of a Total quality management programme by the
management of the combined entity include the following:
– There will be an increased awareness of all personnel within Quicklink Ltd of the need to establish a ‘quality culture’
within the company which will provide a basis of improved performance throughout the organisation.
– The successful adoption of a TQM philosophy would ensure that there is a real commitment to ‘continuous improvement’
in all processes.
– It would place a greater focus on customer satisfaction since at the heart of any TQM programme is a deep-seated
commitment to the satisfaction of every customer.
– There would be a greater emphasis upon teamwork which would be used in a number of forms e.g. quality circles which
could be established with a view to improving performance within every area of the business. The fostering of team spirit
will also improve communication within Quicklink Ltd.
– A major characteristic of a TQM programme is process-redesign which is used to simplify processes, systems,
procedures and the organisation itself. In this respect the adoption of a TQM philosophy will be invaluable since the
integration of the Quicklink Ltd and Celer Transport businesses will require, of necessity, a detailed review of those
processes currently employed.
– The adoption of a TQM philosophy will necessitate the monitoring of quality costs in order to measure whether the
objective of continuous improvement is being achieved. In this respect the aim will be to eliminate internal failure costs
such as late deliveries and lost items which are clearly detrimental to a business which operates in the transport and
haulage industry.


(iii) State any disadvantages to the relief in (i) that Sharon should be aware of, and identify and describe

another relief that she might use. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(iii) There are several disadvantages to incorporation relief as follows:
1. The requirement to transfer all business assets to the company means that it will not be possible to leave behind
certain assets, such as the property. This might lead to a double tax charge (sale of the property, then extraction
of sale proceeds) at a future date.
2. Taper relief is lost on the transfer of the business. This means that any disposal of chargeable business assets (the
shares) within two years of the incorporation will lead to a higher chargeable gain, as the full rate of business asset
taper relief will not be available.
3. The relief does not eliminate the tax charge, it merely defers the payment of tax until some future event. The
deferred gain will become taxable when Sharon sells her shares in the company.
Gift relief could be used instead of incorporation relief. The assets would be gifted to the company for no consideration,
with the base cost of the assets to the company being reduced by the deferred gain arising. Unlike incorporation relief,
gift relief applies to individual assets used in a trade and not to an entire business. This is particularly useful if the
transferor wishes to retain some assets, such as property outside the company, as not all assets have to be transferred.
Note: If the business was non-trading, incorporation relief would still be available, but gift relief would not. However,
this restriction should not apply to Sharon and gift relief remains an option in this case.


(ii) Discuss whether gains and losses that have been reported initially in one section of the performance

statement should be ‘recycled’ in a later period in another section and whether only ‘realised’ gains and

losses should be included in such a statement. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Recycling is an issue for both the current performance statements and the single statement. Recycling occurs where an
item of financial performance is reported in more than one accounting period because the nature of the item has in some
way changed. It raises the question as to whether gains and losses originally reported in one section of the statement
should be reported in another section at a later date. An example would be gains/losses on the retranslation of the net
investment in an overseas subsidiary. These gains could be reported annually on the retranslation of the subsidiary and
then again when the subsidiary was sold.
The main arguments for recycling to take place are as follows:
1. when unrealised items become realised they should be shown again
2. when uncertain measurements become certain they should be reported again
3. all items should be shown in operating or financing activities at some point in time as all items of performance are
ultimately part of operating or financing activities of an entity.
There is no conceptual justification for recycling. Once an item has been recognised in a statement of financial
performance it should not be recognised again in a future period in a different part of that statement. Once an item is
recognised in the statement there is an assumption that it can be reliably measured and therefore it should be recognised
in the appropriate section of the statement with no reason to show it again.
Gains and losses should not be based on the notion of realisation. Realisation may have been a critical event historically
but given the current financial exposures of many entities, such a principle has limited value. A realised gain reflects the
same economic gain as an unrealised gain. Items should be classified in the performance statement on the basis of
characteristics which are more useful than realisation. The effect of realisation is explained better in the cash flow
statement. Realisation means different things in different countries. In Europe and Asia it refers to the amount of
distributable profits but in the USA it refers to capital maintenance. The amount of distributable profits is not an
accounting but a legal issue, and therefore realisation should not be the overriding determinant of the reporting of gains
and losses.
An alternative view could be that an unrealised gain is more subjective than a realised gain. In many countries, realised
gains are recognised for distribution purposes because of their certainty because this gives more economic stability to
the payment of dividends.


(b) Assess the extent to which social responsibility issues could and should affect his decision to move into the

new product area. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Recent corporate scandals have increased the critical awareness of the need for business to operate ethically and in a socially
responsible way. This is seen largely in the context of large firms and their governance but as the Concrete Solutions scenario
shows small owner-managed firms are not immune from taking difficult decisions that have differing and significant impacts
on the firm’s stakeholders and their expectations. Johnson, Scholes and Whittington see corporate social responsibility as
‘concerned with the ways in which an organisation exceeds the minimum obligation to stakeholders specified through
regulation and corporate governance’. They argue it is useful to distinguish between contractual stakeholders including
customers, suppliers and employees, who have a legal relationship with an organisation and community stakeholders – such
as local communities – who do not have the same degree of legal protection as the first group. Clyde’s local community and
its representatives will face a dilemma – jobs v pollution – not an easy choice! Clearly there will be considerable negotiation
between the key stakeholders and Clyde as the owner/manager should act ethically and with integrity in reaching a decisionhaving profound effects for all parties concerned.


(b) Assess the benefits of the separation of the roles of chief executive and chairman that Alliya Yongvanich

argued for and explain her belief that ‘accountability to shareholders’ is increased by the separation of these

roles. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Separation of the roles of CEO and chairman
Benefits of separation of roles
The separation of the roles of chief executive and chairman was first provided for in the UK by the 1992 Cadbury provisions
although it has been included in all codes since. Most relevant to the case is the terms of the ICGN clause s.11 and OECD
VI (E) both of which provide for the separation of these roles. In the UK it is covered in the combined code section A2.
The separation of roles offers the benefit that it frees up the chief executive to fully concentrate on the management of the
organisation without the necessity to report to shareholders or otherwise become distracted from his or her executive
responsibilities. The arrangement provides a position (that of chairman) that is expected to represent shareholders’ interests
and that is the point of contact into the company for shareholders. Some codes also require the chairman to represent the
interests of other stakeholders such as employees.
Having two people rather than one at the head of a large organisation removes the risks of ‘unfettered powers’ being
concentrated in a single individual and this is an important safeguard for investors concerned with excessive secrecy or
lack of transparency and accountability. The case of Robert Maxwell is a good illustration of a single dominating
executive chairman operating unchallenged and, in so doing, acting illegally. Having the two roles separated reduces
the risk of a conflict of interest in a single person being responsible for company performance whilst also reporting on
that performance to markets. Finally, the chairman provides a conduit for the concerns of non-executive directors who,
in turn, provide an important external representation of external concerns on boards of directors.
Tutorial note: Reference to codes other than the UK is also acceptable. In all cases, detailed (clause number) knowledge
of code provisions is not required.
Accountability and separation of roles
In terms of the separation of roles assisting in the accountability to shareholders, four points can be made.
The chairman scrutinises the chief executive’s management performance on behalf of the shareholders and will be
involved in approving the design of the chief executive’s reward package. It is the responsibility of the chairman to hold
the chief executive to account on shareholders’ behalfs.
Shareholders have an identified person (chairman) to hold accountable for the performance of their investment. Whilst
day-to-day contact will normally be with the investor relations department (or its equivalent) they can ultimately hold
the chairman to account.
The presence of a separate chairman ensures that a system is in place to ensure NEDs have a person to report to outside the
executive structure. This encourages the freedom of expression of NEDs to the chairman and this, in turn, enables issues to
be raised and acted upon when necessary.
The chairman is legally accountable and, in most cases, an experienced person. He/she can be independent and more
dispassionate because he or she is not intimately involved with day-to-day management issues.


(b) International Standards on Auditing (ISAs); and (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) International Standards on Auditing (ISAs)
The groundwork for an international set of auditing standards began in 1969 with a number of reports published by the
Accountants International Study Group that compared the situation in Canada, the UK, and US. The establishment of the
International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC), in 1973, generated calls for a similar body to be set up for auditing.
In the late 1970s the Council of International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) created the International Auditing Practices
Committee (IAPC) as a standing committee of the IFAC Council. (Subsequently the IFAC Board.)
Tutorial note: The IFAC Council was renamed the IFAC Board in May 2000.
The first ISA was issued in 1991. The codified core set released in 1994, which has remained the series to the present day,
has been increasingly accepted by national standard setters and auditors involved in global reporting and cross-border
financing transactions.
In July 2001, IFAC sought comment on the role of IASC3 and the future of ISAs. As a result of the review, in 2002, the IAPC
was renamed the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB). IAASB has made available, on its website,
the full text of ISAs since 2003.
Further, the growth of non-audit assurance services has led to the development of a new framework (‘The International
Framework for Assurance Engagements’) effective for assurance reports issued on or after 1 January 2005.
The hope that the take up of ISAs should follow the lead set by International Accounting Standards (IASs), following their
endorsement by IOSCO (the International Organization of Securities Commissions), has been expressed by many professional
bodies including ACCA and FEE (the Fédération des Experts Comptables Européens). FEE has been leading the debate on
the future of ISAs in Europe since 2001.
ISAs provide for the international harmonisation of national standards and the adoption of a global framework approach. As
a member of CCAB (the Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies) ACCA is committed to consulting its members on
the adoption of ISAs in the UK, and working with FEE, the European Commission (EC) and others.
In response to the move in the profession, away from the ‘traditional audit risk’ model, to a business risk model, IAASB issued
ISA 315 ‘Understanding the Entity and Its Environment and Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement,’ ISA 330 ‘The
Auditor’s Procedures in Response to Assessed Risks’ and ISA 500 (Revised) ‘Audit Evidence’. These standards (and
conforming amendments) are effective for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after 15 December 2004.
That is, they will be applicable to financial statements for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005 that in the European
Economic Area (EEA) and elsewhere will be adopting International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) for the first time.
The adoption of ISAs has been welcomed by professional bodies as providing a robust approach to risk, fraud and quality
control that is particularly important in the light of recent events (Enron/Worldcom/Parmalat). For example, ISA 315 provides
additional guidance on the assessment of risks of material misstatement at the financial statement level and at the assertion
level.
Tutorial note: Recent developments could validly be illustrated with reference to other standards. For example, ISA 240
(Revised) ‘The Auditor’s Responsibility to Consider Fraud in an Audit of Financial Statements’ that became effective from
1 January 2005 has raised auditor awareness of earnings management and the greater need for professional skepticism.
ISA 700 (Revised) ‘The Independent Auditor’s Report on a Complete Set of General Purpose Financial Statements’ is effective
for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after 15 December 2005. This proposed significant changes to
the auditor’s report to help promote consistency in reporting practices worldwide.
The International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) is in discussion with IAASB about the possible
endorsement of ISAs (similar to its endorsement of IASs).
Practicing professionals must keep themselves up to date on auditing standards if they are to provide quality audits. Failure
to do so could result in negligence claims and/or disciplinary action (e.g. by ACCA’s disciplinary committee). A survey by FEE
has demonstrated that the European accountancy bodies broadly comply with ISAs. However, an earlier survey4 of IFAC
member bodies showed that 14% had some significant differences (usually relating to reporting). IFAC needs to require its
member bodies to act rather than merely encourage implementation. A set of global ethical requirements will help improve
the implementation of ISAs as well as reduce the expectation gap in performing audits of financial statements.


(c) non-consolidated entities under common control. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Non-consolidated entities under common control
■ Horizontal groups of entities under common control were a significant feature of the Enron and Parmalat business
empires.
■ Such business empires increase audit risk as fraud is often disguised through labyrinthine group structures. Hence
auditors need to understand and confirm the economic purpose of entities within business empires (as well as special
purpose entities (SPEs) and non-trading entities).
■ Horizontal groups fall outside the requirement for the preparation of group accounts. It is not only finance that is offbalance
sheet when controlled entities are excluded from consolidated financial statements.
■ In the absence of consolidated financial statements, users of accounts of entities in horizontal groups have to rely on the
disclosure of related party transactions and control relationships for information about transactions and arrangements
with other group entities. Difficulties faced by auditors include:
? failing to detect related party transactions and control relationships;
? not understanding the substance of transactions with entities under common control;
? excessively creative tax planning;
? the implications of transfer pricing (e.g. failure to recognise profits unrealised at the business empire level);
? a lack of access to relevant confidential information held by others;
? relying on representations made in good faith by those whom the auditors believe manage the company when
control rests elsewhere.
■ Audit work is inevitably increased if an auditor is put upon inquiry to investigate dubious transactions and arrangements.
However, the complexity of business empires across multiple jurisdictions with different auditors may deter auditors from
liaising with other auditors (especially where legal or professional confidentiality considerations prevent this).


