22年ACCA/CAT历年真题解析7章

发布时间:2022-03-07
22年ACCA/CAT历年真题解析7章

22年ACCA/CAT历年真题解析7章 第1章


(b) Advise the management of SCC Ltd of THREE strategies that should be considered in order to improve the

future performance of SCC Ltd. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The four quadrants of the Boston-growth share matrix summarise expected profits and resultant cash flows and recommends
an outline strategy to follow which rather simplistically may be summarised as invest in stars, scrutinise the problem children,
milk the cows and divest the dogs.
Value Chain Analysis
It is vital that the management of SCC Ltd undertake a value chain analysis of each of its divisions in order to identify and
eliminate all non-value added activities, thereby improving profitability and cash flow without necessarily increasing turnover
or market share.
Divestment of the Footwear division
Serious consideration should be given to the divestment of the Footwear division. This will enable resources to be redirected
to divisions categorised as problem children i.e. the Industrial and Children’s divisions.
Support the Stars
As far as the Fashion division is concerned, it is obviously in a growth market and currently performing well. It is vital, given
the forecast performance of the other subsidiaries that the management of SCC Ltd do not concentrate on the poor performers
to the detriment of its only star.


Jewel Co is setting up an online business importing and selling jewellery headphones. The cost of each set of headphones varies depending on the number purchased, although they can only be purchased in batches of 1,000 units. It also has to pay import taxes which vary according to the quantity purchased.

Jewel Co has already carried out some market research and identified that sales quantities are expected to vary depending on the price charged. Consequently, the following data has been established for the first month:

Required:

(a) Calculate how many batches Jewel Co should import and sell. (6 marks)

(b) Explain why Jewel Co could not use the algebraic method to establish the optimum price for its product.

(4 marks)

正确答案:
(b)Thealgebraicmodelrequiresseveralassumptionstobetrue.First,theremustbeaconsistentrelationshipbetweenprice(P)anddemand(Q),sothatademandequationcanbeestablished,usuallyintheform.P=a–bQ.Here,althoughthereisaclearrelationshipbetweenthetwo,itisnotaperfectlylinearrelationshipandsomorecomplicatedtechniquesarerequiredtocalculatethedemandequation.ItalsocannotbeassumedthatalinearrelationshipwillholdforallvaluesofPandQotherthanthefivegiven.Similarly,theremustbeaclearrelationshipbetweendemandandmarginalcost,usuallysatisfiedbyconstantvariablecostperunitandconstantfixedcosts.Thechangingvariablecostsperunitagaincomplicatetheissue,butitisthechangesinfixedcostswhichmakethealgebraicmethodlessusefulinJewel’scase.Thealgebraicmodelisonlysuitableforcompaniesoperatinginamonopolyanditisnotclearherewhetherthisisthecase,butitseemsunlikely,soany‘optimum’pricemightbecomeirrelevantifJewel’scompetitorschargesignificantlylowerprices.Othermoregeneralfactorsnotconsideredbythealgebraicmodelarepoliticalfactorswhichmightaffectimports,socialfactorswhichmayaffectcustomertastesandeconomicfactorswhichmayaffectexchangeratesorcustomerspendingpower.Thereliabilityoftheestimatesthemselves–forsalesprices,variablecostsandfixedcosts–couldalsobecalledintoquestion.


(c) Discuss the ethical and social responsibilities of the Beth Group and whether a change in the ethical and

social attitudes of the management could improve business performance. (7 marks)

Note: requirement (c) includes 2 professional marks for development of the discussion of the ethical and social

responsibilities of the Beth Group.

正确答案:
(c) Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is concerned with business ethics and the company’s accountability to its stakeholders,
and about the way it meets its wider obligations. CSR emphasises the need for companies to adopt a coherent approach to
a range of stakeholders including investors, employees, suppliers, and customers. Beth has paid little regard to the promotion
of socially and ethically responsible policies. For example, the decision to not pay the SME creditors on the grounds that they
could not afford to sue the company is ethically unacceptable. Additionally, Beth pays little regard to local customs and
cultures in its business dealings.
The stagnation being suffered by Beth could perhaps be reversed if it adopted more environmentally friendly policies. The
corporate image is suffering because of its attitude to the environment. Environmentally friendly policies could be cost effective
if they help to increase market share and reduce the amount of litigation costs it has to suffer. The communication of these
policies would be through the environmental report, and it is critical that stakeholders feel that the company is being
transparent in its disclosures.
Evidence of corporate misbehaviour (Enron, World.com) has stimulated interest in the behaviour of companies. There has
been pressure for companies to show more awareness and concern, not only for the environment but for the rights and
interests of the people they do business with. Governments have made it clear that directors must consider the short-term
and long-term consequences of their actions, and take into account their relationships with employees and the impact of the
business on the community and the environment. The behaviour of Beth will have had an adverse effect on their corporate
image.
CSR requires the directors to address strategic issues about the aims, purposes, and operational methods of the organisation,
and some redefinition of the business model that assumes that profit motive and shareholder interests define the core purpose
of the company. The profits of Beth will suffer if employees are not valued and there is poor customer support.
Arrangements should be put in place to ensure that the business is conducted in a responsible manner. The board should
look at broad social and environmental issues affecting the company and set policy and targets, monitoring performance and
improvements.


(b) Explain the meaning of the term ‘Efficient Market Hypothesis’ and discuss the implications for a company if

the stock market on which it is listed has been found to be semi-strong form. efficient. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The term ‘Efficient Market Hypothesis’ (EMH) refers to the view that share prices fully and fairly reflect all relevant available
information1. There are other kinds of capital market efficiency, such as operational efficiency (meaning that transaction costs
are low enough not to discourage investors from buying and selling shares), but it is pricing efficiency that is especially
important in financial management.
Research has been carried out to discover whether capital markets are weak form. efficient (share prices reflect all past or
historic information), semi-strong form. efficient (share prices reflect all publicly available information, including past
information), or strong form. efficient (share prices reflect all information, whether publicly available or not). This research has
shown that well-developed capital markets are weak form. efficient, so that it is not possible to generate abnormal profits by
studying and analysing past information, such as historic share price movements. This research has also shown that
well-developed capital markets are semi-strong form. efficient, so that it is not possible to generate abnormal profits by studying
publicly available information such as company financial statements or press releases. Capital markets are not strong form
efficient, since it is possible to use insider information to buy and sell shares for profit.
If a stock market has been found to be semi-strong form. efficient, it means that research has shown that share prices on the
market respond quickly and accurately to new information as it arrives on the market. The share price of a company quickly
responds if new information relating to that company is released. The share prices quoted on a stock exchange are therefore
always fair prices, reflecting all information about a company that is relevant to buying and selling. The share price will factor
in past company performance, expected company performance, the quality of the management team, the way the company
might respond to changes in the economic environment such as a rise in interest rate, and so on.
There are a number of implications for a company of its stock market being semi-strong form. efficient. If it is thinking about
acquiring another company, the market value of the potential target company will be a fair one, since there are no bargains
to be found in an efficient market as a result of shares being undervalued. The managers of the company should focus on
making decisions that increase shareholder wealth, since the market will recognise the good decisions they are making and
the share price will increase accordingly. Manipulating accounting information, such as ‘window dressing’ annual financial
statements, will not be effective, as the share price will reflect the underlying ‘fundamentals’ of the company’s business
operations and will be unresponsive to cosmetic changes. It has also been argued that, if a stock market is efficient, the timing
of new issues of equity will be immaterial, as the price paid for the new equity will always be a fair one.


(b) Discuss the view that fair value is a more relevant measure to use in corporate reporting than historical cost.

(12 marks)

正确答案:
(b) The main disagreement over a shift to fair value measurement is the debate over relevance versus reliability. It is argued that
historical cost financial statements are not relevant because they do not provide information about current exchange values
for the entity’s assets which to some extent determine the value of the shares of the entity. However, the information provided
by fair values may be unreliable because it may not be based on arm’s-length transactions. Proponents of fair value
accounting argue that this measurement is more relevant to decision makers even if it is less reliable and would produce
balance sheets that are more representative of a company’s value. However it can be argued that relevant information that is
unreliable is of no use to an investor. One advantage of historical cost financial information is that it produces earnings
numbers that are not based on appraisals or other valuation techniques. Therefore, the income statement is less likely to be
subject to manipulation by management. In addition, historical cost balance sheet figures comprise actual purchase prices,
not estimates of current values that can be altered to improve various financial ratios. Because historical cost statements rely
less on estimates and more on ‘hard’ numbers, it can be said that historical cost financial statements are more reliable than
fair value financial statements. Furthermore, fair value measurements may be less reliable than historical costs measures
because fair value accounting provides management with the opportunity to manipulate the reported profit for the period.
Developing reliable methods of measuring fair value so that investors trust the information reported in financial statements is
critical.
Fair value measurement could be said to be more relevant than historical cost as it is based on market values and not entity
specific measurement on initial recognition, so long as fair values can be reliably measured. Generally the fair value of the
consideration given or received (effectively historical cost) also represents the fair value of the item at the date of initial
recognition. However there are many cases where significant differences between historical cost and fair value can arise on
initial recognition.
Historical cost does not purport to measure the value received. It cannot be assumed that the price paid can be recovered in
the market place. Hence the need for some additional measure of recoverable value and impairment testing of assets.
Historical cost can be an entity specific measurement. The recorded historical cost can be lower or higher than its fair value.
For example the valuation of inventory is determined by the costing method adopted by the entity and this can vary from
entity to entity. Historical cost often requires the allocation of costs to an asset or liability. These costs are attributed to assets,
liabilities and expenses, and are often allocated arbitrarily. An example of this is self constructed assets. Rules set out in
accounting standards help produce some consistency of historical cost measurements but such rules cannot improve
representational faithfulness.
Another problem with historical cost arises as regards costs incurred prior to an asset being recognised. Historical costs
recorded from development expenditure cannot be capitalised if they are incurred prior to the asset meeting the recognition
criteria in IAS38 ‘Intangible Assets’. Thus the historical cost amount does not represent the fair value of the consideration
given to create the asset.
The relevance of historical cost has traditionally been based on a cost/revenue matching principle. The objective has been to
expense the cost of the asset when the revenue to which the asset has contributed is recognised. If the historical cost of the
asset differs from its fair value on initial recognition then the matching process in future periods becomes arbitrary. The
measurement of assets at fair value will enhance the matching objective. Historical cost may have use in predicting future
net reported income but does not have any necessary implications for future cash flows. Fair value does embody the market’s
expectations for those future cash flows.
However, historical cost is grounded in actual transaction amounts and has existed for many years to the extent that it is
supported by practical experience and familiarity. Historical cost is accepted as a reliable measure especially where no other
relevant measurement basis can be applied.


(b) (i) Calculate the inheritance tax (IHT) that will be payable if Debbie were to die today (8 June 2005).

Assume that no tax planning measures are taken and that there has been no change in the value of any

of the assets since David’s death. (4 marks)

正确答案:

 


1 Flavours Fine Foods is a leading producer for the food industry, supplying many of Europe’s leading restaurants.

Started just five years ago by brothers Lee and Alan Jones, the organisation has grown from a small company employing five people to a multi-divisional organisation employing 120 people.

The organisation’s production facility is divided into three separate departments. Each department has a single manager with supervisors assisting on the production lines. The managers and supervisors, all of whom are aware of their roles, work well together. However, although the organisation has grown, the owners continue to involve themselves in day to day activities and this has led to friction between the owners, managers and supervisors.

As a result a problem arose last week. Alan Jones instructed a supervisor to repair a machine on the shop floor, which he refused to do without confirmation and instruction from his departmental manager. The supervisor’s manager,Dean Watkins, became involved and was annoyed at what he saw as interference in his department’s activities. Dean told Alan Jones that he “should have come to me first” because although the responsibility for the overall organisation was a matter for the brothers, action taken in the factory was his through powers that had been delegated to him and through his authority, as manager. In the argument that followed, Alan Jones was accused of failing to understand the way that the hierarchy in such a large organisation operates and that interference with operational decisions by senior management was not helpful.

As a consequence of this, Alan Jones has asked you to explain to him and his brother the issues behind the dispute to clarify the roles of managers and supervisors and to indicate how and why successful delegation might be achieved.