(c) Pinzon, a limited liability company and audit client, is threatening to sue your firm in respect of audit fees charged

for the year ended 31 December 2004. Pinzon is alleging that Bartolome billed the full rate on air fares for audit

staff when substantial discounts had been obtained by Bartolome. (4 marks)

Required:

Comment on the ethical and other professional issues raised by each of the above matters and their implications,

if any, for the continuation of each assignment.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

正确答案:
(c) Threatened legal action
Ethical and professional issues
■ An advocacy threat has arisen as Bartolome and Pinzon are in opposition concerning the fee note for the 2004 audit.
■ If Pinzon’s allegations are true this may cast serious doubt on the integrity of Bartolome. Pinzon should be advised to
take their claims first to ACCA’s Disciplinary Committee.
■ If Bartolome has indeed charged full air fares when substantial discounts had been obtained this could be due to:
– Bartolome incorrectly believing this to be an acceptable industry practice; or
– a billing error/oversight.
In either case Bartolome should issue a credit note, although this may be insufficient to make amends and salvage the
auditor-client relationship.
■ Bartolome may have legitimately claimed for full airfares if this was agreed in its contract (i.e. the terms of engagement)
with Pinzon.
Implications for continuation with assignment
Unless the threat of legal action is amicably resolved very quickly (which is perhaps unlikely) Pinzon and Bartolome are in
conflict. Bartolome cannot therefore be seen to be independent and so should tender their resignation as auditor for the year
ending 31 December 2005 (assuming they were re-appointed and have not already been removed from office).


(c) Discuss the factors that might influence whether the initial bid is likely to be accepted by the shareholders of Wragger plc.

正确答案:

(c) The type of payment might influence the success of the bid. Paxis is proposing a share for share exchange which offers a continuation in ownership of the entity, albeit as part of the successful bidder. However, relative share prices will change during the period of the bid, and the owner of shares in the potential victim company will not know the precise postacquisition value of the bid. An alternative might be cash payments which provides a known, precise sum, and might be favoured for this reason. However, in some countries payment in cash might lead to an immediate capital gains tax liability for the investor.

The effective price offered would of course be a major influence. Paxis would need to offer a premium over the existing share price, but the size of the premium that would be acceptable is unknown. Informal discussions with major shareholders of Wragger might assist in determining this (subject to such discussions being permitted by the regulatory authorities).


22年ACCA/CAT考试题目下载6卷 第3卷


Required:

(iii) A firm of consultants has offered to undertake a study on behalf of Envico Ltd which will provide perfect

information regarding seminar attendance during the forthcoming year.

Advise the management of Envico Ltd with regard to the maximum amount that they should pay to

consultants for perfect information regarding seminar attendance and comment briefly on the use of

perfect information in such decisions. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(iii) If attendance = 100 then management would opt for room size A which would produce a contribution of £832,000 x
0·2 = £166,400.
If attendance = 200 then management would opt for room size B which would produce a contribution of £2,163,200
x 0·5 = £1,081,600.
If attendance = 400 then management would opt for room size D which would produce a contribution of £6,656,000
x 0·3 = £1,996,800.
Therefore the expected value of perfect information would be the sum of the expected values of the three possible
outcomes which amounts to £3,244,800. Thus, if the information is correct then management should be willing to pay
up to £3,244,800 – £1,497,600 = £1,747,200 for the information. In practice, it is unlikely that perfect information
is obtainable. The management of Envico Ltd are really buying an information system that will provide them with a signal
which may prove to be correct or incorrect! For example, the consultants may predict that demand will be for 300
seminar places, however there still remains the fact that there is a likelihood of actual demand being for either 100,
200 or 400 seminar places. One should be mindful that imperfect information which may be, say only 75% reliable,
might still be worth obtaining. Other than when the value of imperfect and perfect information are equal to zero, the
value of perfect information will always be greater than the value of imperfect information.


(c) (i) Compute Gloria’s capital gains tax liability for 2006/07 ignoring any claims or elections available to

reduce the liability. (3 marks)

正确答案:

 


(a) An assistant of yours has been criticised over a piece of assessed work that he produced for his study course for giving the definition of a non-current asset as ‘a physical asset of substantial cost, owned by the company, which will last longer than one year’.

Required:

Provide an explanation to your assistant of the weaknesses in his definition of non-current assets when

compared to the International Accounting Standards Board’s (IASB) view of assets. (4 marks)

(b) The same assistant has encountered the following matters during the preparation of the draft financial statements of Darby for the year ending 30 September 2009. He has given an explanation of his treatment of them.

(i) Darby spent $200,000 sending its staff on training courses during the year. This has already led to an

improvement in the company’s efficiency and resulted in cost savings. The organiser of the course has stated that the benefits from the training should last for a minimum of four years. The assistant has therefore treated the cost of the training as an intangible asset and charged six months’ amortisation based on the average date during the year on which the training courses were completed. (3 marks)

(ii) During the year the company started research work with a view to the eventual development of a new

processor chip. By 30 September 2009 it had spent $1·6 million on this project. Darby has a past history

of being particularly successful in bringing similar projects to a profitable conclusion. As a consequence the

assistant has treated the expenditure to date on this project as an asset in the statement of financial position.

Darby was also commissioned by a customer to research and, if feasible, produce a computer system to

install in motor vehicles that can automatically stop the vehicle if it is about to be involved in a collision. At

30 September 2009, Darby had spent $2·4 million on this project, but at this date it was uncertain as to

whether the project would be successful. As a consequence the assistant has treated the $2·4 million as an

expense in the income statement. (4 marks)

(iii) Darby signed a contract (for an initial three years) in August 2009 with a company called Media Today to

install a satellite dish and cabling system to a newly built group of residential apartments. Media Today will

provide telephone and television services to the residents of the apartments via the satellite system and pay

Darby $50,000 per annum commencing in December 2009. Work on the installation commenced on

1 September 2009 and the expenditure to 30 September 2009 was $58,000. The installation is expected

to be completed by 31 October 2009. Previous experience with similar contracts indicates that Darby will

make a total profit of $40,000 over the three years on this initial contract. The assistant correctly recorded

the costs to 30 September 2009 of $58,000 as a non-current asset, but then wrote this amount down to

$40,000 (the expected total profit) because he believed the asset to be impaired.

The contract is not a finance lease. Ignore discounting. (4 marks)

Required:

For each of the above items (i) to (iii) comment on the assistant’s treatment of them in the financial

statements for the year ended 30 September 2009 and advise him how they should be treated under

International Financial Reporting Standards.

Note: the mark allocation is shown against each of the three items above.

正确答案:
(a)Therearefourelementstotheassistant’sdefinitionofanon-currentassetandheissubstantiallyincorrectinrespectofallofthem.Thetermnon-currentassetswillnormallyincludeintangibleassetsandcertaininvestments;theuseoftheterm‘physicalasset’wouldbespecifictotangibleassetsonly.Whilstitisusuallythecasethatnon-currentassetsareofrelativelyhighvaluethisisnotadefiningaspect.Awastepaperbinmayexhibitthecharacteristicsofanon-currentasset,butonthegroundsofmaterialityitisunlikelytobetreatedassuch.Furthermorethepastcostofanassetmaybeirrelevant;nomatterhowmuchanassethascost,itistheexpectationoffutureeconomicbenefitsflowingfromaresource(normallyintheform.offuturecashinflows)thatdefinesanassetaccordingtotheIASB’sFrameworkforthepreparationandpresentationoffinancialstatements.Theconceptofownershipisnolongeracriticalaspectofthedefinitionofanasset.Itisprobablythecasethatmostnoncurrentassetsinanentity’sstatementoffinancialpositionareownedbytheentity;however,itistheabilityto‘control’assets(includingpreventingothersfromhavingaccesstothem)thatisnowadefiningfeature.Forexample:thisisanimportantcharacteristicintreatingafinanceleaseasanassetofthelesseeratherthanthelessor.Itisalsotruethatmostnon-currentassetswillbeusedbyanentityformorethanoneyearandapartofthedefinitionofproperty,plantandequipmentinIAS16Property,plantandequipmentreferstoanexpectationofuseinmorethanoneperiod,butthisisnotnecessarilyalwaysthecase.Itmaybethatanon-currentassetisacquiredwhichprovesunsuitablefortheentity’sintendeduseorisdamagedinanaccident.Inthesecircumstancesassetsmaynothavebeenusedforlongerthanayear,butneverthelesstheywerereportedasnon-currentsduringthetimetheywereinuse.Anon-currentassetmaybewithinayearoftheendofitsusefullifebut(unlessasaleagreementhasbeenreachedunderIFRS5Non-currentassetsheldforsaleanddiscontinuedoperations)wouldstillbereportedasanon-currentassetifitwasstillgivingeconomicbenefits.Anotherdefiningaspectofnon-currentassetsistheirintendedusei.e.heldforcontinuinguseintheproduction,supplyofgoodsorservices,forrentaltoothersorforadministrativepurposes.(b)(i)TheexpenditureonthetrainingcoursesmayexhibitthecharacteristicsofanassetinthattheyhaveandwillcontinuetobringfutureeconomicbenefitsbywayofincreasedefficiencyandcostsavingstoDarby.However,theexpenditurecannotberecognisedasanassetonthestatementoffinancialpositionandmustbechargedasanexpenseasthecostisincurred.Themainreasonforthislieswiththeissueof’control’;itisDarby’semployeesthathavethe‘skills’providedbythecourses,buttheemployeescanleavethecompanyandtaketheirskillswiththemor,throughaccidentorinjury,maybedeprivedofthoseskills.AlsothecapitalisationofstafftrainingcostsisspecificallyprohibitedunderInternationalFinancialReportingStandards(specificallyIAS38Intangibleassets).(ii)Thequestionspecificallystatesthatthecostsincurredtodateonthedevelopmentofthenewprocessorchipareresearchcosts.IAS38statesthatresearchcostsmustbeexpensed.Thisismainlybecauseresearchistherelativelyearlystageofanewprojectandanyfuturebenefitsaresofarinthefuturethattheycannotbeconsideredtomeetthedefinitionofanasset(probablefutureeconomicbenefits),despitethegoodrecordofsuccessinthepastwithsimilarprojects.Althoughtheworkontheautomaticvehiclebrakingsystemisstillattheresearchstage,thisisdifferentinnaturefromthepreviousexampleastheworkhasbeencommissionedbyacustomer,Assuch,fromtheperspectiveofDarby,itisworkinprogress(acurrentasset)andshouldnotbewrittenoffasanexpense.Anoteofcautionshouldbeaddedhereinthatthequestionsaysthatthesuccessoftheprojectisuncertainwhichpresumablymeansitmaynotbecompleted.ThisdoesnotmeanthatDarbywillnotreceivepaymentfortheworkithascarriedout,butitshouldbecheckedtothecontracttoensurethattheamountithasspenttodate($2·4million)willberecoverable.Intheeventthatsay,forexample,thecontractstatedthatonly$2millionwouldbeallowedforresearchcosts,thiswouldplacealimitonhowmuchDarbycouldtreatasworkinprogress.Ifthiswerethecasethen,forthisexample,Darbywouldhavetoexpense$400,000andtreatonly$2millionasworkinprogress.(iii)Thequestionsuggeststhecorrecttreatmentforthiskindofcontractistotreatthecostsoftheinstallationasanon-currentassetand(presumably)depreciateitoveritsexpectedlifeof(atleast)threeyearsfromwhenitbecomesavailableforuse.Inthiscasetheassetwillnotcomeintouseuntilthenextfinancialyear/reportingperiodandnodepreciationneedstobeprovidedat30September2009.Thecapitalisedcoststodateof$58,000shouldonlybewrittendownifthereisevidencethattheassethasbecomeimpaired.Impairmentoccurswheretherecoverableamountofanassetislessthanitscarryingamount.Theassistantappearstobelievethattherecoverableamountisthefutureprofit,whereas(inthiscase)itisthefuture(net)cashinflows.Thusanyimpairmenttestat30September2009shouldcomparethecarryingamountof$58,000withtheexpectednetcashflowfromthesystemof$98,000($50,000perannumforthreeyearslessfuturecashoutflowstocompletiontheinstallationof$52,000(seenotebelow)).Asthefuturenetcashflowsareinexcessofthecarryingamount,theassetisnotimpairedanditshouldnotbewrittendownbutshownasanon-currentasset(underconstruction)atcostof$58,000.Note:asthecontractisexpectedtomakeaprofitof$40,000onincomeof$150,000,thetotalcostsmustbe$110,000,withcoststodateat$58,000thisleavescompletioncostsof$52,000.


(b) One of the hotels owned by Norman is a hotel complex which includes a theme park, a casino and a golf course,

as well as a hotel. The theme park, casino, and hotel were sold in the year ended 31 May 2008 to Conquest, a

public limited company, for $200 million but the sale agreement stated that Norman would continue to operate

and manage the three businesses for their remaining useful life of 15 years. The residual interest in the business

reverts back to Norman after the 15 year period. Norman would receive 75% of the net profit of the businesses

as operator fees and Conquest would receive the remaining 25%. Norman has guaranteed to Conquest that the

net minimum profit paid to Conquest would not be less than $15 million. (4 marks)

Norman has recently started issuing vouchers to customers when they stay in its hotels. The vouchers entitle the

customers to a $30 discount on a subsequent room booking within three months of their stay. Historical

experience has shown that only one in five vouchers are redeemed by the customer. At the company’s year end

of 31 May 2008, it is estimated that there are vouchers worth $20 million which are eligible for discount. The

income from room sales for the year is $300 million and Norman is unsure how to report the income from room

sales in the financial statements. (4 marks)

Norman has obtained a significant amount of grant income for the development of hotels in Europe. The grants

have been received from government bodies and relate to the size of the hotel which has been built by the grant

assistance. The intention of the grant income was to create jobs in areas where there was significant

unemployment. The grants received of $70 million will have to be repaid if the cost of building the hotels is less

than $500 million. (4 marks)

Appropriateness and quality of discussion (2 marks)

Required:

Discuss how the above income would be treated in the financial statements of Norman for the year ended

31 May 2008.

正确答案:
(b) Property is sometimes sold with a degree of continuing involvement by the seller so that the risks and rewards of ownership
have not been transferred. The nature and extent of the buyer’s involvement will determine how the transaction is accounted
for. The substance of the transaction is determined by looking at the transaction as a whole and IAS18 ‘Revenue’ requires
this by stating that where two or more transactions are linked, they should be treated as a single transaction in order to
understand the commercial effect (IAS18 paragraph 13). In the case of the sale of the hotel, theme park and casino, Norman
should not recognise a sale as the company continues to enjoy substantially all of the risks and rewards of the businesses,
and still operates and manages them. Additionally the residual interest in the business reverts back to Norman. Also Norman
has guaranteed the income level for the purchaser as the minimum payment to Conquest will be $15 million a year. The
transaction is in substance a financing arrangement and the proceeds should be treated as a loan and the payment of profits
as interest.
The principles of IAS18 and IFRIC13 ‘Customer Loyalty Programmes’ require that revenue in respect of each separate
component of a transaction is measured at its fair value. Where vouchers are issued as part of a sales transaction and are
redeemable against future purchases, revenue should be reported at the amount of the consideration received/receivable less
the voucher’s fair value. In substance, the customer is purchasing both goods or services and a voucher. The fair value of the
voucher is determined by reference to the value to the holder and not the cost to the issuer. Factors to be taken into account
when estimating the fair value, would be the discount the customer obtains, the percentage of vouchers that would be
redeemed, and the time value of money. As only one in five vouchers are redeemed, then effectively the hotel has sold goods
worth ($300 + $4) million, i.e. $304 million for a consideration of $300 million. Thus allocating the discount between the
two elements would mean that (300 ÷ 304 x $300m) i.e. $296·1 million will be allocated to the room sales and the balance
of $3·9 million to the vouchers. The deferred portion of the proceeds is only recognised when the obligations are fulfilled.
The recognition of government grants is covered by IAS20 ‘Accounting for government grants and disclosure of government
assistance’. The accruals concept is used by the standard to match the grant received with the related costs. The relationship
between the grant and the related expenditure is the key to establishing the accounting treatment. Grants should not be
recognised until there is reasonable assurance that the company can comply with the conditions relating to their receipt and
the grant will be received. Provision should be made if it appears that the grant may have to be repaid.
There may be difficulties of matching costs and revenues when the terms of the grant do not specify precisely the expense
towards which the grant contributes. In this case the grant appears to relate to both the building of hotels and the creation of
employment. However, if the grant was related to revenue expenditure, then the terms would have been related to payroll or
a fixed amount per job created. Hence it would appear that the grant is capital based and should be matched against the
depreciation of the hotels by using a deferred income approach or deducting the grant from the carrying value of the asset
(IAS20). Additionally the grant is only to be repaid if the cost of the hotel is less than $500 million which itself would seem
to indicate that the grant is capital based. If the company feels that the cost will not reach $500 million, a provision should
be made for the estimated liability if the grant has been recognised.


(ii) State the taxation implications of both equity and loan finance from the point of view of a company.

(3 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) A company needs to be aware of the following issues:
Equity
(1) Costs incurred in issuing share capital are not allowed as a trading deduction.
(2) Distributions to investors are not allowed as a trading deduction.
(3) The cost of making distributions to shareholders are disallowable.
(4) Where profits are taxed at an effective rate of less than 19%, any profits used to make a distribution to noncorporate
shareholders will themselves be taxed at the full 19% rate.
Loan finance/debt
(1) The incidental costs of obtaining/raising loan finance are broadly deductible as a trading expense.
(2) Capital costs of raising loan finance (for example, loans issued at a discount) are not deductible for tax purposes.
(3) Interest incurred on a loan to finance a business is deductible from trading income.


A manufacturing company, Man Co, has two divisions: Division L and Division M. Both divisions make a single standardised product. Division L makes component L, which is supplied to both Division M and external customers.

Division M makes product M using one unit of component L and other materials. It then sells the completed

product M to external customers. To date, Division M has always bought component L from Division L.

The following information is available:

Division L charges the same price for component L to both Division M and external customers. However, it does not incur the selling and distribution costs when transferring internally.

Division M has just been approached by a new supplier who has offered to supply it with component L for $37 per unit. Prior to this offer, the cheapest price which Division M could have bought component L for from outside the group was $42 per unit.

It is head office policy to let the divisions operate autonomously without interference at all.

Required:

(a) Calculate the incremental profit/(loss) per component for the group if Division M accepts the new supplier’s

offer and recommend how many components Division L should sell to Division M if group profits are to be

maximised. (3 marks)

(b) Using the quantities calculated in (a) and the current transfer price, calculate the total annual profits of each division and the group as a whole. (6 marks)

(c) Discuss the problems which will arise if the transfer price remains unchanged and advise the divisions on a suitable alternative transfer price for component L. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(a)MaximisinggroupprofitDivisionLhasenoughcapacitytosupplybothDivisionManditsexternalcustomerswithcomponentL.Therefore,incrementalcostofDivisionMbuyingexternallyisasfollows:CostperunitofcomponentLwhenboughtfromexternalsupplier:$37CostperunitforDivisionLofmakingcomponentL:$20.ThereforeincrementalcosttogroupofeachunitofcomponentLbeingboughtinbyDivisionMratherthantransferredinternally:$17($37–20).Fromthegroup’spointofview,themostprofitablecourseofactionisthereforethatall120,000unitsofcomponentLshouldbetransferredinternally.(b)CalculatingtotalgroupprofitTotalgroupprofitswillbeasfollows:DivisionL:Contributionearnedpertransferredcomponent=$40–$20=$20Profitearnedpercomponentsoldexternally=$40–$24=$16(c)ProblemswithcurrenttransferpriceandsuggestedalternativeTheproblemisthatthecurrenttransferpriceof$40perunitisnowtoohigh.Whilstthishasnotbeenaproblembeforesinceexternalsupplierswerecharging$42perunit,itisaproblemnowthatDivisionMhasbeenofferedcomponentLfor$37perunit.IfDivisionMnowactsinitsowninterestsratherthantheinterestsofthegroupasawhole,itwillbuycomponentLfromtheexternalsupplierratherthanfromDivisionL.ThiswillmeanthattheprofitsofthegroupwillfallsubstantiallyandDivisionLwillhavesignificantunusedcapacity.Consequently,DivisionLneedstoreduceitsprice.Thecurrentpricedoesnotreflectthefactthattherearenosellinganddistributioncostsassociatedwithtransferringinternally,i.e.thecostofsellinginternallyis$4lessforDivisionLthansellingexternally.So,itcouldreducethepriceto$36andstillmakethesameprofitonthesesalesasonitsexternalsales.ThiswouldthereforebethesuggestedtransferpricesothatDivisionMisstillsaving$1perunitcomparedtotheexternalprice.Atransferpriceof$37wouldalsopresumablybeacceptabletoDivisionMsincethisisthesameastheexternalsupplierisoffering.


5 The directors of Blaina Packaging Co (BPC), a well-established manufacturer of cardboard boxes, are currently

considering whether to enter the cardboard tube market. Cardboard tubes are purchased by customers whose

products are wound around tubes of various sizes ranging from large tubes on which carpets are wound, to small

tubes around which films and paper products are wound. The cardboard tubes are usually purchased in very large

quantities by customers. On average, the cardboard tubes comprise between 1% and 2% of the total cost of the

customers’ finished product.

The directors have gathered the following information:

(1) The cardboard tubes are manufactured on machines which vary in size and speed. The lowest cost machine is

priced at $30,000 and requires only one operative for its operation. A one-day training course is required in order

that an unskilled person can then operate such a machine in an efficient and effective manner.

(2) The cardboard tubes are made from specially formulated paper which, at times during recent years, has been in

short supply.

(3) At present, four major manufacturers of cardboard tubes have an aggregate market share of 80%. The current

market leader has a 26% market share. The market shares of the other three major manufacturers, one of which

is JOL Co, are equal in size. The product ranges offered by the four major manufacturers are similar in terms of

size and quality. The market has grown by 2% per annum during recent years.

(4) A recent report on the activities of a foreign-based multinational company revealed that consideration was being

given to expanding operations in their packaging division overseas. The division possesses large-scale automated

machinery for the manufacture of cardboard tubes of any size.

(5) Another company, Plastic Tubes Co (PTC) produces a narrow, but increasing, range of plastic tubes which are

capable of housing small products such as film and paper-based products. At present, these tubes are on average

30% more expensive than the equivalent sized cardboard tubes sold in the marketplace.

Required:

(a) Using Porter’s five forces model, assess the attractiveness of the option to enter the market for cardboard

tubes as a performance improvement strategy for BPC. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(a) In order to assess the attractiveness of the option to enter the market for spirally-wound paper tubes, the directors of BPC
could make use of Michael Porter’s ‘five forces model’.
In applying this model to the given scenario one might conclude that the relatively low cost of the machine together with the
fact that an unskilled person would only require one day’s training in order to be able to operate a machine, constitute
relatively low costs of entry to the market. Therefore one might reasonably conclude that the threat of new entrants might be
high. This is especially the case where the market is highly fragmented.
The fact that products are usually purchased in very large quantities by customers together with the fact that there is little real
difference between the products of alternative suppliers suggests that customer (buyer) power might well be very high. The
fact that the paper tubes on average only comprise between 1% and 2% of the total cost of the purchaser’s finished product
also suggests that buyer power may well be very high.
The threat from suppliers could be high due to the fact that the specially formulated paper from which the tubes are made is
sometimes in short supply. Hence suppliers might increase their prices with consequential diminution in gross margin of the
firms in the marketplace.
The threat from competitive rivals will be strong as the four major players in the market are of similar size and that the market
is a slow growing market. The market leader currently has 26% of the market and the three nearest competitors hold
approximately 18% of the market.
The fact that Plastic Tubes Co (PTC) produces a narrow range of plastic tubes constitutes a threat from a substitute product.
This threat will increase if the product range of PTC is extended and the price of plastic tubes is reduced.
The fact that a foreign-based multinational company is considering entering this market represents a significant threat from a
potential new entrant as it would appear that the multinational company might well be able to derive economies of scale from
large scale automated machinery and has manufacturing flexibility.
Low capital barriers to entry might appeal to BPC but they would also appeal to other potential entrants. The low growth
market, the ease of entry, the existence of established competitors, a credible threat of backward vertical integration by
suppliers, the imminent entry by a multi-national, a struggling established competitor and the difficulty of differentiating an
industrial commodity should call into question the potential of BPC to achieve any sort of competitive advantage. If BPC can
achieve the position of lowest cost producer within the industry then entry into the market might be a good move. In order
to assess whether this is possible BPC must consider any potential synergies that would exist between its cardboard business
and that of the tubes operation.
From the information available, the option to enter the market for cardboard tubes appears to be unattractive. The directors
of BPC should seek alternative performance improvement strategies.


(c) Calculate the expected corporation tax liability of Dovedale Ltd for the year ending 31 March 2007 on the

assumption that all available reliefs are claimed by Dovedale Ltd but that Hira Ltd will not claim any capital

allowances in that year. (4 marks)

正确答案:

 


2 Benny Korere has been employed as the sales director of Golden Tan plc since 1994. He earns an annual salary of

£32,000 and is provided with a petrol-driven company car which has a CO2 emission rate of 187g/km and had a

list price when new of £22,360. In August 2003, when he was first provided with the car, Benny paid the company

£6,100 towards the capital cost of the car. Golden Tan plc does not pay for any of Benny’s private petrol and he is

also required to pay his employer £18 per month as a condition of being able to use the car for private purposes.

On 1 December 2006 Golden Tan plc notified Benny that he would be made redundant on 28 February 2007. On

that day the company will pay him his final month’s salary together with a payment of £8,000 in lieu of the three

remaining months of his six-month notice period in accordance with his employment contract. In addition the

company will pay him £17,500 in return for agreeing not to work for any of its competitors for the six-month period

ending 31 August 2007.

On receiving notification of his redundancy, Benny immediately contacted Joe Egmont, the managing director of

Summer Glow plc, who offered him a senior management position leading the company’s expansion into Eastern

Europe. Summer Glow plc is one of Golden Tan plc’s competitors and one of the most innovative companies in the

industry, although not all of its strategies have been successful.