Required:

(a) Explain to Alan Jones the main differences between the work of a manager and that of a supervisor.

(13 marks)

正确答案:
1 All organisations of whatever size need to understand and address the issues of the relationship between various levels of management, especially the nature, source and limitations of authority, responsibility and delegation. Understanding responsibility,delegation and authority is fundamental to the practice of management. Professional accountants should be able to show an understanding of the problems and challenges associated with these concepts of management. Students are not expected to
remember definitions verbatim, but they are expected to show an understanding of the inherent logic contained in these concepts,and to demonstrate a clear distinction between the two main concepts of authority and responsibility.
(a) There are many explanations of what managers do. The most widely understood approach is that of Henri Fayol, who said that managers perform. five duties, to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, co-ordinate and control. Managers are ultimately responsible for the efficient use of the organisation’s resources and are accountable to the organisation’s owners. At Flavours Fine Foods, the owners (the Jones brothers) must recognise this reality and allow the managers to manage.
It used to be said that a manager did his or her job by getting others to do theirs. In many ways this sums up the role of the supervisor. However, management must ensure that supervisors understand organisational objectives and must make clear the powers and limits of the supervisors’ authority. Supervision is an important and integral part of the task and process of management.
The role of the supervisor is critical because of direct contact with and responsibility directly for the work of others. The supervisor is unique; he or she is the interface between management and the workforce and is the direct link between the two, being in direct physical contact with non-managers on a frequent basis. Supervisors are in the front line of management and see that others fulfil their duties, resolve problems first hand and often quickly, direct the work of others and enforce discipline. In addition, they often must have direct knowledge of health, safety and employment legislation and have authority for negotiation and industrial relations within the department.


2 Ice-Time Ltd (ITL) manufactures a range of sports equipment used in a variety of winter-sports in Snowland.

Development engineers within ITL have recently developed a prototype of a small engine-propelled bobsleigh named

the ‘Snowballer’, which has been designed for use by young children. The directors of ITL recently spent £200,000

on market research, the findings of which led them to believe that a market exists for the Snowballer.

The marketing director has suggested that ITL should use the ‘Olympic’ brand in order to market the Snowballer.

The finance director of ITL has gathered relevant information and prepared the following evaluation relating to the

proposed manufacture and sale of the Snowballer.

(1) Sales are expected to be 3,200 units per annum at a selling price of £2,500 per unit.

(2) Variable material, labour, and overhead costs are estimated at £1,490 per unit.

(3) In addition, a royalty of £150 per unit would be payable to Olympic plc, for the use of their brand name.

(4) Fixed overheads are estimated at £900,000 per annum. These overheads cannot be avoided until the end of the

year in which the Snowballer is withdrawn from the market.

(5) An initial investment of £5 million would be required. A government grant equal to 50% of the initial investment

would be received on the date the investment is made. However, because the Snowballer would be classified as

a luxury good, no tax allowances would be available on this initial investment. The estimated life cycle of the

Snowballer is six years.

(6) Corporation tax at the rate of 30% per annum is payable in the year in which profit occurs.

(7) All cash flows are stated in current prices and, with the exception of the initial investment and the government

grant, will occur at the end of each year.

(8) The nominal cost of capital is 15·44%. Annual inflation during the period is expected to amount to 4%.

Required:

(a) Calculate the net present value (NPV) of the Snowballer proposal and recommend whether it should be

undertaken by the directors of ITL. (4 marks)

正确答案:


(c) Explain how the introduction of an ERPS could impact on the role of management accountants. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(c) The introduction of ERPS has the potential to have a significant impact on the work of management accountants. The use of
ERPS causes a substantial reduction in the gathering and processing of routine information by management accountants.
Instead of relying on management accountants to provide them with information, managers are able to access the system to
obtain the information they require directly via a suitable electronic access medium.
ERPS integrate separate business functions in one system for the entire organisation and therefore co-ordination is usually
undertaken centrally by information management specialists who have a dual responsibility for the implementation and
operation of the system.
ERPS perform. routine tasks that not so long ago were seen as an essential part of the daily routines of management
accountants, for example perpetual inventory valuation. Therefore if the value of the role of management accountants is not
to be diminished then it is of necessity that management accountants should seek to expand their roles within their
organisations.
The management accountant will also control and audit the ERPS data input and analysis. Hence the implementation of ERPS
provides the management accountant with an opportunity to change the emphasis of their role from information gathering
and processing to that of the role of advisers and internal consultants to their organisations. This new role will require
management accountants to be involved in interpreting the information generated from the ERPS and to provide business
support for all levels of management within an organisation.


22年ACCA/CAT历年真题解析7章 第2章


(b) How can Maslow’s theory be applied to the motivation of staff? (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) This theory is based on the idea that the goals of the individual and the organisation can be integrated and that personal satisfaction can be achieved through the workplace. It also assumes that individuals will achieve self-actualisation through their role in assisting the organisation to achieve its objectives. It follows therefore that work is the principal source of satisfaction.
The theory’s practical application is that managers should recognise that subordinates’ needs are always evolving and increasing, so continued attention to increasing the employees’ personal development, opportunities for advancement and recognition of achievement are essential to keep them motivated.


(b) Calculate the corporation tax (CT) liabilities for Alantech Ltd, Boron Ltd and Bubble Ltd for the year ending

31 December 2004 on the assumption that loss reliefs are taken as early as possible. (9 marks)

正确答案:

(b) Schedule D Case I calculation
The three companies form. a group for both group relief and capital gains purposes as all shareholdings pass the 75%
ownership test. The calculation of the corporation tax liabilities is as follows:


(ii) Using the previous overhead allocation basis (as per note 4), calculate the budgeted profit/(loss)

attributable to each type of service for the year ending 31 December 2006 and comment on the results

obtained using the previous and revised methods of overhead allocation. (5 marks)

正确答案:


5 Which of the following events after the balance sheet date would normally qualify as adjusting events according

to IAS 10 Events after the balance sheet date?

1 The bankruptcy of a credit customer with a balance outstanding at the balance sheet date.

2 A decline in the market value of investments.

3 The declaration of an ordinary dividend.

4 The determination of the cost of assets purchased before the balance sheet date.

A 1, 3, and 4

B 1 and 2 only

C 2 and 3 only

D 1 and 4 only

正确答案:D


(ii) Following on from your answer to (i), evaluate the two purchase proposals, and advise Bill and Ben

which course of action will result in the highest amount of after tax cash being received by the

shareholders if the disposal takes place on 31 March 2006. (4 marks)

正确答案:

 


Ms Huang, a shareholder of the Daqing Limited Liability Company (Daqing), found that the general manager, Mr Ding, had accepted bribes from several suppliers, which materially caused losses to Daqing, and adversely affected the interests of all shareholders.

Further examination, through a Certified Public Accountant firm, disclosed that there were a lot of affiliated transactions between Daqing and Everbright Co, which was the majority shareholder of Daqing. Mr Ding was recommended by Everbright Co and appointed by Daqing’s board of directors, which was substantially influenced by Everbright Co. With a series of such transactions Daqing transferred huge profits to Everbright Co and adversely affected Daqing.

Required:

(a) State whether Ms Huang was entitled to take legal action against Mr Ding for his illegal behaviour of accepting bribes which adversely affected all the shareholders. (2 marks)

(b) State TWO different legal actions Ms Huang was entitled to take to protect the rights of Daqing and its shareholders due to the affiliated transactions with Everbright Co. (4 marks)

正确答案:

(a) Mr Ding’s act of accepting bribery violated the criminal law and the relevant rules of the Company Law as well. Besides the criminal charges, he should be liable for his fraudulent behaviour of damaging the interests of Daqing and its shareholders. Therefore, Ms Huang was entitled to bring a law suit against general manager Mr Ding on the ground that his acts caused her loss of interests.

(b) With respect to Daqing’s damage, Ms Huang should first request the board of directors or supervisory board to take legal action against Everbright Co. Where these two bodies refuse to take reasonable actions, Ms Huang might, in her own name but for the interests of the company, bring a shareholder representative litigation against Everbright Co. On the other hand, she might also bring a direct litigation against Everbright Co on the ground that the connected transactions caused indirect damage to the shareholder’s interests.


(b) Assuming that the cost of equity and cost of debt do not alter, estimate the effect of the share repurchase on the company’s cost of capital and value. (5 marks)

正确答案:

(b) Estimated new cost of capital:
If equity is repurchased such that the gearing becomes 50% equity, 50% debt, the new estimated weighted average cost of capital is:


2 An important part of management is understanding the style. of leadership.

Required:

(a) Explain what Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid measures. (5 marks)

正确答案:
2 Overview:
The accountant is frequently the manager or group leader. An understanding of leadership theory and practice is therefore an
important part of an accountant’s training.
Part (a):
Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in their Ohio State Leadership Studies, observed two basic leadership dimensions that were
apparent from their studies; concern for the task and concern for people.
They recognised that it was possible for concern for the task to be independent of concern for people. It was therefore possible for
a leader to be strong on one and weak on the other, strong on both, weak on both or any variation in between.
They devised a series of questions, the answers to which enabled them to plot these two basic leadership dimensions. These two
dimensions were placed as the axes on a grid structure now known as the Managerial Grid. A person who scores 7 on ‘concern
for production’ (the x axis) and 5 on ‘concern for people’ (the y axis) is known as a 7,5 leader.


4 When a prominent football club, whose shares were listed, announced that it was to build a new stadium on land

near to its old stadium, opinion was divided. Many of the club’s fans thought it a good idea because it would be more

comfortable for them when watching games. A number of problems arose, however, when it was pointed out that the

construction of the new stadium and its car parking would have a number of local implications. The local government

authority said that building the stadium would involve diverting roads and changing local traffic flow, but that it would

grant permission to build the stadium if those issues could be successfully addressed. A number of nearby residents

complained that the new stadium would be too near their homes and that it would destroy the view from their gardens.

Helen Yusri, who spoke on behalf of the local residents, said that the residents would fight the planning application

through legal means if necessary. A nearby local inner-city wildlife reservation centre said that the stadium’s

construction might impact on local water levels and therefore upset the delicate balance of animals and plants in the

wildlife centre. A local school, whose pupils often visited the wildlife centre, joined in the opposition, saying that whilst

the school supported the building of a new stadium in principle, it had concerns about disruption to the wildlife centre.

The football club’s board was alarmed by the opposition to its planned new stadium as it had assumed that it would

be welcomed because the club had always considered itself a part of the local community. The club chairman said

that he wanted to maintain good relations with all local people if possible, but at the same time he owed it to the fans

and the club’s investors to proceed with the building of the new stadium despite local concerns.

Required:

(a) Define ‘stakeholder’ and explain the importance of identifying all the stakeholders in the stadium project.

(10 marks)

正确答案:
4 (a) Stakeholders
Definition
There are a number of definitions of a stakeholder. Freeman (1984), for example, defined a stakeholder in terms of any
organisation or person that can affect or be affected by the policies or activities of an entity. Hence stakeholding can result
from one of two directions: being able to affect and possibly influence an organisation or, conversely, being influenced by it.
Any engagement with an organisation in whom a stake is held may be voluntary or involuntary in nature.
Tutorial note: any definition of a stakeholder that identifies bi-directional influence will be equally valid.
Importance of identifying all stakeholders
Knowledge of the stakeholders in the stadium project is important for a number of reasons. This will involve surveying
stakeholders that can either affect or be affected by the building of the stadium. In some cases, stakeholders will be
bi-directional in their stakeholding (claim) upon the stadium project. Stakeholders in the stadium project include the local
government authority, the local residents, the wildlife centre, the local school and the football club’s fans.
Stakeholder identification is necessary to gain an understanding of the sources of risks and disruption. Some external
stakeholders, such as the local government authority, offer a risk to the project and knowledge of the nature of the claim made
upon the football club by the stakeholder will be important in risk assessment.
Stakeholder identification is important in terms of assessing the sources of influence over the objectives and outcomes for the
project (such as identified in the Mendelow model). In strategic analysis, stakeholder influence is assessed in terms of each
stakeholder’s power and interest, with higher power and higher interest combining to generate the highest influence. In the
case, it is likely that the fans are more influential on the club’s objectives than, say, the local wildlife centre, as they have
more economic power over the club.
It is necessary in order to identify areas of conflict and tension between stakeholders, especially relevant when it is likely that
stakeholders of influence will be in disagreement over the outcomes for the project. In this case, for example, the claims of
the football club board and the local residents are in conflict.
There is a moral case for knowledge of how decisions affect people both inside the organisation or (as is the case with the
stadium project) externally.