Benny has agreed to join Summer Glow plc on 1 September 2007 for an annual salary of £39,000. On the day he

joins the company, Summer Glow plc will grant him an option to purchase 10,000 ordinary shares in the company

for £2·20 per share under an unapproved share option scheme. Benny can exercise the option once he has been

employed for six months but must hold the shares for at least a year before he sells them.

The new job will require Benny to spend a considerable amount of time in London. Summer Glow plc has offered

Benny the exclusive use of a flat that the company purchased on 1 June 2003 for £165,000; the flat is currently

rented out. The flat will be made available from 1 September 2007. The company will pay all of the utility bills

relating to the flat as well as furnishing and maintaining it. Summer Glow plc has also suggested that if Benny would

rather live in a more central part of the city, the company could sell the existing flat and buy a more centrally located

one, of the same value, with the proceeds.

On 15 March 2007 Benny intends to sell 5,800 shares in Mahana plc, a quoted company, for £24,608. His

transactions in the company’s shares have been as follows:

June 1988 Purchased 8,400 shares 6,744

February 1996 Sale of rights nil paid 610

January 2005 Purchased 1,300 shares 2,281

The sale of rights, nil paid, was not treated as a part disposal of Benny’s holding in Mahana plc.

Benny’s shareholding in Mahana plc represents less than 1% of the company’s issued ordinary share capital. He will

not make any other capital disposals in 2006/07.

In addition to his employment income, Benny receives rental income of £4,000 (net of deductible expenses) each

year. He normally submits his tax return in August but he has not yet prepared his return for 2005/06. He expects

to be very busy in December and January and is planning to prepare his tax return in late February 2007.

Required:

(a) Calculate Benny’s employment income for 2006/07. (4 marks)

正确答案:

 


22年ACCA/CAT考试题目下载6卷 第4卷


(c) Explain the extent to which you should plan to place reliance on analytical procedures as audit evidence.

(6 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Extent of reliance on analytical procedures as audit evidence
Tutorial note: In the requirement ‘… reliance … as audit evidence’ is a direction to consider only substantive analytical
procedures. Answer points concerning planning and review stages were not asked for and earn no marks.
■ Although there is likely to be less reliance on analytical procedures than if this had been an existing audit client, the fact
that this is a new assignment does not preclude placing some reliance on such procedures.
■ Analytical procedures will not be relied on in respect of material items that require 100% testing. For example, additions
to property is likely to represent a very small number of transactions.
■ Analytical procedures alone may provide sufficient audit evidence on line items that are not individually material. For
example, inventory (less than 1/2% revenue and less than 1% total assets) may be shown to be materially correctly
stated through analytical procedures on consumable stores (i.e. fuel, lubricants, materials for servicing vehicles etc).
■ Substantive analytical procedures are best suited to large volume transactions (e.g. revenue, materials expense, staff
costs). If controls over the completeness, accuracy and validity of recording transactions in these areas are effective then
substantive analytical procedures showing that there are no unexpected fluctuations should reduce the need for
substantive detailed tests.
■ The extent of planned use will be dependent on the relationships expected between variables. (e.g. between items of
financial information and between items of financial and non-financial information). For example, if material costs rise
due to an increase in the level of business then a commensurate increase in revenue and staff costs might be expected
also.
■ ‘Proofs in total’ (or reasonableness tests) provide substantive evidence that income statement items are not materially
misstated. In the case of Yates these might be applied to staff costs (number of employees in each category ×
wage/salary rates, grossed up for social security, etc) and finance expense (interest rate × average monthly overdraft
balance).
■ However, such tests may have limited application, if any, if the population is not homogenous and cannot be subdivided.
For example, all the categories of non-current asset have a wide range of useful life. Therefore it would be
difficult/meaningless to apply an ‘average’ depreciation rate to all assets in the class to substantiate the total depreciation
expense for the year. (Although it might highlight a risk of potential over or understatement requiring further
investigation.)
■ Substantive analytical procedures are more likely to be used if there is relevant information available that is being used
by Yates. For example, as fuel costs will be significant, Yates may monitor consumption (e.g. miles per gallon (MPG)).
■ Analytical procedures may supplement alternative procedures that provide evidence regarding the same assertion. For
example, the review of after-date payments to confirm the completeness of trade payables may be supplemented by
calculations of average payment period on a monthly basis.
Tutorial note: Credit will be given for other relevant points drawn from the scenario. For example, the restructuring during
the previous year is likely to have caused fluctuations that may result in less reliance being placed on analytical procedures.


(b) State, with reasons, the principal additional information that should be made available for your review of

Robson Construction Co. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Principal additional information
■ Any service contracts with the directors or other members of the management team (e.g. the quantity surveyor). These
may contain ‘exit’ or other settlement terms in the event that their services are no longer required after a takeover/buyout.
■ Prior period financial statements (to 30 June 2005) disclosing significant accounting policies and the key assumptions
concerning the future (and other key sources of estimation uncertainty) that have a significant risk of causing a material
adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the year to 30 June 2006.
For example, concerning:
– the outcome on the Sarwar dispute;
– estimates for guarantees/claims for rectification;
– assumptions made in estimating costs to completion (e.g. for increases in costs of materials or labour).
Tutorial note: Under IAS 1 ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’ the judgements made by management that have the
most significant effect on amounts recognised in financial statements (other than those involving estimations) should
also be disclosed.
■ The most recent management accounts and cash flow forecasts to assess the quality of management information being
used for decision-making and control. In particular, in providing Robson with the means of keeping its cash flows within
its overdraft limit.
Tutorial note: Note that Prescott has substantial cash resources. Therefore Robson’s lack of finance might be a reason
why its management are interested in selling the business.
■ A copy of the signed bank agreement for the overdraft facility (and any other agreements with finance providers). Any
breaches in debt covenants might result in penalties of contingent liabilities that Prescott would have to bear if it acquired
Robson.
■ The standard terms of contracts with customers for construction works. In particular, for:
– guarantees given (e.g. for rectification under warranty);
– penalty clauses (e.g. in the event of overruns or non-completion);
– disclaimers (including conditions for invoking force majeure).
Prescott will want to make some allowance for settlement of liabilities arising on contracts already completed/in-progress
when offering a price for Robson.
Tutorial note: A takeover might excuse Robson from fulfilling a contract.
■ Legal/correspondence files dealing with matters such as the claims of the residents of the housing development and
Robson’s claim against Sarwar Services Co. Also, fee notes rendered by Robson’s legal advisers showing the costs
incurred on matters referred to them.
■ Robson’s insurer’s ‘cover note’ to determine Robson’s exposure to claims for rectification work, damages, injuries to
employees, etc.
■ The quantity surveyor’s working papers for the last quarterly count (presumably at 31 March 2006) and the latest
available rolling budgets. Particular attention should be given to loss-making contracts and contracts that have not been
started. (Prescott might seek to settle rather than fulfil them.) The pattern of taking profits on contracts will be of
interest, for example, to determine the accuracy of the quantity surveyor’s estimates.
Tutorial note: A regular pattern of taking too much profit too soon might be due to underestimating costs to completion
or be evidence of cost overruns due to rectification.
■ Type and frequency of constructions undertaken. Prescott is interested in the building and refurbishment of hotels and
leisure facilities. Robson’s experience in this area may not be extensive.
■ Non-current asset register showing location of plant and equipment so that some test checking on physical existence
might be undertaken (if an agreed-upon-procedure).


5 The directors of Quapaw, a limited liability company, are reviewing the company’s draft financial statements for the

year ended 31 December 2004.

The following material matters are under discussion:

(a) During the year the company has begun selling a product with a one-year warranty under which manufacturing

defects are remedied without charge. Some claims have already arisen under the warranty. (2 marks)

Required:

Advise the directors on the correct treatment of these matters, stating the relevant accounting standard which

justifies your answer in each case.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three matters

正确答案:
(a) The correct treatment is to provide for the best estimate of the costs likely to be incurred under the warranty, as required by
IAS37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets.


(c) Outline the problems with references. (7 marks)

(15 marks)

正确答案:
Part (c)
There can be significant problems with references, these include the fact that most referees are well known to the applicant and
hesitate to say anything critical. However, the more skilful reference reader learns to look for what is conspicuous by omission
although there is always the risk that the writer merely forgot.
Often there are glowing tributes designed to aid the candidate on their way and some can be too ambiguous to be useful.
It is also important to note that references are poor predictors of future performance, are time consuming for the referee and the
subsequent reader. A particular problem is that employers who want to rid themselves of unsatisfactory employees could write an
enthusiastic reference, or at best one which leaves a lot unsaid.
However, care should be taken when providing references. Potentially, there can be legal consequences if a reference is misleading
or misrepresents the person for whom the reference is provided.
In addition, problems can arise when references are sought too early in the recruitment process and therefore breach confidentiality.


(iii) State how your answer in (ii) would differ if the sale were to be delayed until August 2006. (3 marks)

正确答案:

 


4 At an academic conference, a debate took place on the implementation of corporate governance practices in

developing countries. Professor James West from North America argued that one of the key needs for developing

countries was to implement rigorous systems of corporate governance to underpin investor confidence in businesses

in those countries. If they did not, he warned, there would be no lasting economic growth as potential foreign inward

investors would be discouraged from investing.

In reply, Professor Amy Leroi, herself from a developing country, reported that many developing countries are

discussing these issues at governmental level. One issue, she said, was about whether to adopt a rules-based or a

principles-based approach. She pointed to evidence highlighting a reduced number of small and medium sized initial

public offerings in New York compared to significant growth in London. She suggested that this change could be

attributed to the costs of complying with Sarbanes-Oxley in the United States and that over-regulation would be the

last thing that a developing country would need. She concluded that a principles-based approach, such as in the

United Kingdom, was preferable for developing countries.

Professor Leroi drew attention to an important section of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act to illustrate her point. The key

requirement of that section was to externally report on – and have attested (verified) – internal controls. This was, she

argued, far too ambitious for small and medium companies that tended to dominate the economies of developing

countries.

Professor West countered by saying that whilst Sarbanes-Oxley may have had some problems, it remained the case

that it regulated corporate governance in the ‘largest and most successful economy in the world’. He said that rules

will sometimes be hard to follow but that is no reason to abandon them in favour of what he referred to as ‘softer’

approaches.

(a) There are arguments for both rules and principles-based approaches to corporate governance.

Required:

(i) Describe the essential features of a rules-based approach to corporate governance; (3 marks)

正确答案:
(a) (i) Describe rules-based
In a rules-based jurisdiction, corporate governance provisions are legally binding and enforceable in law.
Non-compliance is punishable by fines or ultimately (in extremis) by delisting and director prosecutions.
There is limited latitude for interpretation of the provisions to match individual circumstances (‘one size fits all’). Some
have described this as a ‘box ticking’ exercise as companies seek to comply despite some provisions applying to their
individual circumstances more than others.
Investor confidence is underpinned by the quality of the legislation rather than the degree of compliance (which will be
total for the most part).


(c) Describe the audit procedures you should perform. to determine the validity of the amortisation rate of five

years being applied to development costs in relation to Plummet. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Audit procedures to determine the validity of the amortisation rate of five years being applied to development costs in relation
to the product Plummet would include the following:
– Obtain the papers documenting market research carried out on Plummet. Review and ascertain that the market research
supports a product life span of five years.
– Review actual sales patterns since the launch of Plummet and compare to the predicted sales per the market research
document.
Tutorial note: this will help to demonstrate the accuracy of the predicted sales forecast of Plummet.
– Read the assumptions underpinning the market research sales projections, and consider whether these assumptions
agree with the auditors’ understanding of the business.
– Discuss sales trends with the sales/marketing directors and ascertain whether sales are in line with management’s
expectations.
– Read correspondence with retail outlets to ensure there is continued support for selling Plummet.
– Obtain marketing/advertising budgets and ascertain enough expenditure is continuing on Plummet to support continued
sales.


(ii) Service quality; and (7 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Quality of service is the totality of features and characteristics of the service package that bear upon its ability to satisfy
client needs. To some extent the number of complaints and the need to provide non-chargeable consultations associated
with the remedying of those complaints is indicative of a service quality problem that must be addressed. Hence this
problem needs to be investigated at the earliest opportunity. Assuming consultants could have otherwise undertaken
chargeable work, the revenue foregone as a consequence of the remedial consultations relating to commercial work
amounted to (180 x £1500) = £27,000. Client complaints received by HLP during the year amounted to 1·24% of
consultations undertaken by commercial advisors whereas none were budgeted. In contrast, competitor MAS received
135 complaints which coincided with the number of non-chargeable consultations undertaken by them. This may
indicate that MAS operate a policy of a remedial consultation in respect of all complaints received from clients.
With regard to the number of on-time consultations, HLP only achieved an on-time consultation percentage of 94·4%
which is far inferior to that of 99% achieved by competitor MAS. Also, HLP re-scheduled the appointment times of
1,620 (3%) of its total consultations whereas competitor MAS only re-scheduled 0·5% of its consultation times. The
percentage number of successful consultations provided by HLP and MAS was 85% and 95% respectively which
indicates that competitor MAS possesses a superior skills-base to that of HLP.
The most alarming statistic lies in the fact that HLP was subject to three successful legal actions for negligence. This
may not only account for the 150% increase in the cost of professional indemnity insurance premiums but may also
result in a loss of client confidence and precipitate a considerable fall in future levels of business should the claims
become much publicised.


4 All organisations require trained employees. However, training can take many forms, some of which are internal to the organisation.

Required:

Explain what is meant by the terms:

(a) Computer based training. (3 marks)

正确答案:
4 All organisations need appropriately trained employees. Due to the nature of modern business, especially the professions, much of this training is internal and often on a one to one basis. Accountants as managers should therefore be able to understand the different approaches to training and which of them is the most appropriate and cost effective for the training requirements of the organisation.
(a) Computer based training can be inexpensive and is based upon user friendly interactive computer programs designed to enable trainees to train on their own and at their own pace.


22年ACCA/CAT考试题目下载6卷 第5卷


5 Gagarin wishes to persuade a number of wealthy individuals who are business contacts to invest in his company,

Vostok Ltd. He also requires advice on the recoverability of input tax relating to the purchase of new premises.

The following information has been obtained from a meeting with Gagarin.

Vostok Ltd:

– An unquoted UK resident company.

– Gagarin owns 100% of the company’s ordinary share capital.

– Has 18 employees.

– Provides computer based services to commercial companies.

– Requires additional funds to finance its expansion.

Funds required by Vostok Ltd:

– Vostok Ltd needs to raise £420,000.

– Vostok Ltd will issue 20,000 shares at £21 per share on 31 August 2008.

– The new shareholder(s) will own 40% of the company.

– Part of the money raised will contribute towards the purchase of new premises for use by Vostok Ltd.

Gagarin’s initial thoughts:

– The minimum investment will be 5,000 shares and payment will be made in full on subscription.

– Gagarin has a number of wealthy business contacts who may be interested in investing.

– Gagarin has heard that it may be possible to obtain tax relief for up to 60% of the investment via the enterprise

investment scheme.

Wealthy business contacts:

– Are all UK resident higher rate taxpayers.

– May wish to borrow the funds to invest in Vostok Ltd if there is a tax incentive to do so.

New premises:

– Will cost £446,500 including value added tax (VAT).

– Will be used in connection with all aspects of Vostok Ltd’s business.

– Will be sold for £600,000 plus VAT in six years time.

– Vostok Ltd will waive the VAT exemption on the sale of the building.

The VAT position of Vostok Ltd:

– In the year ending 31 March 2009, 28% of Vostok Ltd’s supplies will be exempt for the purposes of VAT.

– This percentage is expected to reduce over the next few years.

– Irrecoverable input tax due to the company’s partially exempt status exceeds the de minimis limits.

Required:

(a) Prepare notes for Gagarin to use when speaking to potential investors. The notes should include:

(i) The tax incentives immediately available in respect of the amount invested in shares issued in

accordance with the enterprise investment scheme; (5 marks)

正确答案:
(a) (i) The tax incentives immediately available
Income tax
– The investor’s income tax liability for 2008/09 will be reduced by 20% of the amount subscribed for the shares.
– Up to half of the amount invested can be treated as if paid in 2007/08 rather than 2008/09. This is subject to a
maximum carryback of £50,000.
This ability to carryback relief to the previous year is useful where the investor’s income in 2008/09 is insufficient
to absorb all of the relief available.
Tutorial note
There would be no change to the income tax liability of 2007/08 where an amount is treated as if paid in that year.
This ensures that such a claim does not affect payments on account under the self assessment system. Instead, the
tax refund due is calculated by reference to 2007/08 but is deducted from the next payment of tax due from the
taxpayer or is repaid to the taxpayer.
Capital gains tax deferral
– For every £1 invested in Vostok Ltd, an investor can defer £1 of capital gain and thus, potentially, 40 pence of
capital gains tax.
– The gain deferred can be in respect of the disposal of any asset.
– The shares must be subscribed for within the four year period starting one year prior to the date on which the
disposal giving rise to the gain took place.


You are the audit manager of Chestnut & Co and are reviewing the key issues identified in the files of two audit clients.

Palm Industries Co (Palm)

Palm’s year end was 31 March 2015 and the draft financial statements show revenue of $28·2 million, receivables of $5·6 million and profit before tax of $4·8 million. The fieldwork stage for this audit has been completed.

A customer of Palm owed an amount of $350,000 at the year end. Testing of receivables in April highlighted that no amounts had been paid to Palm from this customer as they were disputing the quality of certain goods received from Palm. The finance director is confident the issue will be resolved and no allowance for receivables was made with regards to this balance.

Ash Trading Co (Ash)

Ash is a new client of Chestnut & Co, its year end was 31 January 2015 and the firm was only appointed auditors in February 2015, as the previous auditors were suddenly unable to undertake the audit. The fieldwork stage for this audit is currently ongoing.

The inventory count at Ash’s warehouse was undertaken on 31 January 2015 and was overseen by the company’s internal audit department. Neither Chestnut & Co nor the previous auditors attended the count. Detailed inventory records were maintained but it was not possible to undertake another full inventory count subsequent to the year end.

The draft financial statements show a profit before tax of $2·4 million, revenue of $10·1 million and inventory of $510,000.

Required:

For each of the two issues:

(i) Discuss the issue, including an assessment of whether it is material;

(ii) Recommend ONE procedure the audit team should undertake to try to resolve the issue; and

(iii) Describe the impact on the audit report if the issue remains UNRESOLVED.

Notes:

1 The total marks will be split equally between each of the two issues.

2 Audit report extracts are NOT required.

正确答案:

Audit reports

Palm Industries Co (Palm)

(i) A customer of Palm’s owing $350,000 at the year end has not made any post year-end payments as they are disputing the quality of goods received. No allowance for receivables has been made against this balance. As the balance is being disputed, there is a risk of incorrect valuation as some or all of the receivable balance is overstated, as it may not be paid.

This $350,000 receivables balance represents 1·2% (0·35/28·2m) of revenue, 6·3% (0·35/5·6m) of receivables and 7·3% (0·35/4·8m) of profit before tax; hence this is a material issue.

(ii) A procedure to adopt includes:

– Review whether any payments have subsequently been made by this customer since the audit fieldwork was completed.

– Discuss with management whether the issue of quality of goods sold to the customer has been resolved, or whether it is still in dispute.

– Review the latest customer correspondence with regards to an assessment of the likelihood of the customer making payment.

(iii) If management refuses to provide against this receivable, the audit report will need to be modified. As receivables are overstated and the error is material but not pervasive a qualified opinion would be necessary.

A basis for qualified opinion paragraph would be needed and would include an explanation of the material misstatement in relation to the valuation of receivables and the effect on the financial statements. The opinion paragraph would be qualified ‘except for’.

Ash Trading Co (Ash)

(i) Chestnut & Co was only appointed as auditors subsequent to Ash’s year end and hence did not attend the year-end inventory count. Therefore, they have not been able to gather sufficient and appropriate audit evidence with regards to the completeness and existence of inventory.

Inventory is a material amount as it represents 21·3% (0·51/2·4m) of profit before tax and 5% (0·51/10·1m) of revenue; hence this is a material issue.

(ii) A procedure to adopt includes:

– Review the internal audit reports of the inventory count to identify the level of adjustments to the records to assess the reasonableness of relying on the inventory records.

– Undertake a sample check of inventory in the warehouse and compare to the inventory records and then from inventory records to the warehouse, to assess the reasonableness of the inventory records maintained by Ash.

(iii) The auditors will need to modify the audit report as they are unable to obtain sufficient appropriate evidence in relation to inventory which is a material but not pervasive balance. Therefore a qualified opinion will be required.

A basis for qualified opinion paragraph will be required to explain the limitation in relation to the lack of evidence over inventory. The opinion paragraph will be qualified ‘except for’.


6 Ordan received a statement from one of its suppliers, Alta, showing a balance due of $3,980. The amount due

according to the payables ledger account of Alta in Ordan’s records was only $230.

Comparison of the statement and the ledger account revealed the following differences:

1 A cheque sent by Ordan for $270 has not been allowed for in Alta’s statement.

2 Alta has not allowed for goods returned by Ordan $180.

3 Ordan made a contra entry, reducing the amount due to Alta by $3,200, for a balance due from Alta in Ordan’s

receivables ledger. No such entry has been made in Alta’s records.

What difference remains between the two companies’ records after adjusting for these items?

A $460

B $640

C $6,500

D $100

正确答案:D
3,980 – 270 – 180 – 3,200 = 330 : difference 100


5 (a) Compare and contrast the responsibilities of management, and of auditors, in relation to the assessment of

going concern. You should include a description of the procedures used in this assessment where relevant.

(7 marks)

正确答案:
5 Dexter Co
(a) Responsibilities of management and auditors
Responsibilities
ISA 570 Going Concern provides a clear framework for the assessment of the going concern status of an entity, and
differentiates between the responsibilities of management and of auditors. Management should assess going concern in order
to decide on the most appropriate basis for the preparation of the financial statements. IAS 1 Presentation of Financial
Statements (revised) requires that where there is significant doubt over an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern, the
uncertainties should be disclosed in a note to the financial statements. Where the directors intend to cease trading, or have
no realistic alternative but to do so, the financial statements should be prepared on a ‘break up’ basis.
Thus the main focus of the management’s assessment of going concern is to ensure that relevant disclosures are made where
necessary, and that the correct basis of preparation is used.
The auditor’s responsibility is to consider the appropriateness of the management’s use of the going concern assumption in
the preparation of the financial statements and to consider whether there are material uncertainties about the entity’s ability
to continue as a going concern that need to be disclosed in a note.
The auditor should also consider the length of the time period that management have looked at in their assessment of going
concern.
The auditor will therefore need to come to an opinion as to the going concern status of an entity but the focus of the auditor’s
evaluation of going concern is to see whether they agree with the assessment made by the management. Therefore whether
they agree with the basis of preparation of the financial statements, or the inclusion in a note to the financial statements, as
required by IAS 1, of any material uncertainty.
Evaluation techniques
In carrying out the going concern assessment, management will evaluate a wide variety of indicators, including operational
and financial. An entity employing good principles of corporate governance should be carrying out such an assessment as
part of the on-going management of the business.
Auditors will use a similar assessment technique in order to come to their own opinion as to the going concern status of an
entity. They will carry out an operational review of the business in order to confirm business understanding, and will conduct
a financial review as part of analytical procedures. Thus both management and auditors will use similar business risk
assessment techniques to discover any threats to the going concern status of the business.
Auditors should not see going concern as a ‘completion issue’, but be alert to issues affecting going concern throughout the
audit. In the same way that management should continually be managing risk (therefore minimising going concern risk),
auditors should be continually be alert to going concern problems throughout the duration of the audit.
However, one difference is that when going concern problems are discovered, the auditor is required by IAS 570 to carry out
additional procedures. Examples of such procedures would include:
– Analysing and discussing cash flow, profit and other relevant forecasts with management
– Analysing and discussing the entity’s latest available interim financial statements
– Reviewing events after the period end to identify those that either mitigate or otherwise affect the entity’s ability to
continue as a going concern, and
– Reading minutes of meetings of shareholders, those charged with governance and relevant committees for reference to
financing difficulties.
Management are not explicitly required to gather specific evidence about going concern, but as part of good governance would
be likely to investigate and react to problems discovered.


1 The scientists in the research laboratories of Swan Hill Company (SHC, a public listed company) recently made a very

important discovery about the process that manufactured its major product. The scientific director, Dr Sonja Rainbow,

informed the board that the breakthrough was called the ‘sink method’. She explained that the sink method would

enable SHC to produce its major product at a lower unit cost and in much higher volumes than the current process.

It would also produce lower unit environmental emissions and would substantially improve product quality compared

to its current process and indeed compared to all of the other competitors in the industry.

SHC currently has 30% of the global market with its nearest competitor having 25% and the other twelve producers

sharing the remainder. The company, based in the town of Swan Hill, has a paternalistic management approach and

has always valued its relationship with the local community. Its website says that SHC has always sought to maximise

the benefit to the workforce and community in all of its business decisions and feels a great sense of loyalty to the

Swan Hill locality which is where it started in 1900 and has been based ever since.

As the board considered the implications of the discovery of the sink method, chief executive Nelson Cobar asked

whether Sonja Rainbow was certain that SHC was the only company in the industry that had made the discovery and

she said that she was. She also said that she was certain that the competitors were ‘some years’ behind SHC in their

research.

It quickly became clear that the discovery of the sink method was so important and far reaching that it had the

potential to give SHC an unassailable competitive advantage in its industry. Chief executive Nelson Cobar told board

colleagues that they should clearly understand that the discovery had the potential to put all of SHC’s competitors out

of business and make SHC the single global supplier. He said that as the board considered the options, members

should bear in mind the seriousness of the implications upon the rest of the industry.