22年ACCA/CAT历年真题解析7章 第3章


(ii) Deema Co. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Deema Co
The claim is an event after the balance sheet date. If the accident occurred prior to the year end of 30 September 2007,
the claim gives additional evidence of a year end condition, and thus meets the definition of an adjusting post balance
sheet event. In this case the matter appears to have been properly disclosed in the notes to the financial statements per
IAS 10 Events After the Balance Sheet Date and IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. A
provision would only be necessary if the claim was probable to succeed and there is sufficient appropriate evidence that
this is not the case. There is therefore no disagreement, and no limitation on scope.
Therefore the senior is correct to propose an unqualified opinion.
However, it is not necessary for the audit report to contain an emphasis of matter paragraph.
ISA 701 Modifications to the Independent Auditor’s Report states that an emphasis of matter paragraph should be used
to highlight a matter where there is significant uncertainty.
Uncertainties are normally only regarded as significant if they involve a level of concern about the going concern status
of the company or would have an unusually great effect on the financial statements. This is not the case here as there
is enough cash to pay the damages in the unlikely event that the claim goes against Deema Co. This appears to be a
one-off situation with a low risk of the estimate being subject to change and thus there is no significant uncertainty.


3 You are the manager responsible for the audit of Lamont Co. The company’s principal activity is wholesaling frozen

fish. The draft consolidated financial statements for the year ended 31 March 2007 show revenue of $67·0 million

(2006 – $62·3 million), profit before taxation of $11·9 million (2006 – $14·2 million) and total assets of

$48·0 million (2006 – $36·4 million).

The following issues arising during the final audit have been noted on a schedule of points for your attention:

(a) In early 2007 a chemical leakage from refrigeration units owned by Lamont caused contamination of some of its

property. Lamont has incurred $0·3 million in clean up costs, $0·6 million in modernisation of the units to

prevent future leakage and a $30,000 fine to a regulatory agency. Apart from the fine, which has been expensed,

these costs have been capitalised as improvements. (7 marks)

Required:

For each of the above issues:

(i) comment on the matters that you should consider; and

(ii) state the audit evidence that you should expect to find,

in undertaking your review of the audit working papers and financial statements of Lamont Co for the year ended

31 March 2007.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three issues.

正确答案:
3 LAMONT CO
(a) Chemical leakage
(i) Matters
■ $30,000 fine is very immaterial (just 1/4% profit before tax). This is revenue expenditure and it is correct that it
has been expensed to the income statement.
■ $0·3 million represents 0·6% total assets and 2·5% profit before tax and is not material on its own. $0·6 million
represents 1·2% total assets and 5% profit before tax and is therefore material to the financial statements.
■ The $0·3 million clean-up costs should not have been capitalised as the condition of the property is not improved
as compared with its condition before the leakage occurred. Although not material in isolation this amount should
be adjusted for and expensed, thereby reducing the aggregate of uncorrected misstatements.
■ It may be correct that $0·6 million incurred in modernising the refrigeration units should be capitalised as a major
overhaul (IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment). However, any parts scrapped as a result of the modernisation
should be treated as disposals (i.e. written off to the income statement).
■ The carrying amount of the refrigeration units at 31 March 2007, including the $0·6 million for modernisation,
should not exceed recoverable amount (i.e. the higher of value in use and fair value less costs to sell). If it does,
an allowance for the impairment loss arising must be recognised in accordance with IAS 36 Impairment of Assets.
(ii) Audit evidence
■ A breakdown/analysis of costs incurred on the clean-up and modernisation amounting to $0·3 million and
$0·6 million respectively.
■ Agreement of largest amounts to invoices from suppliers/consultants/sub-contractors, etc and settlement thereof
traced from the cash book to the bank statement.
■ Physical inspection of the refrigeration units to confirm their modernisation and that they are in working order. (Do
they contain frozen fish?)
■ Sample of components selected from the non-current asset register traced to the refrigeration units and inspected
to ensure continuing existence.
■ $30,000 penalty notice from the regulatory agency and corresponding cash book payment/payment per the bank
statement.
■ Written management representation that there are no further penalties that should be provided for or disclosed other
than the $30,000 that has been accounted for.


(c) Explain the benefits of performance-related pay in rewarding directors and critically evaluate the implications

of the package offered to Choo Wang. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Choo Wang’s remuneration package
Benefits of PRP
In general terms, performance-related pay serves to align directors’ and shareholders’ interests in that the performancerelated
element can be made to reflect those things held to be important to shareholders (such as financial targets). This, in
turn, serves to motivate directors, especially if they are directly responsible for a cost or revenue/profit budget or centre. The
possibility of additional income serves to motivate directors towards higher performance and this, in turn, can assist in
recruitment and retention. Finally, performance-related pay can increase the board’s control over strategic planning and
implementation by aligning rewards against strategic objectives.
Critical evaluation of Choo Wang’s package
Choo Wang’s package appears to have a number of advantages and shortcomings. It was strategically correct to include some
element of pay linked specifically to Southland success. This will increase Choo’s motivation to make it successful and indeed,
he has said as much – he appears to be highly motivated and aware that additional income rests upon its success. Against
these advantages, it appears that the performance-related component does not take account of, or discount in any way for,
the risk of the Southland investment. The bonus does not become payable on a sliding scale but only on a single payout basis
when the factory reaches an ‘ambitious’ level of output. Accordingly, Choo has more incentive to be accepting of risk with
decisions on the Southland investment than risk averse. This may be what was planned, but such a bias should be pointed
out. Clearly, the company should accept some risk but recklessness should be discouraged. In conclusion, Choo’s PRP
package could have been better designed, especially if the Southland investment is seen as strategically risky.


(b) Draft a report as at today’s date advising Cutlass Inc on its proposed activities. The report should cover the

following issues:

(i) The rate at which the profits of Cutlass Inc will be taxed. This section of the report should explain:

– the company’s residency position and what Ben and Amy would have to do in order for the company

to be regarded as resident in the UK under the double tax treaty;

– the meaning of the term ‘permanent establishment’ and the implications of Cutlass Inc having a

permanent establishment in Sharpenia;

– the rate at which the profits of Cutlass Inc will be taxed on the assumption that it is resident in the

UK under the double tax treaty and either does or does not have a permanent establishment in

Sharpenia. (9 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Report to the management of Razor Ltd
To           The management of Razor Ltd
From       Tax advisers
Date         6 June 2007
Subject    The proposed activities of Cutlass Inc
(i) Rate of tax on profits of Cutlass Inc
When considering the manner in which the profits of Cutlass Inc will be taxed it must be recognised that the system of
corporation tax in Sharpenia is the same as that in the UK.
The profits of Cutlass Inc will be subject to corporation tax in the country in which it is resident or where it has a
permanent establishment. It is desirable for the profits of Cutlass Inc to be taxed in the UK rather than in Sharpenia as
the rate of corporation tax in the UK on annual profits of £120,000 will be 19% whereas in Sharpenia the rate of tax
would be 38%.
Residency of Cutlass Inc
Cutlass Inc will be resident in Sharpenia, because it is incorporated there. However, it will also be resident in the UK if
it is centrally managed and controlled from the UK. For this to be the case, Amy and Ben should hold the company’s
board meetings in the UK.
Under the double tax treaty between the UK and Sharpenia, a company resident in both countries is treated as being
resident in the country where it is effectively managed and controlled. For Cutlass Inc to be treated as UK resident under
the treaty, Amy and Ben would need to ensure that all key management and commercial decisions are made in the UK
and not in Sharpenia.
Permanent establishment
A permanent establishment is a fixed place of business, including an office, factory or workshop, through which the
business of an enterprise is carried on. A permanent establishment will also exist in a country if contracts in the
company’s name are habitually concluded there.
The trading profits of Cutlass Inc will be taxable in Sharpenia if they are derived from a permanent establishment in
Sharpenia even if it can be established that Cutlass Inc is UK resident under the double tax treaty.
Double taxation
If Cutlass Inc is UK resident but has a permanent establishment in Sharpenia, its trading profits will be subject to
corporation tax in both the UK and Sharpenia with double tax relief available in the UK. The double tax relief will be the
lower of the UK tax and the Sharpenian tax on the trading profits. Accordingly, as the rate of tax is higher in Sharpenia
than it is in the UK, there will be no UK tax to pay on the company’s trading profits and the rate of tax on the profits
would be the rate in Sharpenia, i.e. 38%.
If Cutlass Inc is UK resident and does not have a permanent establishment in Sharpenia, its profits will be taxable in
the UK at the rate of 19% and not in Sharpenia.


(d) Prepare the statement for Mr Markovnikoff to read out at the AGM. The statement you construct should

contain the following.

(i) A definition and brief explanation of ‘sustainable development’; (3 marks)

正确答案:
(d) Chairman’s statement at AGM
Thank you for coming to the annual general meeting of Rowlands & Mendeleev. I would like to make a statement in response
to the concerns that a number of our investors have made in respect to our appointment as the principal contractor for the
prestigious and internationally important Giant Dam Project. We are very pleased and honoured to have won the contract but
as several have observed, this does leave us in a position of having a number of issues and risks to manage.
As a project with obvious environmental implications, the board and I wish to reassure investors that we are aware of these
implications and have taken them into account in our overall assessment of risks associated with the project.
(i) A definition of ‘sustainable development’
One investor asked if we could explain the sustainability issues and I begin with addressing that issue. According to the
well-established Brundtland definition, sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
This definition has implications for energy, land use, natural resources and waste emissions. In a sustainable
development, all of these should be consumed or produced at the same rate they can be renewed or absorbed so as to
prevent leaving future generations with an unwanted legacy of today’s economic activity. We believe that our involvement
in the Giant Dam Project has implications for environmental sustainability and it is to these matters that I now turn.
Tutorial note: other relevant definitions of sustainability will be equally acceptable.


(ii) Audit work on after-date bank transactions identified a transfer of cash from Batik Co. The audit senior has

documented that the finance director explained that Batik commenced trading on 7 October 2005, after

being set up as a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary of Jinack. No other evidence has been obtained.

(4 marks)

Required:

Identify and comment on the implications of the above matters for the auditor’s report on the financial

statements of Jinack Co for the year ended 30 September 2005 and, where appropriate, the year ending

30 September 2006.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the matters.

正确答案:
(ii) Wholly-owned foreign subsidiary
■ The cash transfer is a non-adjusting post balance sheet event. It indicates that Batik was trading after the balance
sheet date. However, that does not preclude Batik having commenced trading before the year end.
■ The finance director’s oral representation is wholly insufficient evidence with regard to the existence (or otherwise)
of Batik at 30 September 2005. If it existed at the balance sheet date its financial statements should have been
consolidated (unless immaterial).
■ The lack of evidence that might reasonably be expected to be available (e.g. legal papers, registration payments,
etc) suggests a limitation on the scope of the audit.
■ If such evidence has been sought but not obtained then the limitation is imposed by the entity (rather than by
circumstances).
■ Whilst the transaction itself may not be material, the information concerning the existence of Batik may be material
to users and should therefore be disclosed (as a non-adjusting event). The absence of such disclosure, if the
auditor considered necessary, would result in a qualified ‘except for’, opinion.
Tutorial note: Any matter that is considered sufficiently material to be worthy of disclosure as a non-adjusting
event must result in such a qualified opinion if the disclosure is not made.
■ If Batik existed at the balance sheet date and had material assets and liabilities then its non-consolidation would
have a pervasive effect. This would warrant an adverse opinion.
■ Also, the nature of the limitation (being imposed by the entity) could have a pervasive effect if the auditor is
suspicious that other audit evidence has been withheld. In this case the auditor should disclaim an opinion.


6 Discuss how developments in each of the following areas has affected the scope of the audit and the audit work

undertaken:

(a) fair value accounting; (6 marks)

正确答案:
6 DEVELOPMENTS
General comments
Tutorial note: The following comments, that could be made in respect of any of the three areas of development, will be given
credit only once.
■ Audit scope – the scope of a statutory audit should be as necessary to form. an audit opinion (i.e. unlimited).
■ Audit work undertaken – the nature, timing and extent of audit procedures should be as necessary to implement the overall
audit plan.
(a) Fair value accounting
■ Different definitions of fair value exist (among financial reporting frameworks or for different assets and liabilities within
a particular framework). For example, under IFRS it is ‘the amount for which an asset could be exchanged (or a liability
settled) between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s length transaction’.
■ The term ‘fair value accounting’ is used to describe the measurement and disclosure of assets and/or liabilities at fair
value and the charging to profit and loss (or directly to equity) of any changes in fair value measurements.
■ Fair value accounting concerns measurements and disclosures but not initial recognition of assets and liabilities in
financial statements. It does not then, for example, affect the nature, timing and extent of audit procedures to confirm
the existence and completeness of rights and obligations.
■ Fair value may be determined with varying degrees of subjectivity. For example, there will be little (if any) subjectivity
for assets bought and sold in active and open markets that readily provide reliable information on the prices at which
exchange transactions occur. However, the valuation of assets with unique characteristics (or entity-specific assets) often
requires the projection and discounting of future cash flows.
■ The audit of estimates of fair values based on valuation models/techniques can be approached like other accounting
estimates (in accordance with ISA 540 ‘Audit of Accounting Estimates’). However, although the auditor should be able
to review and test the process used by management to develop the estimate, there may be:
? a much greater need for an independent estimate (and hence greater reliance on the work of experts in accordance
with ISA 620);
? no suitable subsequent events to confirm the estimate made (e.g. for assets that are held for use and not for
trading).
Tutorial note: Consider, for example, how the audit of ‘in-process research and development’ might compare with that
for an allowance for slow-moving inventory.
■ Different financial reporting frameworks require or permit a variety of fair value measures and disclosures in financial
statements. They also vary in the level of guidance provided (to preparers of the financial statements – and hence their
auditors). Under IFRS, certain fair values are based on management intent and ‘reasonable supportable assumptions’.
■ The audit of management intent potentially increases the auditor’s reliance on management representations. The auditor
must obtain such representations from the highest level of management and exercise an appropriate degree of
professional scepticism, being particularly alert to the implications of any conflicting evidence.
■ A significant development in international financial reporting is that it is no longer sufficient to report transactions and
past and future events that may only be possible. IAS 1 ‘Presentation of Financial Statements’ (Revised) requires that
key assumptions (and other key sources of estimation uncertainty) be disclosed. This requirement gives rise to yet
another area on which auditors may qualify their audit opinion, on grounds of disagreement, where such disclosure is
incorrect or inadequate.
■ Perhaps one of the most significant impacts of fair value accounting on audit work is that it necessarily increases it.
Consider for example, that even where the fair value of an asset is as easily vouched as original cost, fair value is
determined at least annually whereas historic cost is unchanged (and not re-vouched to original purchase
documentation).


(b) Explain the matters that should be considered when planning the nature and scope of the examination of

Cusiter Co’s forecast balance sheet and income statement as prepared for the bank. (7 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Matters to be considered
Tutorial note: Candidates at this level must appreciate that the matters to be considered when planning the nature and
scope of the examination are not the same matters to be considered when deciding whether or not to accept an
engagement. The scenario clearly indicates that the assignment is being undertaken by the current auditor rendering any
‘pre-engagement’/‘professional etiquette’ considerations irrelevant to answering this question.
This PFI has been prepared to show an external user, the bank, the financial consequences of Cusiter’s plans to help the bank
in making an investment decision. If Cusiter is successful in its loan application the PFI provides a management tool against
which the results of investing in the plant and equipment can be measured.
The PFI is unpublished rather than published. That is, it is prepared at the specific request of a third party, the bank. It will
not be published to users of financial information in general.
The auditor’s report on the PFI will provide only negative assurance as to whether the assumptions provide a reasonable basis
for the PFI and an opinion whether the PFI is:
■ properly prepared on the basis of the assumptions; and
■ presented in accordance with the relevant financial reporting framework.
The nature of the engagement is an examination to obtain evidence concerning:
■ the reasonableness and consistency of assumptions made;
■ proper preparation (on the basis of stated assumptions); and
■ consistent presentation (with historical financial statements, using appropriate accounting principles).
Such an examination is likely to take the form. of inquiry, analytical procedures and corroboration.
The period of time covered by the prospective financial information is two years. The assumptions for 2008 are likely to be
more speculative than for 2007, particularly in relation to the impact on earnings, etc of the investment in new plant and
equipment.
The forecast for the year to 31 December 2007 includes an element of historical financial information (because only part of
this period is in the future) hence actual evidence should be available to verify the first three months of the forecast (possibly
more since another three-month period will expire at the end of the month).
Cusiter management’s previous experience in preparing PFI will be relevant. For example, in making accounting estimates
(e.g. for provisions, impairment losses, etc) or preparing cash flow forecasts (e.g. in support of the going concern assertion).
The basis of preparation of the forecast. For example, the extent to which it comprises:
■ proforma financial information (i.e. historical financial information adjusted for the effects of the planned loan and capital
expenditure transaction);
■ new information and assumptions about future performance (e.g. the operating capacity of the new equipment, sales
generated, etc).
The nature and scope of any standards/guidelines under which the PFI has been prepared is likely to assist the auditor in
discharging their responsibilities to report on it. Also, ISAE 3400 The Examination of Prospective Financial Information,
establishes standards and provides guidance on engagements to examine and report on PFI including examination
procedures.
The planned nature and scope of the examination is likely to take into account the time and fee budgets for the assignments
as adjusted for any ‘overlap’ with audit work. For example, the examination of the PFI is likely to draw on the auditor’s
knowledge of the business obtained in auditing the financial statements to 31 December 2006. Analytical procedures carried
out in respect of the PFI may provide evidence relevant to the 31 December 2007 audit.


(c) Discuss the difficulties that may be experienced by a small company which is seeking to obtain additional

funding to finance an expansion of business operations. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Small businesses face a number of well-documented problems when seeking to raise additional finance. These problems have
been extensively discussed and governments regularly make initiatives seeking to address these problems.
Risk and security
Investors are less willing to offer finance to small companies as they are seen as inherently more risky than large companies.
Small companies obtaining debt finance usually use overdrafts or loans from banks, which require security to reduce the level
of risk associated with the debt finance. Since small companies are likely to possess little by way of assets to offer as security,
banks usually require a personal guarantee instead, and this limits the amount of finance available.
Marketability of ordinary shares
The equity issued by small companies is difficult to buy and sell, and sales are usually on a matched bargain basis, which
means that a shareholder wishing to sell has to wait until an investor wishes to buy. There is no financial intermediary willing
to buy the shares and hold them until a buyer comes along, so selling shares in a small company can potentially take a long
time. This lack of marketability reduces the price that a buyer is willing to pay for the shares. Investors in small company
shares have traditionally looked to a flotation, for example on the UK Alternative Investment Market, as a way of realising their
investment, but this has become increasingly expensive. Small companies are likely to be very limited in their ability to offer
new equity to anyone other than family and friends.
Tax considerations
Individuals with cash to invest may be encouraged by the tax system to invest in large institutional investors rather than small
companies, for example by tax incentives offered on contributions to pension funds. These institutional investors themselves
usually invest in larger companies, such as stock-exchange listed companies, in order to maintain what they see as an
acceptable risk profile, and in order to ensure a steady stream of income to meet ongoing liabilities. This tax effect reduces
the potential flow of funds to small companies.
Cost
Since small companies are seen as riskier than large companies, the cost of the finance they are offered is proportionately
higher. Overdrafts and bank loans will be offered to them on less favourable terms and at more demanding interest rates than
debt offered to larger companies. Equity investors will expect higher returns, if not in the form. of dividends then in the form
of capital appreciation over the life of their investment.


22年ACCA/CAT历年真题解析7章 第4章


(iii) Explain the potential corporation tax (CT) implications of Tay Limited transferring work to Trent Limited,

and suggest how these can be minimised or eliminated. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(iii) Trading losses may not be carried forward where, within a period of three years there is both a change in the ownership
of a company and a major change in the nature or conduct of its trade. The transfer of work from Tay Limited to Trent
Limited is likely to constitute a major change in the nature or conduct of the latter’s trade. As a consequence, any tax
losses at the date of acquisition will be forfeited. Assuming losses were incurred uniformly in 2005, the tax losses at the
date of acquisition were £380,000 (300,000 + 2/3 x 120,000)). This is worth £114,000 assuming a corporation tax
rate of 30%.
Thus, Tay Limited should not consider transferring any trade to Trent Limited until after the third anniversary of the date
of the change of ownership i.e. not before 1 September 2008. As the trades are similar, there should be little problem
in transferring work from that date onwards.


(c) In August 2004 it was discovered that the inventory at 31 December 2003 had been overstated by $100,000.

(4 marks)

Required:

Advise the directors on the correct treatment of these matters, stating the relevant accounting standard which

justifies your answer in each case.

NOTE: The mark allocation is shown against each of the three matters.

正确答案:
(c) The opening inventory should be included in the current year’s income statement at the corrected figure, and the opening
balance of retained profit reduced by $100,000. The $100,000 reduction will appear in the statement of changes in equity.
(IAS8 Accounting policies, changes in accounting estimates and errors)


(b) continuous auditing; (5 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Continuous auditing
Continuous auditing is a methodology that enables independent auditors to give written assurance on a subject matter (e.g.
inventory levels, receivables balances, financial statements) using a series of auditor’s reports issued simultaneously with (or
a short period of time after) the occurrence of events underlying the subject matter. Thus it increases the frequency of
reporting (e.g. may be issued daily, weekly).
Technological development is making increasingly sophisticated information systems available to more entities at a decreasing
cost. This has promoted a more widespread dependence on technology to produce more timely information. This has
increased the demand for timely assurance on the information provided. Auditors have had to respond with highly automated
procedures and audit tools that are integrated with the entity’s systems and controls.
Tutorial note: XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) increases the viability of continuous auditing. It provides a
widely agreed-upon set of descriptors for elements in a business report that can be read and interpreted by computer
systems. It allows an auditor to review data at any stage and determine the origin of the information and the controls that
have been incorporated.
Results of automated audit procedures must be communicated promptly, particularly if anomalies or errors identified require
that follow-up procedures be performed by audit personnel. Secure electronic communication links are therefore essential.
As entities’ reporting has moved from annual and interim reports to the monthly/daily/weekly reporting of key performance
indicators (‘KPIs’)/critical success factors (‘CSFs’), the professional accountant’s assignment has expanded from the audit of
financial statements. For example, to review reports (e.g. on interim financial statements), special purpose reports (e.g. on
the effectiveness of [outsourced] control procedures) to continuous auditing reports.
For continuous audits, auditors’ reports need to be produced automatically and safeguarded against unauthorised changes.
Reports may be ‘evergreen’ (i.e. always available to users and dated at the time of access to the information) or ‘on demand’
(i.e. available when specifically requested and dated at the time of request).
Auditors must be technically proficient to handle any engagement undertaken. For continuous audit assurance engagements
that will require a high level of expertise in various aspects of information technology as well as a sound grasp of the subject
matter being audited.
Continuous audit work requires the frequent or continuous use of audit tools integrated with the client’s systems. For example
embedded audit modules (EAMs) are subroutines that perform. control or audit procedures concurrently with the client’s
normal application processing.