Mr Cobar said there were two strategic options. Option one was to press ahead with the huge investment of new plant

necessary to introduce the sink method into the factory whilst, as far as possible, keeping the nature of the sink

technology secret from competitors (the ‘secrecy option’). A patent disclosing the nature of the technology would not

be filed so as to keep the technology secret within SHC. Option two was to file a patent and then offer the use of the

discovery to competitors under a licensing arrangement where SHC would receive substantial royalties for the twentyyear

legal lifetime of the patent (the ‘licensing option’). This would also involve new investment but at a slower pace

in line with competitors. The licence contract would, Mr Cobar explained, include an ‘improvement sharing’

requirement where licensees would be required to inform. SHC of any improvements discovered that made the sink

method more efficient or effective.

The sales director, Edwin Kiama, argued strongly in favour of the secrecy option. He said that the board owed it to

SHC’s shareholders to take the option that would maximise shareholder value. He argued that business strategy was

all about gaining competitive advantage and this was a chance to do exactly that. Accordingly, he argued, the sink

method should not be licensed to competitors and should be pursued as fast as possible. The operations director said

that to gain the full benefits of the sink method with either option would require a complete refitting of the factory and

the largest capital investment that SHC had ever undertaken.

The financial director, Sean Nyngan, advised the board that pressing ahead with investment under the secrecy option

was not without risks. First, he said, he would have to finance the investment, probably initially through debt, and

second, there were risks associated with any large investment. He also informed the board that the licensing option

would, over many years, involve the inflow of ‘massive’ funds in royalty payments from competitors using the SHC’s

patented sink method. By pursuing the licensing option, Sean Nyngan said that they could retain their market

leadership in the short term without incurring risk, whilst increasing their industry dominance in the future through

careful investment of the royalty payments.

The non-executive chairman, Alison Manilla, said that she was looking at the issue from an ethical perspective. She

asked whether SHC had the right, even if it had the ability, to put competitors out of business.

Required:

(a) Assess the secrecy option using Tucker’s model for decision-making. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Tucker’s framework
Is the decision:
Profitable? For SHC, the answer to this question is yes. Profits would potentially be substantially increased by the loss of all
of its competitors and the emergence of SHC, in the short to medium term at least, as a near monopolist.
Legal? The secrecy option poses no legal problems as it is a part of normal competitive behaviour in industries. In some
jurisdictions, legislation forbids monopolies existing in some industries but there is no indication from the case that this
restriction applies to Swan Hill Company.
Fair? The fairness of the secrecy option is a moral judgment. It is probably fair when judged from the perspective of SHC’s
shareholders but the question is the extent to which it is fair to the employees and shareholders of SHC’s competitors.
Right? Again, a question of ethical perspective. Is it right to pursue the subjugation of competitors and the domination of an
industry regardless of the consequences to competitors? The secrecy option may be of the most benefit to the local community
of Swan Hill that the company has traditionally valued.
Sustainable or environmentally sound? The case says that the sink method emits at a lower rate per unit of output than the
existing process but this has little to do with the secrecy option as the rates of emissions would apply if SHC licensed the
process. This is also an argument for the licensing option, however, as environmental emissions would be lower if other
competitors switched to the sink method as well. There may be environmental implications in decommissioning the old plant
to make way for the new sink method investment.


(c) Outline the ways in which Arthur and Cindy can reduce their income tax liability by investing in unquoted

shares and recommend, with reasons, which form. of investment best suits their circumstances. You are not

required to discuss the qualifying conditions applicable to the investment vehicle recommended. (5 marks)

You should assume that the income tax rates and allowances for the tax year 2005/06 apply throughout this

question

正确答案:
(c) Reduction of income tax liability by investing in unquoted shares
The two forms of investment
Income tax relief is available for investments in venture capital trusts (VCTs) and enterprise investment scheme (EIS) shares.
A VCT is a quoted company that invests in shares in a number of unquoted trading companies. EIS shares are shares in
qualifying unquoted trading companies.
Recommendation
The most suitable investment for Arthur and Cindy is a VCT for the following reasons.
– An investment in a VCT is likely to be less risky than investing directly in EIS companies as the risk will be spread over
a greater number of companies.
– The tax deduction is 40% of the amount invested as opposed to 20% for EIS shares.
– Dividends from a VCT are not taxable whereas dividends on EIS shares are taxed in the normal way.


6 Assume today’s date is 16 April 2005.

Henry, aged 48, is the managing director of Happy Home Ltd, an unquoted UK company specialising in interior

design. He is wealthy in his own right and is married to Helen, who is 45 years old. They have two children – Stephen,

who is 19, and Sally who is 17.

As part of his salary, Henry was given 3,000 shares in Happy Home Ltd with an option to acquire a further 10,000

shares. The options were granted on 15 July 2003, shortly after the company started trading, and were not part of

an approved share option scheme. The free shares were given to Henry on the same day.

The exercise price of the share options was set at the then market value of £1·00 per share. The options are not

capable of being exercised after 10 years from the date of grant. The company has been successful, and the current

value of the shares is now £14·00 per share. Another shareholder has offered to buy the shares at their market value,

so Henry exercised his share options on 14 April 2005 and will sell the shares next week, on 20 April 2005.

With the company growing in size, Henry wishes to recruit high quality staff, but the company lacks the funds to pay

them in cash. Henry believes that giving new employees the chance to buy shares in the company would help recruit

staff, as they could share in the growth in value of Happy Home Ltd. Henry has heard that there is a particular share

scheme that is suitable for small, fast growing companies. He would like to obtain further information on how such

a scheme would work.

Henry has accumulated substantial assets over the years. The family house is owned jointly with Helen, and is worth

£650,000. Henry has a £250,000 mortgage on the house. In addition, Henry has liquid assets worth £340,000

and Helen has shares in quoted companies currently worth £125,000. Henry has no forms of insurance, and believes

he should make sure that his wealth and family are protected. He is keen to find out what options he should be

considering.

Required:

(a) (i) State how the gift of the 3,000 shares in Happy Home Ltd was taxed. (1 mark)

正确答案:
(a) (i) Gift of shares
Shares, which are given free or sold at less than market value, are charged to income tax on the difference between the
market value and the amount paid (if any) for the shares. Henry was given 3,000 shares with a market value of £1 at
the time of gift, so he was assessed to income tax on £3,000, in the tax year 2003/04.


3 Mark Howe, Managing Director of Auto Direct, is a victim of his own success. Mark has created an innovative way

of selling cars to the public which takes advantage of the greater freedom given to independent car distributors to

market cars more aggressively within the European Union. This reduces the traditional control and interference of the

automobile manufacturers, some of whom own their distributors. He has opened a number of showrooms in the

London region and by 2004 Auto Direct had 20 outlets in and around London. The concept is deceptively simple;

Mark buys cars from wherever he can source them most cheaply and has access to all of the leading volume car

models. He then concentrates on selling the cars to the public, leaving servicing and repair work to other specialist

garages. He offers a classic high volume/low margin business model.

Mark now wants to develop this business model onto a national and eventually an international basis. His immediate

plans are to grow the number of outlets by 50% each year for the next three years. Such growth will place

considerable strain on the existing organisation and staff. Each showroom has its own management team, sales

personnel and administration. Currently the 20 showrooms are grouped into a Northern and Southern Sales Division

with a small head office team for each division. Auto Direct now employs 250 people.

Mark now needs to communicate the next three-year phase of the company’s ambitious growth plans to staff and is

anxious to get an understanding of staff attitudes towards the company and its growth plans. He is aware that you

are a consultant used to advising firms on the changes associated with rapid growth and the way to generate positive

staff attitudes to change.

Required:

(a) Using appropriate strategies for managing change provide Mark with a brief report on how he can best create

a positive staff response to the proposed growth plans. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) To: Mark Howe – Managing Director, Auto Direct
From:
Strategies to manage growth
Successfully convincing others in the firm of the need for, and nature of change is sometimes referred to as internal marketing
and in many ways when substantial change is involved may be just as vital as external marketing aimed at the customer.
Classic strategies for managing include participation, education/communication, power/coercion, manipulation and
negotiation. The preferred strategy, or combination of strategies, will be influenced by leadership style. and where on the
continuum from autocratic through to democratic the management style. rests. Participation in the change process sounds an
ideal strategy but may delay implementation of the change, require high trust levels between management and staff and
encounter resistance to proposed change. Education and communication is often argued to be a strategy used in conjunction
with another strategy. Interestingly, many studies point to communication being the key weakness when change is being
implemented. Clearly there are many choices as to how to educate and communicate and choosing the right strategy for the
right situation is by no means easy. The level of change at Auto Direct may be seen as a quantum change in that it affects
all parts of the organisation and you should be aware of the complex linkages between these parts. Power/coercion may be
needed if the change planned needs to be implemented quickly as in crisis situations, when the survival of the organisation
may be at stake. Such an approach may alienate the staff and have a number of unanticipated and unfortunate
consequences. Manipulation, as its name implies, may have many negative consequences and reflects the power of the
management to implement change. Finally, negotiation is a traditional way of seeking to resolve differences between different
groups, each with its own goals and objectives. Again issues of time, trust and resistance may affect the effectiveness of this
strategy.
Many other change management models are available to help you overcome resistance to change including Lewin’s threestep
change and force field analysis and the Gemini 4Rs framework. The Gemini model aims at the sort of transformation
required by the scope and pace of the proposed growth strategy, where the reframing step communicates the vision, the need
for involvement and measures of successful change and the renewal step aligns the individual’s skills and competences withthe organisation’s needs in order to implement the change strategy.
I trust this overview of strategies for managing change is helpful.


In relation to the law of contract, distinguish between and explain the effect of:

(a) a term and a mere representation; (3 marks)

(b) express and implied terms, paying particular regard to the circumstances under which terms may be implied in contracts. (7 marks)

正确答案:

This question requires candidates to consider the law relating to terms in contracts. It specifically requires the candidates to distinguish between terms and mere representations and then to establish the difference between express and implied terms in contracts.
(a) As the parties to a contract will be bound to perform. any promise they have contracted to undertake, it is important to distinguish between such statements that will be considered part of the contract, i.e. terms, and those other pre-contractual statements which are not considered to be part of the contract, i.e. mere representations. The reason for distinguishing between them is that there are different legal remedies available if either statement turns out to be incorrect.
A representation is a statement that induces a contract but does not become a term of the contract. In practice it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between the two, but in attempting to do so the courts will focus on when the statement was made in relation to the eventual contract, the importance of the statement in relation to the contract and whether or not the party making the statement had specialist knowledge on which the other party relied (Oscar Chess v Williams (1957) and Dick
Bentley v Arnold Smith Motors (1965)).
(b) Express terms are statements actually made by one of the parties with the intention that they become part of the contract and
thus binding and enforceable through court action if necessary. It is this intention that distinguishes the contractual term from
the mere representation, which, although it may induce the contractual agreement, does not become a term of the contract.
Failure to comply with the former gives rise to an action for breach of contract, whilst failure to comply with the latter only gives rise to an action for misrepresentation.

Such express statements may be made by word of mouth or in writing as long as they are sufficiently clear for them to be enforceable. Thus in Scammel v Ouston (1941) Ouston had ordered a van from the claimant on the understanding that the balance of the purchase price was to be paid ‘on hire purchase terms over two years’. When Scammel failed to deliver the van Ouston sued for breach of contract without success, the court holding that the supposed terms of the contract were too
uncertain to be enforceable. There was no doubt that Ouston wanted the van on hire purchase but his difficulty was that
Scammel operated a range of hire purchase terms and the precise conditions of his proposed hire purchase agreement were
never sufficiently determined.
Implied terms, however, are not actually stated or expressly included in the contract, but are introduced into the contract by implication. In other words the exact meaning and thus the terms of the contract are inferred from its context. Implied terms can be divided into three types.
Terms implied by statute
In this instance a particular piece of legislation states that certain terms have to be taken as constituting part of an agreement, even where the contractual agreement between the parties is itself silent as to that particular provision. For example, under s.5 of the Partnership Act 1890, every member of an ordinary partnership has the implied power to bind the partnership in a contract within its usual sphere of business. That particular implied power can be removed or reduced by the partnership agreement and any such removal or reduction of authority would be effective as long as the other party was aware of it. Some implied terms, however, are completely prescriptive and cannot be removed.
Terms implied by custom or usage
An agreement may be subject to terms that are customarily found in such contracts within a particular market, trade or locality. Once again this is the case even where it is not actually specified by the parties. For example, in Hutton v Warren (1836), it was held that customary usage permitted a farm tenant to claim an allowance for seed and labour on quitting his tenancy. It should be noted, however, that custom cannot override the express terms of an agreement (Les Affreteurs Reunnis SA v Walford (1919)).
Terms implied by the courts Generally, it is a matter for the parties concerned to decide the terms of a contract, but on occasion the court will presume that the parties intended to include a term which is not expressly stated. They will do so where it is necessary to give business efficacy to the contract.

Whether a term may be implied can be decided on the basis of the officious bystander test. Imagine two parties, A and B, negotiating a contract, when a third party, C, interrupts to suggest a particular provision. A and B reply that that particular term is understood. In just such a way, the court will decide that a term should be implied into a contract.
In The Moorcock (1889), the appellants, owners of a wharf, contracted with the respondents to permit them to discharge their ship at the wharf. It was apparent to both parties that when the tide was out the ship would rest on the riverbed. When the tide was out, the ship sustained damage by settling on a ridge. It was held that there was an implied warranty in the contract that the place of anchorage should be safe for the ship. As a consequence, the ship owner was entitled to damages for breach of that term.
Alternatively the courts will imply certain terms into unspecific contracts where the parties have not reduced the general agreement into specific details. Thus in contracts of employment the courts have asserted the existence of implied terms to impose duties on both employers and employees, although such implied terms can be overridden by express contractual provision to the contrary.


22年ACCA/CAT考试题目下载6卷 第6卷


JOL Co was the market leader with a share of 30% three years ago. The managing director of JOL Co stated at a

recent meeting of the board of directors that: ‘our loss of market share during the last three years might lead to the

end of JOL Co as an organisation and therefore we must address this issue immediately’.

Required:

(b) Discuss the statement of the managing director of JOL Co and discuss six performance indicators, other than

decreasing market share, which might indicate that JOL Co might fail as a corporate entity. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(b) It would appear that JOL’s market share has declined from 30% to (80 – 26)/3 = 18% during the last three years. A 12%
fall in market share is probably very significant with a knock-on effect on profits and resultant cash flows. Obviously such a
declining trend needs to be arrested immediately and this will require a detailed investigation to be undertaken by the directors
of JOL. Consequently loss of market share can be seen to be an indicator of potential corporate failure. Other indicators of
corporate failure are as follows:
Six performance indicators that an organisation might fail are as follows:
Poor cash flow
Poor cash flow might render an organisation unable to pay its debts as and when they fall due for payment. This might mean,
for example, that providers of finance might be able to invoke the terms of a loan covenant and commence legal action against
an organisation which might eventually lead to its winding-up.
Lack of new production/service introduction
Innovation can often be seen to be the difference between ‘life and death’ as new products and services provide continuity
of income streams in an ever-changing business environment. A lack of new product/service introduction may arise from a
shortage of funds available for re-investment. This can lead to organisations attempting to compete with their competitors with
an out of date range of products and services, the consequences of which will invariably turn out to be disastrous.
General economic conditions
Falling demand and increasing interest rates can precipitate the demise of organisations. Highly geared organisations will
suffer as demand falls and the weight of the interest burden increases. Organisations can find themselves in a vicious circle
as increasing amounts of interest payable are paid from diminishing gross margins leading to falling profits/increasing losses
and negative cash flows. This leads to the need for further loan finance and even higher interest burden, further diminution
in margins and so on.
Lack of financial controls
The absence of sound financial controls has proven costly to many organisations. In extreme circumstances it can lead to
outright fraud (e.g. Enron and WorldCom).
Internal rivalry
The extent of internal rivalry that exists within an organisation can prove to be of critical significance to an organisation as
managerial effort is effectively channeled into increasing the amount of internal conflict that exists to the detriment of the
organisation as a whole. Unfortunately the adverse consequences of internal rivalry remain latent until it is too late to redress
them.
Loss of key personnel
In certain types of organisation the loss of key personnel can ‘spell the beginning of the end’ for an organisation. This is
particularly the case when individuals possess knowledge which can be exploited by direct competitors, e.g. sales contacts,
product specifications, product recipes, etc.


(b) You are the audit manager of Jinack Co, a private limited liability company. You are currently reviewing two

matters that have been left for your attention on the audit working paper file for the year ended 30 September

2005:

(i) Jinack holds an extensive range of inventory and keeps perpetual inventory records. There was no full

physical inventory count at 30 September 2005 as a system of continuous stock checking is operated by

warehouse personnel under the supervision of an internal audit department.

A major systems failure in October 2005 caused the perpetual inventory records to be corrupted before the

year-end inventory position was determined. As data recovery procedures were found to be inadequate,

Jinack is reconstructing the year-end quantities through a physical count and ‘rollback’. The reconstruction

exercise is expected to be completed in January 2006. (6 marks)

Required:

Identify and comment on the implications of the above matters for the auditor’s report on the financial

statements of Jinack Co for the year ended 30 September 2005 and, where appropriate, the year ending

30 September 2006.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the matters.

正确答案:
(b) Implications for the auditor’s report
(i) Corruption of perpetual inventory records
■ The loss of data (of physical inventory quantities at the balance sheet date) gives rise to a limitation on scope.
Tutorial note: It is the records of the asset that have been destroyed – not the physical asset.
■ The systems failure in October 2005 is clearly a non-adjusting post balance sheet event (IAS 10). If it is material
(such that non-disclosure could influence the economic decisions of users) Jinack should disclose:
– the nature of the event (i.e. systems failure); and
– an estimate of its financial effect (i.e. the cost of disruption and reconstruction of data to the extent that it is
not covered by insurance).
Tutorial note: The event has no financial effect on the realisability of inventory, only on its measurement for the
purpose of reporting it in the financial statements.
■ If material this disclosure could be made in the context of explaining how inventory has been estimated at
30 September 2005 (see later). If such disclosure, that the auditor considers to be necessary, is not made, the
audit opinion should be qualified ‘except for’ disagreement (over lack of disclosure).
Tutorial note: Such qualifications are extremely rare since management should be persuaded to make necessary
disclosure in the notes to the financial statements rather than have users’ attention drawn to the matter through
a qualification of the audit opinion.
■ The limitation on scope of the auditor’s work has been imposed by circumstances. Jinack’s accounting records
(for inventory) are inadequate (non-existent) for the auditor to perform. tests on them.
■ An alternative procedure to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence of inventory quantities at a year end is
subsequent count and ‘rollback’. However, the extent of ‘roll back’ testing is limited as records are still under
reconstruction.
■ The auditor may be able to obtain sufficient evidence that there is no material misstatement through a combination
of procedures:
– testing management’s controls over counting inventory after the balance sheet date and recording inventory
movements (e.g. sales and goods received);
– reperforming the reconstruction for significant items on a sample basis;
– analytical procedures such as a review of profit margins by inventory category.
■ ‘An extensive range of inventory’ is clearly material. The matter (i.e. systems failure) is not however pervasive, as
only inventory is affected.
■ Unless the reconstruction is substantially completed (i.e. inventory items not accounted for are insignificant) the
auditor cannot determine what adjustment, if any, might be determined to be necessary. The auditor’s report
should then be modified, ‘except for’, limitation on scope.
■ However, if sufficient evidence is obtained the auditor’s report should be unmodified.
■ An ‘emphasis of matter’ paragraph would not be appropriate because this matter is not one of significant
uncertainty.
Tutorial note: An uncertainty in this context is a matter whose outcome depends on future actions or events not
under the direct control of Jinack.
2006
■ If the 2005 auditor’s report is qualified ‘except for’ on grounds of limitation on scope there are two possibilities for
the inventory figure as at 30 September 2005 determined on completion of the reconstruction exercise:
(1) it is not materially different from the inventory figure reported; or
(2) it is materially different.
■ In (1), with the limitation now removed, the need for qualification is removed and the 2006 auditor’s report would
be unmodified (in respect of this matter).
■ In (2) the opening position should be restated and the comparatives adjusted in accordance with IAS 8 ‘Accounting
Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors’. The 2006 auditor’s report would again be unmodified.
Tutorial note: If the error was not corrected in accordance with IAS 8 it would be a different matter and the
auditor’s report would be modified (‘except for’ qualification) disagreement on accounting treatment.


12 Which of the following statements are correct?

(1) Contingent assets are included as assets in financial statements if it is probable that they will arise.

(2) Contingent liabilities must be provided for in financial statements if it is probable that they will arise.

(3) Details of all adjusting events after the balance sheet date must be given in notes to the financial statements.

(4) Material non-adjusting events are disclosed by note in the financial statements.

A 1 and 2

B 2 and 4

C 3 and 4

D 1 and 3

正确答案:B


(b) (i) Advise Alasdair of the tax implications and relative financial risks attached to the following property

investments:

(1) buy to let residential property;

(2) commercial property; and

(3) shares in a property investment company/unit trust. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(b) (i) Income tax:
Direct investment in residential or commercial property
The income will be taxed under Schedule A for both residential and commercial property investment. Expenses can be
offset against income under the normal trading rules. These will include interest charges incurred in borrowing funds to
acquire the properties. Schedule A losses are restricted to use against future Schedule A profits, with the earliest profits
being relieved first.
When acquiring commercial properties, it may be possible to claim capital allowances on the fixtures and plant held in
the building. In addition, industrial buildings allowances (IBA) may also be available if the property qualifies as an
industrial building.
Capital allowances are not normally available for fixtures and fittings included in a residential property. Instead, a wear
and tear allowance can be claimed if the property is furnished. This is equal to 10% of the rental income after any
tenants cost (for example, council tax) paid by the landlord.
Income tax is levied at the normal tax rates (10/22/40%) as appropriate.
Collective investment (shares in a property investment company/unit trust)
With collective investments, the investor either buys shares (in an investment company) or units (in an equity unit trust).
The income tax treatment of both is the same in that the investor receives dividends. These are taxed at 10% and 32·5%
respectively (for basic and higher rate taxpayers).
Investors are not able to claim income tax relief on either interest costs (of borrowing) or any other expenses.
Capital gains tax (CGT):
The normal rules apply for CGT purposes in all situations. Property investments do not normally qualify for business
rates of taper relief unless they are furnished holiday lets or in certain circumstances, commercial property. Investments
in unit trusts or property investment companies will never qualify for business taper rates.
It is possible to use an individual savings account (ISA) to make collective investments. If this is done, income and
capital gains will be exempt from tax.
Other taxes:
New commercial property is subject to value added tax (VAT) at the standard rate, but new residential property is subject
to VAT at the zero rate. If a commercial building is acquired second hand as an investment, VAT may be payable if a
previous owner has opted to tax the property. If this is the case, VAT at the standard rate will be payable on the purchase
price, and rental charges to tenants will also be subject to VAT, again at the standard rate.
The acquisition of shares is not subject ot VAT.
Stamp duty land tax (SDLT) will be payable broadly on the direct acquisition of any property. The rates vary from 0 to
4% depending on the value of the land and building and its nature (whether residential or non-residential). Stamp duty
is payable at a rate of 0·5% on the acquisition of shares.
Investment risks/benefits
Direct investment
Investing directly in property represents a long term investment, and unless this is the case, investment risks are high.
Substantial initial costs (such as SDLT, VAT and transactions costs) are incurred, and ongoing running costs (such as
letting agents’ fees and vacant periods) can be significant. The investments are illiquid, particularly commercial
properties which can take months to sell.
All types of properties are dependent on a cyclical market, and the values of property investments can vary significantly
as a result. However, residential property has (on a long term basis) proven to be a good hedge against inflation.
Collective investments
The nature of collective investments is that the investor’s risk is reduced by the investment being spread over a large
portfolio as opposed to one or a few properties. In addition, investors can take advantage of the higher levels of liquidity
afforded by such vehicles.


3 You are the manager responsible for the audit of Albreda Co, a limited liability company, and its subsidiaries. The

group mainly operates a chain of national restaurants and provides vending and other catering services to corporate

clients. All restaurants offer ‘eat-in’, ‘take-away’ and ‘home delivery’ services. The draft consolidated financial

statements for the year ended 30 September 2005 show revenue of $42·2 million (2004 – $41·8 million), profit

before taxation of $1·8 million (2004 – $2·2 million) and total assets of $30·7 million (2004 – $23·4 million).