(c) insider dealing. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Insider dealing
Explanation of term
Insider dealing means using ‘inside information’ (i.e. price-sensitive information relating to the issuer of securities) to gain
advantage when ‘dealing’ (i.e. acquiring or disposing) in securities.
Ethical risks
Insider dealing is a potential area of conflict and contention for accountants in industry and commerce (i.e. employed
professional accountants) in particular (because of their exposure to price-sensitive information).
Acts of insider dealing contravene the fundamental principles of integrity and confidentiality:
■ integrity – a professional accountant should be honest;
■ confidentiality – a professional accountant should respect the confidentiality of information acquired during the course
of performing professional services and should not use or disclose it without proper and specific authority.
Professional accountants in public practice who become privy to price-sensitive information will similarly be in breach of their
duties of integrity and confidentiality if they get involved in insider dealing. Also, the reputation of individual practitioners and
their firms may be put at risk by allegations of insider dealing even though they have no involvement with the practice. For
example, if an auditor does not detect when an entity’s management is involved in insider dealing.
Sufficiency of current ethical guidance
Relevant current ethical guidance, that is covered by the principles of integrity and confidentiality, is sufficient to explain the
ethical risks of insider dealing but cannot prevent its practice. Even where there are laws to prosecute insider dealing,
penalties (such as seven years in jail and/or unlimited fines) have been ineffective in combating insider dealing.


4 The Better Agriculture Group (BAG), which has a divisional structure, produces a range of products for the farming

industry. Divisions B and C are two of its divisions. Division B sells a fertiliser product (BF) to customers external to

BAG. Division C produces a chemical (CC) which it could transfer to Division B for use in the manufacture of its

product BF. However, Division C could also sell some of its output of chemical CC to external customers of BAG.

An independent external supplier to The Better Agriculture Group has offered to supply Division B with a chemical

which is equivalent to component CC. The independent supplier has a maximum spare capacity of 60,000 kilograms

of the chemical which it is willing to make available (in total or in part) to Division B at a special price of $55 per

kilogram.

Forecast information for the forthcoming period is as follows:

Division B:

Production and sales of 360,000 litres of BF at a selling price of $120 per litre.

Variable conversion costs of BF will amount to $15 per litre.

Fixed costs are estimated at $18,000,000.

Chemical (CC) is used at the rate of 1 kilogram of CC per 4 litres of product BF.

Division C:

Total production capacity of 100,000 kilograms of chemical CC.

Variable costs will be $50 per kilogram of CC.

Fixed costs are estimated at $2,000,000.

Market research suggests that external customers of BAG are willing to take up sales of 40,000 kilograms of CC at a

price of $105 per kilogram. The remaining 60,000 kilograms of CC could be transferred to Division B for use in

product BF. Currently no other market external to BAG is available for the 60,000 kilograms of CC.

Required:

(a) (i) State the price/prices per kilogram at which Division C should offer to transfer chemical CC to Division

B in order that the maximisation of BAG profit would occur if Division B management implement rational

sourcing decisions based on purely financial grounds.

Note: you should explain the basis on which Division B would make its decision using the information

available, incorporating details of all relevant calculations. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(a) (i) In order to facilitate BAG profit maximising decisions the following strategy should apply:
Division C should offer to transfer chemical CC to Division B at marginal cost plus opportunity cost. This would apply
as follows:
– 40,000 kilograms of CC at $105 per kilogram since this is the price that could be achieved from sales to external
customers of BAG.
– 60,000 kilograms of CC at marginal cost of $50 per kilogram since no alternative opportunity exists.
Division B has a sales forecast of 360,000 litres of product BF. This will require 360,000/4 = 90,000 kilograms of
chemical CC input.
Based on the pricing by Division C indicated above, Division B would choose to purchase 60,000 kilograms of CC from
Division C at $50 per kilogram, since this is less than the $55 per kilogram quoted by the independent supplier.
Division B would purchase its remaining requirement for 30,000 kilograms of CC from the independent supplier at $55
per kilogram since this is less than the $105 per kilogram at which Division C would offer to transfer its remaining output
– given that it can sell the residual output to external customers of BAG.


Additionally the directors wish to know how the provision for deferred taxation would be calculated in the following

situations under IAS12 ‘Income Taxes’:

(i) On 1 November 2003, the company had granted ten million share options worth $40 million subject to a two

year vesting period. Local tax law allows a tax deduction at the exercise date of the intrinsic value of the options.

The intrinsic value of the ten million share options at 31 October 2004 was $16 million and at 31 October 2005

was $46 million. The increase in the share price in the year to 31 October 2005 could not be foreseen at

31 October 2004. The options were exercised at 31 October 2005. The directors are unsure how to account

for deferred taxation on this transaction for the years ended 31 October 2004 and 31 October 2005.

(ii) Panel is leasing plant under a finance lease over a five year period. The asset was recorded at the present value

of the minimum lease payments of $12 million at the inception of the lease which was 1 November 2004. The

asset is depreciated on a straight line basis over the five years and has no residual value. The annual lease

payments are $3 million payable in arrears on 31 October and the effective interest rate is 8% per annum. The

directors have not leased an asset under a finance lease before and are unsure as to its treatment for deferred

taxation. The company can claim a tax deduction for the annual rental payment as the finance lease does not

qualify for tax relief.

(iii) A wholly owned overseas subsidiary, Pins, a limited liability company, sold goods costing $7 million to Panel on

1 September 2005, and these goods had not been sold by Panel before the year end. Panel had paid $9 million

for these goods. The directors do not understand how this transaction should be dealt with in the financial

statements of the subsidiary and the group for taxation purposes. Pins pays tax locally at 30%.

(iv) Nails, a limited liability company, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Panel, and is a cash generating unit in its own

right. The value of the property, plant and equipment of Nails at 31 October 2005 was $6 million and purchased

goodwill was $1 million before any impairment loss. The company had no other assets or liabilities. An

impairment loss of $1·8 million had occurred at 31 October 2005. The tax base of the property, plant and

equipment of Nails was $4 million as at 31 October 2005. The directors wish to know how the impairment loss

will affect the deferred tax provision for the year. Impairment losses are not an allowable expense for taxation

purposes.

Assume a tax rate of 30%.

Required:

(b) Discuss, with suitable computations, how the situations (i) to (iv) above will impact on the accounting for

deferred tax under IAS12 ‘Income Taxes’ in the group financial statements of Panel. (16 marks)

(The situations in (i) to (iv) above carry equal marks)

正确答案:

(b) (i) The tax deduction is based on the option’s intrinsic value which is the difference between the market price and exercise
price of the share option. It is likely that a deferred tax asset will arise which represents the difference between the tax
base of the employee’s service received to date and the carrying amount which will effectively normally be zero.
The recognition of the deferred tax asset should be dealt with on the following basis:
(a) if the estimated or actual tax deduction is less than or equal to the cumulative recognised expense then the
associated tax benefits are recognised in the income statement
(b) if the estimated or actual tax deduction exceeds the cumulative recognised compensation expense then the excess
tax benefits are recognised directly in a separate component of equity.
As regards the tax effects of the share options, in the year to 31 October 2004, the tax effect of the remuneration expensewill be in excess of the tax benefit.

The company will have to estimate the amount of the tax benefit as it is based on the share price at 31 October 2005.
The information available at 31 October 2004 indicates a tax benefit based on an intrinsic value of $16 million.
As a result, the tax benefit of $2·4 million will be recognised within the deferred tax provision. At 31 October 2005,
the options have been exercised. Tax receivable will be 30% x $46 million i.e. $13·8 million. The deferred tax asset
of $2·4 million is no longer recognised as the tax benefit has crystallised at the date when the options were exercised.
For a tax benefit to be recognised in the year to 31 October 2004, the provisions of IAS12 should be complied with as
regards the recognition of a deferred tax asset.
(ii) Plant acquired under a finance lease will be recorded as property, plant and equipment and a corresponding liability for
the obligation to pay future rentals. Rents payable are apportioned between the finance charge and a reduction of the
outstanding obligation. A temporary difference will effectively arise between the value of the plant for accounting
purposes and the equivalent of the outstanding obligation as the annual rental payments qualify for tax relief. The tax
base of the asset is the amount deductible for tax in future which is zero. The tax base of the liability is the carrying
amount less any future tax deductible amounts which will give a tax base of zero. Thus the net temporary differencewill be:

(iii) The subsidiary, Pins, has made a profit of $2 million on the transaction with Panel. These goods are held in inventory
at the year end and a consolidation adjustment of an equivalent amount will be made against profit and inventory. Pins
will have provided for the tax on this profit as part of its current tax liability. This tax will need to be eliminated at the
group level and this will be done by recognising a deferred tax asset of $2 million x 30%, i.e. $600,000. Thus any
consolidation adjustments that have the effect of deferring or accelerating tax when viewed from a group perspective will
be accounted for as part of the deferred tax provision. Group profit will be different to the sum of the profits of the
individual group companies. Tax is normally payable on the profits of the individual companies. Thus there is a need
to account for this temporary difference. IAS12 does not specifically address the issue of which tax rate should be used
calculate the deferred tax provision. IAS12 does generally say that regard should be had to the expected recovery or
settlement of the tax. This would be generally consistent with using the rate applicable to the transferee company (Panel)
rather than the transferor (Pins).


You are the audit manager of Chestnut & Co and are reviewing the key issues identified in the files of two audit clients.

Palm Industries Co (Palm)

Palm’s year end was 31 March 2015 and the draft financial statements show revenue of $28·2 million, receivables of $5·6 million and profit before tax of $4·8 million. The fieldwork stage for this audit has been completed.

A customer of Palm owed an amount of $350,000 at the year end. Testing of receivables in April highlighted that no amounts had been paid to Palm from this customer as they were disputing the quality of certain goods received from Palm. The finance director is confident the issue will be resolved and no allowance for receivables was made with regards to this balance.

Ash Trading Co (Ash)

Ash is a new client of Chestnut & Co, its year end was 31 January 2015 and the firm was only appointed auditors in February 2015, as the previous auditors were suddenly unable to undertake the audit. The fieldwork stage for this audit is currently ongoing.

The inventory count at Ash’s warehouse was undertaken on 31 January 2015 and was overseen by the company’s internal audit department. Neither Chestnut & Co nor the previous auditors attended the count. Detailed inventory records were maintained but it was not possible to undertake another full inventory count subsequent to the year end.

The draft financial statements show a profit before tax of $2·4 million, revenue of $10·1 million and inventory of $510,000.

Required:

For each of the two issues:

(i) Discuss the issue, including an assessment of whether it is material;

(ii) Recommend ONE procedure the audit team should undertake to try to resolve the issue; and

(iii) Describe the impact on the audit report if the issue remains UNRESOLVED.

Notes:

1 The total marks will be split equally between each of the two issues.

2 Audit report extracts are NOT required.

正确答案:

Audit reports

Palm Industries Co (Palm)

(i) A customer of Palm’s owing $350,000 at the year end has not made any post year-end payments as they are disputing the quality of goods received. No allowance for receivables has been made against this balance. As the balance is being disputed, there is a risk of incorrect valuation as some or all of the receivable balance is overstated, as it may not be paid.

This $350,000 receivables balance represents 1·2% (0·35/28·2m) of revenue, 6·3% (0·35/5·6m) of receivables and 7·3% (0·35/4·8m) of profit before tax; hence this is a material issue.

(ii) A procedure to adopt includes:

– Review whether any payments have subsequently been made by this customer since the audit fieldwork was completed.

– Discuss with management whether the issue of quality of goods sold to the customer has been resolved, or whether it is still in dispute.

– Review the latest customer correspondence with regards to an assessment of the likelihood of the customer making payment.

(iii) If management refuses to provide against this receivable, the audit report will need to be modified. As receivables are overstated and the error is material but not pervasive a qualified opinion would be necessary.

A basis for qualified opinion paragraph would be needed and would include an explanation of the material misstatement in relation to the valuation of receivables and the effect on the financial statements. The opinion paragraph would be qualified ‘except for’.

Ash Trading Co (Ash)

(i) Chestnut & Co was only appointed as auditors subsequent to Ash’s year end and hence did not attend the year-end inventory count. Therefore, they have not been able to gather sufficient and appropriate audit evidence with regards to the completeness and existence of inventory.

Inventory is a material amount as it represents 21·3% (0·51/2·4m) of profit before tax and 5% (0·51/10·1m) of revenue; hence this is a material issue.

(ii) A procedure to adopt includes:

– Review the internal audit reports of the inventory count to identify the level of adjustments to the records to assess the reasonableness of relying on the inventory records.

– Undertake a sample check of inventory in the warehouse and compare to the inventory records and then from inventory records to the warehouse, to assess the reasonableness of the inventory records maintained by Ash.

(iii) The auditors will need to modify the audit report as they are unable to obtain sufficient appropriate evidence in relation to inventory which is a material but not pervasive balance. Therefore a qualified opinion will be required.

A basis for qualified opinion paragraph will be required to explain the limitation in relation to the lack of evidence over inventory. The opinion paragraph will be qualified ‘except for’.


2 The activities of an organisation have to be managed and co-ordinated to ensure that its objectives are met. The organisation’s structure is designed to support this.

Required:

(a) What is meant by the term ‘organisational structure,’ often shown as an organisation chart? (5 marks)

正确答案:
2 All organisations of whatever size have to work in a co-ordinated way to ensure that the objectives laid down are achieved.However, for effective co-ordination to take place, the structure must be correct and understood. Very often, managers know the structure but cannot explain its significance or appropriateness.
(a) The structure of an organisation is often depicted as a chart. The structure explains the communication pattern, the linking mechanism between departments, tasks and individuals, the co-ordinating mechanism that ensures the entire organization is working toward the same objective, and who is in control of the organisation’s activities and at what level in the organisation.


(b) Identify and discuss the appropriateness of the cost drivers of any TWO expense values in EACH of levels (i)

to (iii) above and ONE value that relates to level (iv).

In addition, suggest a likely cause of the cost driver for any ONE value in EACH of levels (i) to (iii), and

comment on possible benefits from the identification of the cause of each cost driver. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(b) A cost driver is the factor that determines the level of resource required for an activity. This may be illustrated by considering
costs for each of the four levels in Order Number 377.
Unit based costs:
Direct material costs are driven by the quantity, range, quality and price of materials required per product unit according to
the specification for the order.
Direct labour costs are driven by the number of hours required per product unit and the rate per hour that has been agreed
for each labour grade.
Batch related costs:
The number of machine set-ups per batch is the cost driver for machines used.
The number of design hours per batch is the cost driver for design work.
Product sustaining costs:
The number of marketing visits to a client per order is the cost driver for marketing cost chargeable to the order.
The number of hours of production line maintenance per order is the cost driver for production line cost.
Business sustaining costs:
These costs are absorbed at a rate of 30% of total cost excluding business sustaining costs. This is an arbitrary rate which
indicates the difficulty in identifying a suitable cost driver/drivers for the range of residual costs in this category. Wherever
possible efforts should be made to identify aspects of this residual cost that can be added to the unit, batch or product related
analysis.
The cost drivers are useful in that they provide a basis for an accurate allocation of the cost of resources consumed by an
order. In addition, investigation of the cause(s) of a cost driver occurring at its present level allows action to be considered
that will lead to a reduction in the cost per unit of cost driver.
Examples of causes that might be identified are:
Material price may be higher than necessary due to inefficient sourcing of materials. This may be overcome through efforts
to review sourcing policy and possibly provide additional training to staff responsible for the sourcing of materials.
The number of machine set-ups per batch may be due to lack of planning of batch sizes. It may be possible for batch sizes
in this order to be increased to 1,250 units which would reduce the number of batches required to fulfil the order from five
to four. This should reduce overall costs.
The amount of production line maintenance (and hence cost) required per order may be reduced by examining causes such
as level of skill of maintenance carried out – by GMB’s own staff or out-sourced provision. Action would involve re-training of
own staff or recruitment of new staff or changing of out-source providers.
(alternative relevant examples and discussion would be acceptable for all aspects of part (b))


22年ACCA/CAT历年真题解析7章 第5章


(ii) Identify and explain the potential financial statement risks caused by the breach of planning regulations

discussed in the press cutting. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) Several significant financial statement risks are indicated by the press cutting.
Overstatement of property, plant and equipment
Medix Co has constructed a research laboratory which is likely to be impaired at the year end. The local authority has
the power to shut down the facility, and it is clear from the press cutting that this is likely to happen before the year end.
Following IAS 36 Impairment of Assets, the premises should be written down to recoverable amount, and the
impairment loss recognised as an expense. The directors should carry out an impairment review before the year end. If
the premises cannot be used as intended then the recoverable amount (measured using the higher of value in use and
fair value less selling cost) is likely to be less than current carrying value. In this case, assuming the local authority is
successful in shutting down the research laboratory, the recoverable amount is likely to be nil, as the premises have no
value in use, as it will never be used commercially, and has no market value as it is likely to be demolished.
In addition, any tangible assets such as laboratory equipment located at the premises should be tested for impairment
as if the company cannot use the premises then the assets contained within it are likely to have a lower recoverable
amount than carrying value.
Contingency – fines or penalties imposed by local authority
The press cutting indicates that Medix Co has been sued before, and that the local authority may again take legal action
against the company. IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets states that a provision should be
recognised if the company has a probable obligation at the year end which can be measured reliably. If payment is
deemed only possible at the year end, then disclosure of the contingent liability should be made in a note to the financial
statements.
If the local authority commences legal proceedings against Medix Co before the year end of 30 June 2008, then
management should assess the probability of payment. The financial statement risk is not recognising a provision (and
associated expense within the income statement), or not disclosing a contingency.
Demolition costs
The local authority may require Medix Co to demolish the premises. If this demand is made before the year end, Medix
Co should recognise a provision for demolition costs as an unavoidable legal obligation would have been created. The
financial statement risk is that in this situation, Medix Co fails to recognise a provision and associated expense within
the income statement.
Going concern
The above issues could indicate that the company may not continue in operational existence. The potential lack of
disclosure of these issues represents a financial statement risk.


(b) Using the unit cost information available and your calculations in (a), prepare a financial analysis of the

decision strategy which TOC may implement with regard to the manufacture of each product. (6 marks)

正确答案:

 


1 The scientists in the research laboratories of Swan Hill Company (SHC, a public listed company) recently made a very

important discovery about the process that manufactured its major product. The scientific director, Dr Sonja Rainbow,

informed the board that the breakthrough was called the ‘sink method’. She explained that the sink method would

enable SHC to produce its major product at a lower unit cost and in much higher volumes than the current process.

It would also produce lower unit environmental emissions and would substantially improve product quality compared

to its current process and indeed compared to all of the other competitors in the industry.

SHC currently has 30% of the global market with its nearest competitor having 25% and the other twelve producers

sharing the remainder. The company, based in the town of Swan Hill, has a paternalistic management approach and

has always valued its relationship with the local community. Its website says that SHC has always sought to maximise

the benefit to the workforce and community in all of its business decisions and feels a great sense of loyalty to the

Swan Hill locality which is where it started in 1900 and has been based ever since.

As the board considered the implications of the discovery of the sink method, chief executive Nelson Cobar asked

whether Sonja Rainbow was certain that SHC was the only company in the industry that had made the discovery and

she said that she was. She also said that she was certain that the competitors were ‘some years’ behind SHC in their

research.

It quickly became clear that the discovery of the sink method was so important and far reaching that it had the

potential to give SHC an unassailable competitive advantage in its industry. Chief executive Nelson Cobar told board

colleagues that they should clearly understand that the discovery had the potential to put all of SHC’s competitors out

of business and make SHC the single global supplier. He said that as the board considered the options, members

should bear in mind the seriousness of the implications upon the rest of the industry.

Mr Cobar said there were two strategic options. Option one was to press ahead with the huge investment of new plant

necessary to introduce the sink method into the factory whilst, as far as possible, keeping the nature of the sink

technology secret from competitors (the ‘secrecy option’). A patent disclosing the nature of the technology would not

be filed so as to keep the technology secret within SHC. Option two was to file a patent and then offer the use of the

discovery to competitors under a licensing arrangement where SHC would receive substantial royalties for the twentyyear

legal lifetime of the patent (the ‘licensing option’). This would also involve new investment but at a slower pace

in line with competitors. The licence contract would, Mr Cobar explained, include an ‘improvement sharing’

requirement where licensees would be required to inform. SHC of any improvements discovered that made the sink

method more efficient or effective.

The sales director, Edwin Kiama, argued strongly in favour of the secrecy option. He said that the board owed it to

SHC’s shareholders to take the option that would maximise shareholder value. He argued that business strategy was

all about gaining competitive advantage and this was a chance to do exactly that. Accordingly, he argued, the sink

method should not be licensed to competitors and should be pursued as fast as possible. The operations director said

that to gain the full benefits of the sink method with either option would require a complete refitting of the factory and

the largest capital investment that SHC had ever undertaken.

The financial director, Sean Nyngan, advised the board that pressing ahead with investment under the secrecy option

was not without risks. First, he said, he would have to finance the investment, probably initially through debt, and

second, there were risks associated with any large investment. He also informed the board that the licensing option

would, over many years, involve the inflow of ‘massive’ funds in royalty payments from competitors using the SHC’s

patented sink method. By pursuing the licensing option, Sean Nyngan said that they could retain their market

leadership in the short term without incurring risk, whilst increasing their industry dominance in the future through

careful investment of the royalty payments.

The non-executive chairman, Alison Manilla, said that she was looking at the issue from an ethical perspective. She

asked whether SHC had the right, even if it had the ability, to put competitors out of business.

Required:

(a) Assess the secrecy option using Tucker’s model for decision-making. (10 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Tucker’s framework
Is the decision:
Profitable? For SHC, the answer to this question is yes. Profits would potentially be substantially increased by the loss of all
of its competitors and the emergence of SHC, in the short to medium term at least, as a near monopolist.
Legal? The secrecy option poses no legal problems as it is a part of normal competitive behaviour in industries. In some
jurisdictions, legislation forbids monopolies existing in some industries but there is no indication from the case that this
restriction applies to Swan Hill Company.
Fair? The fairness of the secrecy option is a moral judgment. It is probably fair when judged from the perspective of SHC’s
shareholders but the question is the extent to which it is fair to the employees and shareholders of SHC’s competitors.
Right? Again, a question of ethical perspective. Is it right to pursue the subjugation of competitors and the domination of an
industry regardless of the consequences to competitors? The secrecy option may be of the most benefit to the local community
of Swan Hill that the company has traditionally valued.
Sustainable or environmentally sound? The case says that the sink method emits at a lower rate per unit of output than the
existing process but this has little to do with the secrecy option as the rates of emissions would apply if SHC licensed the
process. This is also an argument for the licensing option, however, as environmental emissions would be lower if other
competitors switched to the sink method as well. There may be environmental implications in decommissioning the old plant
to make way for the new sink method investment.


The following trial balance relates to Sandown at 30 September 2009:

The following notes are relevant:

(i) Sandown’s revenue includes $16 million for goods sold to Pending on 1 October 2008. The terms of the sale are that Sandown will incur ongoing service and support costs of $1·2 million per annum for three years after the sale. Sandown normally makes a gross profit of 40% on such servicing and support work. Ignore the time value of money.

(ii) Administrative expenses include an equity dividend of 4·8 cents per share paid during the year.

(iii) The 5% convertible loan note was issued for proceeds of $20 million on 1 October 2007. It has an effective interest rate of 8% due to the value of its conversion option.

(iv) During the year Sandown sold an available-for-sale investment for $11 million. At the date of sale it had a

carrying amount of $8·8 million and had originally cost $7 million. Sandown has recorded the disposal of the

investment. The remaining available-for-sale investments (the $26·5 million in the trial balance) have a fair value of $29 million at 30 September 2009. The other reserve in the trial balance represents the net increase in the value of the available-for-sale investments as at 1 October 2008. Ignore deferred tax on these transactions.

(v) The balance on current tax represents the under/over provision of the tax liability for the year ended 30 September 2008. The directors have estimated the provision for income tax for the year ended 30 September 2009 at $16·2 million. At 30 September 2009 the carrying amounts of Sandown’s net assets were $13 million in excess of their tax base. The income tax rate of Sandown is 30%.

(vi) Non-current assets:

The freehold property has a land element of $13 million. The building element is being depreciated on a

straight-line basis.

Plant and equipment is depreciated at 40% per annum using the reducing balance method.

Sandown’s brand in the trial balance relates to a product line that received bad publicity during the year which led to falling sales revenues. An impairment review was conducted on 1 April 2009 which concluded that, based on estimated future sales, the brand had a value in use of $12 million and a remaining life of only three years.