The following issues arising during the final audit have been noted on a schedule of points for your attention:

(a) In September 2005 the management board announced plans to cease offering ‘home delivery’ services from the

end of the month. These sales amounted to $0·6 million for the year to 30 September 2005 (2004 – $0·8

million). A provision of $0·2 million has been made as at 30 September 2005 for the compensation of redundant

employees (mainly drivers). Delivery vehicles have been classified as non-current assets held for sale as at 30

September 2005 and measured at fair value less costs to sell, $0·8 million (carrying amount,

$0·5 million). (8 marks)

Required:

For each of the above issues:

(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and

(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,

in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Albreda Co for the year ended

30 September 2005.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

正确答案:

3 ALBREDA CO

(a) Cessation of ‘home delivery’ service
(i) Matters
■ $0·6 million represents 1·4% of reported revenue (prior year 1·9%) and is therefore material.
Tutorial note: However, it is clearly not of such significance that it should raise any doubts whatsoever regarding
the going concern assumption. (On the contrary, as revenue from this service has declined since last year.)
■ The home delivery service is not a component of Albreda and its cessation does not classify as a discontinued
operation (IFRS 5 ‘Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations’).
? It is not a cash-generating unit because home delivery revenues are not independent of other revenues
generated by the restaurant kitchens.
? 1·4% of revenue is not a ‘major line of business’.
? Home delivery does not cover a separate geographical area (but many areas around the numerous
restaurants).
■ The redundancy provision of $0·2 million represents 11·1% of profit before tax (10% before allowing for the
provision) and is therefore material. However, it represents only 0·6% of total assets and is therefore immaterial
to the balance sheet.
■ As the provision is a liability it should have been tested primarily for understatement (completeness).
■ The delivery vehicles should be classified as held for sale if their carrying amount will be recovered principally
through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. For this to be the case the following IFRS 5 criteria
must be met:
? the vehicles must be available for immediate sale in their present condition; and
? their sale must be highly probable.
Tutorial note: Highly probable = management commitment to a plan + initiation of plan to locate buyer(s) +
active marketing + completion expected in a year.
■ However, even if the classification as held for sale is appropriate the measurement basis is incorrect.
■ Non-current assets classified as held for sale should be carried at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less
costs to sell.
■ It is incorrect that the vehicles are being measured at fair value less costs to sell which is $0·3 million in excess
of the carrying amount. This amounts to a revaluation. Wherever the credit entry is (equity or income statement)
it should be reversed. $0·3 million represents just less than 1% of assets (16·7% of profit if the credit is to the
income statement).
■ Comparison of fair value less costs to sell against carrying amount should have been made on an item by item
basis (and not on their totals).
(ii) Audit evidence
■ Copy of board minute documenting management’s decision to cease home deliveries (and any press
releases/internal memoranda to staff).
■ An analysis of revenue (e.g. extracted from management accounts) showing the amount attributed to home delivery
sales.
■ Redundancy terms for drivers as set out in their contracts of employment.
■ A ‘proof in total’ for the reasonableness/completeness of the redundancy provision (e.g. number of drivers × sum
of years employed × payment per year of service).
■ A schedule of depreciated cost of delivery vehicles extracted from the non-current asset register.
■ Checking of fair values on a sample basis to second hand market prices (as published/advertised in used vehicle
guides).
■ After-date net sale proceeds from sale of vehicles and comparison of proceeds against estimated fair values.
■ Physical inspection of condition of unsold vehicles.
■ Separate disclosure of the held for sale assets on the face of the balance sheet or in the notes.
■ Assets classified as held for sale (and other disposals) shown in the reconciliation of carrying amount at the
beginning and end of the period.
■ Additional descriptions in the notes of:
? the non-current assets; and
? the facts and circumstances leading to the sale/disposal (i.e. cessation of home delivery service).


Additionally the directors wish to know how the provision for deferred taxation would be calculated in the following

situations under IAS12 ‘Income Taxes’:

(i) On 1 November 2003, the company had granted ten million share options worth $40 million subject to a two

year vesting period. Local tax law allows a tax deduction at the exercise date of the intrinsic value of the options.

The intrinsic value of the ten million share options at 31 October 2004 was $16 million and at 31 October 2005

was $46 million. The increase in the share price in the year to 31 October 2005 could not be foreseen at

31 October 2004. The options were exercised at 31 October 2005. The directors are unsure how to account

for deferred taxation on this transaction for the years ended 31 October 2004 and 31 October 2005.

(ii) Panel is leasing plant under a finance lease over a five year period. The asset was recorded at the present value

of the minimum lease payments of $12 million at the inception of the lease which was 1 November 2004. The

asset is depreciated on a straight line basis over the five years and has no residual value. The annual lease

payments are $3 million payable in arrears on 31 October and the effective interest rate is 8% per annum. The

directors have not leased an asset under a finance lease before and are unsure as to its treatment for deferred

taxation. The company can claim a tax deduction for the annual rental payment as the finance lease does not

qualify for tax relief.

(iii) A wholly owned overseas subsidiary, Pins, a limited liability company, sold goods costing $7 million to Panel on

1 September 2005, and these goods had not been sold by Panel before the year end. Panel had paid $9 million

for these goods. The directors do not understand how this transaction should be dealt with in the financial

statements of the subsidiary and the group for taxation purposes. Pins pays tax locally at 30%.

(iv) Nails, a limited liability company, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Panel, and is a cash generating unit in its own

right. The value of the property, plant and equipment of Nails at 31 October 2005 was $6 million and purchased

goodwill was $1 million before any impairment loss. The company had no other assets or liabilities. An

impairment loss of $1·8 million had occurred at 31 October 2005. The tax base of the property, plant and

equipment of Nails was $4 million as at 31 October 2005. The directors wish to know how the impairment loss

will affect the deferred tax provision for the year. Impairment losses are not an allowable expense for taxation

purposes.

Assume a tax rate of 30%.

Required:

(b) Discuss, with suitable computations, how the situations (i) to (iv) above will impact on the accounting for

deferred tax under IAS12 ‘Income Taxes’ in the group financial statements of Panel. (16 marks)

(The situations in (i) to (iv) above carry equal marks)

正确答案:

(b) (i) The tax deduction is based on the option’s intrinsic value which is the difference between the market price and exercise
price of the share option. It is likely that a deferred tax asset will arise which represents the difference between the tax
base of the employee’s service received to date and the carrying amount which will effectively normally be zero.
The recognition of the deferred tax asset should be dealt with on the following basis:
(a) if the estimated or actual tax deduction is less than or equal to the cumulative recognised expense then the
associated tax benefits are recognised in the income statement
(b) if the estimated or actual tax deduction exceeds the cumulative recognised compensation expense then the excess
tax benefits are recognised directly in a separate component of equity.
As regards the tax effects of the share options, in the year to 31 October 2004, the tax effect of the remuneration expensewill be in excess of the tax benefit.

The company will have to estimate the amount of the tax benefit as it is based on the share price at 31 October 2005.
The information available at 31 October 2004 indicates a tax benefit based on an intrinsic value of $16 million.
As a result, the tax benefit of $2·4 million will be recognised within the deferred tax provision. At 31 October 2005,
the options have been exercised. Tax receivable will be 30% x $46 million i.e. $13·8 million. The deferred tax asset
of $2·4 million is no longer recognised as the tax benefit has crystallised at the date when the options were exercised.
For a tax benefit to be recognised in the year to 31 October 2004, the provisions of IAS12 should be complied with as
regards the recognition of a deferred tax asset.
(ii) Plant acquired under a finance lease will be recorded as property, plant and equipment and a corresponding liability for
the obligation to pay future rentals. Rents payable are apportioned between the finance charge and a reduction of the
outstanding obligation. A temporary difference will effectively arise between the value of the plant for accounting
purposes and the equivalent of the outstanding obligation as the annual rental payments qualify for tax relief. The tax
base of the asset is the amount deductible for tax in future which is zero. The tax base of the liability is the carrying
amount less any future tax deductible amounts which will give a tax base of zero. Thus the net temporary differencewill be:

(iii) The subsidiary, Pins, has made a profit of $2 million on the transaction with Panel. These goods are held in inventory
at the year end and a consolidation adjustment of an equivalent amount will be made against profit and inventory. Pins
will have provided for the tax on this profit as part of its current tax liability. This tax will need to be eliminated at the
group level and this will be done by recognising a deferred tax asset of $2 million x 30%, i.e. $600,000. Thus any
consolidation adjustments that have the effect of deferring or accelerating tax when viewed from a group perspective will
be accounted for as part of the deferred tax provision. Group profit will be different to the sum of the profits of the
individual group companies. Tax is normally payable on the profits of the individual companies. Thus there is a need
to account for this temporary difference. IAS12 does not specifically address the issue of which tax rate should be used
calculate the deferred tax provision. IAS12 does generally say that regard should be had to the expected recovery or
settlement of the tax. This would be generally consistent with using the rate applicable to the transferee company (Panel)
rather than the transferor (Pins).


(c) Identify and discuss the implications for the audit report if:

(i) the directors refuse to disclose the note; (4 marks)

正确答案:
(c) (i) Audit report implications
Audit procedures have shown that there is a significant level of doubt over Dexter Co’s going concern status. IAS 1
requires that disclosure is made in the financial statements regarding material uncertainties which may cast significant
doubt on the ability of the entity to continue as a going concern. If the directors refuse to disclose the note to the financial
statements, there is a clear breach of financial reporting standards.
In this case the significant uncertainty is caused by not knowing the extent of the future availability of finance needed
to fund operating activities. If the note describing this uncertainty is not provided, the financial statements are not fairly
presented.
The audit report should contain a qualified or an adverse opinion due to the disagreement. The auditors need to make
a decision as to the significance of the non-disclosure. If it is decided that without the note the financial statements are
not fairly presented, and could be considered misleading, an adverse opinion should be expressed. Alternatively, it could
be decided that the lack of the note is material, but not pervasive to the financial statements; then a qualified ‘except
for’ opinion should be expressed.
ISA 570 Going Concern and ISA 701 Modifications to the Independent Auditor’s Report provide guidance on the
presentation of the audit report in the case of a modification. The audit report should include a paragraph which contains
specific reference to the fact that there is a material uncertainty that may cast significant doubt about the entity’s ability
to continue as a going concern. The paragraph should include a clear description of the uncertainties and would
normally be presented immediately before the opinion paragraph.


(b) Draft a report suitable for inclusion in a Management Commentary for Jones and Cousin which deals with:

(i) the key risks and relationships of the business (9 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Jones and Cousin, a public quoted company
Annual Report 2006
Management Commentary
(i) Introduction
Jones and Cousin is a global company engaged in the medical products sector. This report provides information to assist
the assessment of strategies adopted by the company and the future potential of those strategies.
Principal risks and relationships
Trends:
Expenditure in the medical sector is often controlled by governments and is, therefore, affected by government policy.
Thus the Group is largely dependent on governments providing funds for health care. Product innovation and the
resultant increase in competition could lead to downward pressure on the price of goods and a decline in the Group’s
market share which could affect the operational results and hinder the growth of the Group.
Currency fluctuations:
The Group reports its results using the dollar as its functional currency. As there is only five per cent of the business in
the country of incorporation, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material effect on the Group. If the exchange
rate of the dollar strengthens against the Dinar and Euro, then group turnover and operating profit would be lower on
translation into dollars. As the manufacturing base is worldwide, the finished products when sold to the Group’s selling
operations could expose the Group to fluctuations in exchange rates.
Product liability claims and loss of reputation:
Although the products are not inherently high risk, there is a possibility of malfunction which could entail risk of product
liability claims or recalls on the product. Both these events could be costly and harmful to the Group’s reputation which
is dependent upon product safety. Any product liability claims or product recalls would have a negative effect on cash
flow and profit, and are likely to adversely affect sales of the product.
Highly Competitive markets:
The principal business units compete across many diverse geographic and product markets. Technical advances and
product innovations by competitors could adversely affect the operating results. Some of the Group’s competitors could
have greater resources and may be able to sell products on more competitive terms. If the Group were to lose market
share or have lower than expected sales growth, there could be an adverse impact on the Group’s share price and future
strategies.
Patents and Products;
The Group protects its intellectual rights in its products and opposes third parties where there is a conflict with the
group’s patents. The Group may itself be subject to patent infringement claims. If the Group failed to protect its position,
its competitive position could suffer and operating results be harmed. Similarly if any claims are successful then damages
may have to be paid, or non patent infringing products developed, both of which would adversely affect results.
Product innovations will occur constantly in the sector and, therefore, the Group has to continually develop products to
satisfy consumer needs and to provide cost and other advantages. Not all products will be brought to the market for
several reasons, including failure to receive regulatory approval or infringement of patents. Thus there is a significant
cost implication in the research and development of products. However, if new products do not remain competitive with
competitors’ products, then Group sales revenue could decline.
Relationships:
The Group has developed a set of corporate social responsibility principles which is the responsibility of the Board of
Directors, and the Managing Director in particular. The Group contributes to the treatment and recovery of patients within
its product range by providing solutions to health care needs. Although having a relatively minor impact on the
environment compared to some companies, any obsolete products are disposed of in an environmentally friendly way
so as not to potentially compromise the health of its customers. Reusable materials are used in the manufacture of
products.
The Group fosters ethical relationships with its suppliers and encourages them to share the same social and
environmental standards. In this way a long term relationship is expected to be developed with suppliers.
The Group’s employment policies are based on equality of opportunity and the performance standards and goals are
communicated to the employees. Jones and Cousin is committed to the provision of continuous training and
development and open communication with its employees. Additionally the group encourages its subsidiaries to reinvestprofits in local educational projects.


(e) Internal controls are very important in a complex civil engineering project such as the Giant Dam Project.

Required:

Describe the difficulties of maintaining sound internal controls in the Giant Dam Project created by working

through sub-contractors. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(e) Control and sub-contractors
Specifically in regard to the maintenance of internal controls when working with sub-contractors, the prominent difficulties
are likely to be in the following areas:
Configuring and co-ordinating the many activities of sub-contractors so as to keep progress on track. This may involve taking
the different cultures of sub-contractor organisations into account.
Loss of direct control over activities as tasks are performed by people outside R&M’s direct employment and hence its
management structure.
Monitoring the quality of work produced by the sub-contractors. Monitoring costs will be incurred and any quality problems
will be potentially costly.
Budget ‘creep’ and cost control. Keeping control of budgets can be a problem in any large civil engineering project (such the
construction of the new Wembley Stadium in the UK) and problems are likely to be made worse when the principal contractor
does not have direct control over all activities.
Time limit over-runs. Many projects (again, such as the new Wembley Stadium, but others also) over-run significantly on time.
Tutorial note: only four difficulties need to be described.