However, on the same date as the impairment review, Sandown received an offer to purchase the brand for

$15 million. Prior to the impairment review, it was being depreciated using the straight-line method over a

10-year life.

No depreciation/amortisation has yet been charged on any non-current asset for the year ended 30 September

2009. Depreciation, amortisation and impairment charges are all charged to cost of sales.

Required:

(a) Prepare the statement of comprehensive income for Sandown for the year ended 30 September 2009.

(13 marks)

(b) Prepare the statement of financial position of Sandown as at 30 September 2009. (12 marks)

Notes to the financial statements are not required.

A statement of changes in equity is not required.

正确答案:
(i)IAS18Revenuerequiresthatwheresalesrevenueincludesanamountforaftersalesservicingandsupportcoststhenaproportionoftherevenueshouldbedeferred.Theamountdeferredshouldcoverthecostandareasonableprofit(inthiscaseagrossprofitof40%)ontheservices.Astheservicingandsupportisforthreeyearsandthedateofthesalewas1October2008,revenuerelatingtotwoyears’servicingandsupportprovisionmustbedeferred:($1·2millionx2/0·6)=$4million.Thisisshownas$2millioninbothcurrentandnon-currentliabilities.


(b) Donald actually decided to operate as a sole trader. The first year’s results of his business were not as he had

hoped, and he made a trading loss of £8,000 in the year to 31 March 2007. However, trading is now improving,

and Donald has sufficient orders to ensure that the business will make profits of at least £30,000 in the year to

31 March 2008.

In order to raise funds to support his business over the last 15 months, Donald has sold a painting which was

given to him on the death of his grandmother in January 1998. The probate value of the painting was £3,200,

and Donald sold it for £8,084 (after deduction of 6% commission costs) in November 2006.

He also sold other assets in the year of assessment 2006/07, realising further chargeable gains of £8,775 (after

indexation of £249 and taper relief of £975).

Required:

(i) Calculate the chargeable gain on the disposal of the painting in November 2006. (4 marks)

正确答案:

 


(ii) State the taxation implications of both equity and loan finance from the point of view of a company.

(3 marks)

正确答案:
(ii) A company needs to be aware of the following issues:
Equity
(1) Costs incurred in issuing share capital are not allowed as a trading deduction.
(2) Distributions to investors are not allowed as a trading deduction.
(3) The cost of making distributions to shareholders are disallowable.
(4) Where profits are taxed at an effective rate of less than 19%, any profits used to make a distribution to noncorporate
shareholders will themselves be taxed at the full 19% rate.
Loan finance/debt
(1) The incidental costs of obtaining/raising loan finance are broadly deductible as a trading expense.
(2) Capital costs of raising loan finance (for example, loans issued at a discount) are not deductible for tax purposes.
(3) Interest incurred on a loan to finance a business is deductible from trading income.


4 Susan Grant is in something of a dilemma. She has been invited to join the board of the troubled Marlow Fashion

Group as a non-executive director, but is uncertain as to the level and nature of her contribution to the strategic

thinking of the Group.

The Marlow Fashion Group had been set up by a husband and wife team in the 1970s in an economically depressed

part of the UK. They produced a comprehensive range of women’s clothing built round the theme of traditional English

style. and elegance. The Group had the necessary skills to design, manufacture and retail its product range. The

Marlow brand was quickly established and the company built up a loyal network of suppliers, workers in the company

factory and franchised retailers spread around the world. Marlow Fashion Group’s products were able to command

premium prices in the world of fashion. Rodney and Betty Marlow ensured that their commitment to traditional values

created a strong family atmosphere in its network of partners and were reluctant to change this.

Unfortunately, changes in the market for women’s wear presented a major threat to Marlow Fashion. Firstly, women

had become a much more active part of the workforce and demanded smarter, more functional outfits to wear at work.

Marlow Fashion’s emphasis on soft, feminine styles became increasingly dated. Secondly, the tight control exercised

by Betty and Rodney Marlow and their commitment to control of design, manufacturing and retailing left them

vulnerable to competitors who focused on just one of these core activities. Thirdly, there was a reluctance by the

Marlows and their management team to acknowledge that a significant fall in sales and profits were as a result of a

fundamental shift in demand for women’s clothing. Finally, the share price of the company fell dramatically. Betty and

Rodney Marlow retained a significant minority ownership stake, but the company had had a new Chief Executive

Officer every year since 2000.

Required:

(a) Write a short report to Susan Grant identifying and explaining the strategic strengths and weaknesses in the

Marlow Fashion Group. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) To: Susan Grant
From:
Strategic strengths and weaknesses in Marlow Fashion Group
In carrying out a strategic strengths and weaknesses analysis one becomes aware that what were formerly strengths often
become weaknesses as the competitive environment changes over time. Strengths and weaknesses analysis is focused on
the internal side of the business and is usually linked to an external appraisal of the external opportunities and threats facing
the company. Marlow Fashion Group is clearly at a crisis point in its company life and needs a strategic turnaround in order
to survive. The business model that has served them so well is no longer appropriate to the fashion world in which they are
now competing. Rodney and Betty Marlow have built a highly vertically integrated model, which gave them considerable
control over the growth and development of the company. In terms of the value chain the relationship they built up with
suppliers was mutually supportive and clearly facilitated the global expansion of the group. Control was even tighter over the
design, manufacturing and retailing of the company’s products. Marlow Fashions had successfully developed a niche market
for its products based around traditional English values. This enabled it to expand successfully and develop a worldwide
reputation for design excellence and quality.
Unfortunately, its competitive environment has changed considerably, becoming increasingly competitive and hostile. The
economics of clothing manufacturing has changed, with most clothing retailers choosing to outsource the manufacture of their
clothes. Women’s tastes in clothing have also changed and there is no longer the market for the clothes Marlow Fashion sells.
The tight control exercised by the founders has prevented recognition of these changes. Marlow Fashion has continued to
pursue outdated designs and expensive manufacturing processes that had served it well in the past. There has been some
recognition of the strategic nature of the problems as indicated by the succession of CEOs since 2000 given the task of
preventing the fall in sales and cutting costs. Unfortunately, the changes in its environment have led to some uncertainty as
to whether Marlow Fashion is a brand, a manufacturer, a retailer or an integrated fashion company.
Overall, Marlow Fashion, from being in a strategically sound position, now requires a swift strategic turnaround. Its products
and markets have changed; the relationships it has with key stakeholders are no longer strengths and its value chain andsystem no longer deliver distinctive value to its customers.
Yours,


(e) Briefly provide five reasons to the management of Bailey’s why financial rewards could be considered to improve motivation. (5 marks)

正确答案:
(e) There are issues at Bailey’s as a consequence of poor pay. Although non-financial motivation has an important role to play in encouraging commitment, the fact remains that financial rewards act as a strong motivating factor, especially in what has been a low pay business. Financial rewards are all encompassing and apply to all employees at all levels, are universally applicable, able to satisfy all types of need and simple to apply and understand. At Bailey’s, financial rewards have a greater effect because they can provide recognition and prestige if pay is improved, are seen as the most important hygiene factor(especially in a business with a history of low pay and low morale) and are a measure of achievement against goals, especially if some form. of bonus or performance related pay is introduced by the new management at Bailey’s. In addition, financial rewards are a basis for satisfaction and are often used as a form. of professional or social comparison outside the organisation.


(iii) Whether or not you agree with the statement of the marketing director in note (9) above. (5 marks)

Professional marks for appropriateness of format, style. and structure of the report. (4 marks)

正确答案:

(iii) The marketing director is certainly correct in recognising that success is dependent on levels of service quality provided
by HFG to its clients. However, whilst the number of complaints is an important performance measure, it needs to be
used with caution. The nature of a complaint is, very often, far more indicative of the absence, or a lack, of service
quality. For example, the fact that 50 clients complained about having to wait for a longer time than they expected to
access gymnasium equipment is insignificant when compared to an accident arising from failure to maintain properly a
piece of gymnasium equipment. Moreover, the marketing director ought to be aware that the absolute number of
complaints may be misleading as much depends on the number of clients serviced during any given period. Thus, in
comparing the number of complaints received by the three centres then a relative measure of complaints received per
1,000 client days would be far more useful than the absolute number of complaints received.
The marketing director should also be advised that the number of complaints can give a misleading picture of the quality
of service provision since individuals have different levels of willingness to complain in similar situations.
The marketing director seems to accept the current level of complaints but is unwilling to accept any increase above this
level. This is not indicative of a quality-oriented organisation which would seek to reduce the number of complaints over
time via a programme of ‘continuous improvement’.
From the foregoing comments one can conclude that it would be myopic to focus on the number of client complaints
as being the only performance measure necessary to measure the quality of service provision. Other performance
measures which may indicate the level of service quality provided to clients by HFG are as follows:
– Staff responsiveness assumes critical significance in service industries. Hence the time taken to resolve client
queries by health centre staff is an important indicator of the level of service quality provided to clients.
– Staff appearance may be viewed as reflecting the image of the centres.
– The comfort of bedrooms and public rooms including facilities such as air-conditioning, tea/coffee-making and cold
drinks facilities, and office facilities such as e-mail, facsimile and photocopying.
– The availability of services such as the time taken to gain an appointment with a dietician or fitness consultant.
– The cleanliness of all areas within the centres will enhance the reputation of HFG. Conversely, unclean areas will
potentially deter clients from making repeat visits and/or recommendations to friends, colleagues etc.
– The presence of safety measures and the frequency of inspections made regarding gymnasium equipment within
the centres and compliance with legislation are of paramount importance in businesses like that of HFG.
– The achievement of target reductions in weight that have been agreed between centre consultants and clients.
(Other relevant measures would be acceptable.)


22年ACCA/CAT历年真题解析7章 第6章


(c) Software Supply Co. (4 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Software Supply Co
Here it seems that Smith & Co has referred the provision of bespoke accounting software to an external provider – Software
Supply Co, and that a commission is being paid to Smith & Co for these referrals. It is common for audit firms to recommend
other providers to their audit clients.
This could be perceived as an objectivity and self-interest threat, as the audit firm is benefiting financially through
recommending clients to a particular provider of goods and services. However, if appropriate safeguards are in place, the
referrals and receipt of commissions can continue.
Action to be taken:
– Verification from all personnel involved with the audit of clients to whom Software Supply Co has provided a service that
they have no financial or personal interest in Software Supply Co.
– Smith & Co must ensure that:
For each client where a referral is made, full disclosure has been made to the client regarding the arrangement
Written acknowledgement that Smith & Co is to receive a referral fee should be obtained from the client.
– Procedures must be put into place to monitor the quality of goods and services provided by Software Supply Co to audit
clients.


3 Mary Hobbes joined the board of Rosh and Company, a large retailer, as finance director earlier this year. Whilst she

was glad to have finally been given the chance to become finance director after several years as a financial

accountant, she also quickly realised that the new appointment would offer her a lot of challenges. In the first board

meeting, she realised that not only was she the only woman but she was also the youngest by many years.

Rosh was established almost 100 years ago. Members of the Rosh family have occupied senior board positions since

the outset and even after the company’s flotation 20 years ago a member of the Rosh family has either been executive

chairman or chief executive. The current longstanding chairman, Timothy Rosh, has already prepared his slightly

younger brother, Geoffrey (also a longstanding member of the board) to succeed him in two years’ time when he plans

to retire. The Rosh family, who still own 40% of the shares, consider it their right to occupy the most senior positions

in the company so have never been very active in external recruitment. They only appointed Mary because they felt

they needed a qualified accountant on the board to deal with changes in international financial reporting standards.

Several former executive members have been recruited as non-executives immediately after they retired from full-time

service. A recent death, however, has reduced the number of non-executive directors to two. These sit alongside an

executive board of seven that, apart from Mary, have all been in post for over ten years.

Mary noted that board meetings very rarely contain any significant discussion of strategy and never involve any debate

or disagreement. When she asked why this was, she was told that the directors had all known each other for so long

that they knew how each other thought. All of the other directors came from similar backgrounds, she was told, and

had worked for the company for so long that they all knew what was ‘best’ for the company in any given situation.

Mary observed that notes on strategy were not presented at board meetings and she asked Timothy Rosh whether the

existing board was fully equipped to formulate strategy in the changing world of retailing. She did not receive a reply.

Required:

(a) Explain ‘agency’ in the context of corporate governance and criticise the governance arrangements of Rosh

and Company. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Defining and explaining agency
Agency is defined in relation to a principal. A principal appoints an agent to act on his or her behalf. In the case of corporate
governance, the principal is a shareholder in a joint stock company and the agents (that have an agency relationship with
principals) are the directors. The directors remain accountable to the principals for the stewardship of their investment in the
company. In the case of Rosh, 60% of the shares are owned by shareholders external to the Rosh family and the board has
agency responsibility to those shareholders.
Criticisms of Rosh’s CG arrangements
The corporate governance arrangements at Rosh and Company are far from ideal. Five points can be made based on the
evidence in the case.
There are several issues associated with the non-executive directors (NEDs) at Rosh. It is doubtful whether two NEDs are
enough to bring sufficient scrutiny to the executive board. Some corporate governance codes require half of the board of larger
companies to be non-executive and Rosh would clearly be in breach of such a requirement. Perhaps of equal concern, there
is significant doubt over the independence of the current NEDs as they were recruited from retired executive members of the
board and presumably have relationships with existing executives going back many years. Some corporate governance codes
(such as the UK Combined Code) specify that NEDs should not have worked for the company within the last five years. Again,
Rosh would be in breach of this provision.
Succession planning for senior positions in the company seems to be based on Rosh family membership rather than any
meritocratic approach to appointments (there doesn’t appear to be a nominations committee). Whilst this may have been
acceptable before the flotation when the Rosh family owned all of the shares, the flotation introduced an important need for
external scrutiny of this arrangement. The lack of NED independence makes this difficult.
There is a poor (very narrow) diversity of backgrounds among board members. Whilst diversity can bring increased conflict,
it is generally assumed that it can also stimulate discussion and debate that is often helpful.
There is a somewhat entrenched executive board and Mary is the first new appointment to the board in many years (and is
the first woman). Whilst experience is very important on a board, the appointment of new members, in addition to seeding
the board with talent for the future, can also bring fresh ideas and helpful scrutiny of existing policies.
There is no discussion of strategy and there is evidence of a lack of preparation of strategic notes to the board. The assumption
seems to be that the ‘best’ option is obvious and so there is no need for discussion and debate. Procedures for preparing
briefing notes on strategy for board meetings appear to be absent. Most corporate governance codes place the discussion and
setting of strategy as a high priority for boards and Rosh would be in breach of such a provision.
There is no evidence of training for Mary to facilitate her introduction into the organisation and its systems. Thorough training
of new members and ongoing professional development of existing members is an important component of good governance.


15 A trader who fixes her prices by adding 50% to cost actually achieved a mark-up of 45%.

Which of the following factors could account for the shortfall?

1 Sales were lower than expected.

2 The opening inventories had been overstated.

3 The closing inventories of the business were higher than the opening inventories.

4 Goods taken from inventories by the proprietor were recorded by debiting drawings and crediting purchases with

the cost of the goods.

A All four factors

B 1, 2 and 4 only

C 2 only

D 3 and 4 only

正确答案:C


2 Which of the following are correct?

1. The balance sheet value of inventory should be as close as possible to net realisable value.

2. The valuation of finished goods inventory must include production overheads.

3. Production overheads included in valuing inventory should be calculated by reference to the company’s normal

level of production during the period.

4. In assessing net realisable value, inventory items must be considered separately, or in groups of similar items,

not by taking the inventory value as a whole.

A 1 and 2 only

B 3 and 4 only

C 1 and 3 only

D 2, 3 and 4

正确答案:D


(b) (i) Compute the corporation tax liability of Speak Write Ltd for its first trading period on the assumption

that the IR 35 legislation applies to all of its income. (2 marks)

正确答案:

 


18 How should interest charged on partners’ drawings appear in partnership financial statements?

A As income in the income statement

B Added to net profit and charged to partners in the division of profit

C Deducted from net profit and charged to partners in the division of profit

D Deducted from net profit in the division of profit and credited to partners

正确答案:B


(c) Assess how the fundamental ethical principles of IFAC’s Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants should

be applied to the provision of a forensic investigation service. (6 marks)

正确答案:
(c) Application of ethical principles to a fraud investigation
IFAC’s Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants applies to all ACCA members involved in professional assignments,
including forensic investigations. There are specific considerations in the application of each of the principles in providing
such a service.
Integrity
The forensic investigator is likely to deal frequently with individuals who lack integrity, are dishonest, and attempt to conceal
the true facts from the investigator. It is imperative that the investigator recognises this, and acts with impeccable integrity
throughout the whole investigation.
Objectivity
As in an audit engagement, the investigator’s objectivity must be beyond question. The report that is the outcome of the
forensic investigation must be perceived as independent, as it forms part of the legal evidence presented at court. The
investigator must adhere to the concept that the overriding objective of court proceedings is to deal with cases fairly and justly.
Any real or perceived threats to objectivity could undermine the credibility of the evidence provided by the investigator.
This issue poses a particular problem where an audit client requests its auditors to conduct a forensic investigation. In this
situation, the audit firm would be exposed to threats to objectivity in terms of advocacy, management involvement and selfreview.
The advocacy threat arises because the audit firm may feel pressured into promoting the interests and point of view
of their client, which would breach the overriding issue of objectivity in court proceedings. Secondly, the investigators could
be perceived to be involved in management decisions regarding the implications of the fraud, especially where the investigator
acts as an expert witness. It is however the self-review threat that would be the most significant threat to objectivity. The selfreview
threat arises because the investigation is likely to involve the estimation of an amount (i.e. the loss), which could be
material to the financial statements.
For the reasons outlined above, The Code states that the firm should evaluate threats and put appropriate safeguards in place,
and if safeguards cannot reduce the threats to an acceptable level, then the firm cannot provide both the audit service and
the forensic investigation.
Professional competence and due care
Forensic investigations will involve very specialist skills, which accountants are unlikely to possess without extensive training.
Such skills would include:
– Detailed knowledge of the relevant legal framework surrounding fraud,
– An understanding of how to gather specialist evidence,
– Skills in the safe custody of evidence, including maintaining a clear ‘chain’ of evidence, and
– Strong personal skills in, for example, interview techniques, presentation of material at court, and tactful dealing with
difficult and stressful situations.
It is therefore essential that forensic work is only ever undertaken by highly skilled individuals, under the direction and
supervision of an experienced fraud investigator. Any doubt over the competence of the investigation team could severely
undermine the credibility of the evidence presented at court.
Confidentiality
Normally accountants should not disclose information without the explicit consent of their client. However, during legal
proceedings arising from a fraud investigation, the court will require the investigator to reveal information discovered during
the investigation. There is an overriding requirement for the investigator to disclose all of the information deemed necessary
by the court.
Outside of the court, the investigator must ensure faultless confidentiality, especially because much of the information they
have access to will be highly sensitive.
Professional behaviour
Fraud investigations can become a matter of public interest, and much media attention is often focused on the work of the
forensic investigator. A highly professional attitude must be displayed at all times, in order to avoid damage to the reputation
of the firm, and of the profession. Any lapse in professional behaviour could also undermine the integrity of the forensic
evidence, and of the credibility of the investigator, especially when acting in the capacity of expert witness.
During legal proceedings, the forensic investigator may be involved in discussions with both sides in the court case, and here
it is essential that a courteous and considerate attitude is presented to all parties.


2 (a) Discuss the nature of the financial objectives that may be set in a not-for-profit organisation such as a charity

or a hospital. (8 marks)

正确答案:

2 (a) In the case of a not-for-profit (NFP) organisation, the limit on the services that can be provided is the amount of funds that
are available in a given period. A key financial objective for an NFP organisation such as a charity is therefore to raise as
much funds as possible. The fund-raising efforts of a charity may be directed towards the public or to grant-making bodies.
In addition, a charity may have income from investments made from surplus funds from previous periods. In any period,
however, a charity is likely to know from previous experience the amount and timing of the funds available for use. The same
is true for an NFP organisation funded by the government, such as a hospital, since such an organisation will operate under
budget constraints or cash limits. Whether funded by the government or not, NFP organisations will therefore have the
financial objective of keeping spending within budget, and budgets will play an important role in controlling spending and in
specifying the level of services or programmes it is planned to provide.
Since the amount of funding available is limited, NFP organisations will seek to generate the maximum benefit from available
funds. They will obtain resources for use by the organisation as economically as possible: they will employ these resources
efficiently, minimising waste and cutting back on any activities that do not assist in achieving the organisation’s non-financial
objectives; and they will ensure that their operations are directed as effectively as possible towards meeting their objectives.
The goals of economy, efficiency and effectiveness are collectively referred to as value for money (VFM). Economy is
concerned with minimising the input costs for a given level of output. Efficiency is concerned with maximising the outputs
obtained from a given level of input resources, i.e. with the process of transforming economic resources into desires services.
Effectiveness is concerned with the extent to which non-financial organisational goals are achieved.
Measuring the achievement of the financial objective of VFM is difficult because the non-financial goals of NFP organisations
are not quantifiable and so not directly measurable. However, current performance can be compared to historic performance
to ascertain the extent to which positive change has occurred. The availability of the healthcare provided by a hospital, for
example, can be measured by the time that patients have to wait for treatment or for an operation, and waiting times can be
compared year on year to determine the extent to which improvements have been achieved or publicised targets have been
met.

Lacking a profit motive, NFP organisations will have financial objectives that relate to the effective use of resources, such as
achieving a target return on capital employed. In an organisation funded by the government from finance raised through
taxation or public sector borrowing, this financial objective will be centrally imposed.


5 Which of the following factors could cause a company’s gross profit percentage on sales to fall below the expected

level?

1 Understatement of closing inventories.

2 The incorrect inclusion in purchases of invoices relating to goods supplied in the following period.

3 The inclusion in sales of the proceeds of sale of non-current assets.

4 Increased cost of carriage charges borne by the company on goods sent to customers.

A 3 and 4

B 2 and 4

C 1 and 2

D 1 and 3

正确答案:C


22年ACCA/CAT历年真题解析7章 第7章


(iii) Flexibility. (3 marks)

正确答案:
(iii) Flexibility may relate to the company being able to cope with flexibility of volume, delivery speed or job specification. In
this particular context, flexibility appears to have been problematic for HLP as evidenced by the fact that 320
consultations relating to commercial were subcontracted during the year. This could be due to the lack of the ability of
HLP advisors to be able to provide consultations to a potentially wide-range of commercial clients, i.e. the variability in
the ‘job specification’ requires greater flexibility than HLP can deliver. Furthermore, a total of 600 consultations relating
to litigation work were also subcontracted throughout the year. These subcontract consultations might be due to the
inability of HLP to deal with fluctuations in demand.


3 Airtite was set up in 2000 as a low cost airline operating from a number of regional airports in Europe. Using these

less popular airports was a much cheaper alternative to the major city airports and supported Airtite’s low cost service,

modelled on existing low cost competitors. These providers had effectively transformed air travel in Europe and, in so

doing, contributed to an unparalleled expansion in airline travel by both business and leisure passengers. Airtite used

one type of aircraft, tightly controlled staffing levels and costs, relied entirely on online bookings and achieved high

levels of capacity utilisation and punctuality. Its route network had grown each year and included new routes to some

of the 15 countries that had joined the EU in 2004. Airtite’s founder and Chief Executive, John Sykes, was an

aggressive businessman ever willing to challenge governments and competitors wherever they impeded his airline and

looking to generate positive publicity whenever possible.

John is now looking to develop a strategy which will secure Airtite’s growth and development over the next 10 years.

He can see a number of environmental trends emerging which could significantly affect the success or otherwise of

any developed strategy. 2006 had seen fuel costs continue to rise reflecting the continuing uncertainty over global

fuel supplies. Fuel costs currently account for 25% of Airtite’s operating costs. Conversely, the improving efficiency of

aircraft engines and the next generation of larger aircraft are increasing the operating efficiency of newer aircraft and

reducing harmful emissions. Concern with fuel also extends to pollution effects on global warming and climate

change. Co-ordinated global action on aircraft emissions cannot be ruled out, either in the form. of higher taxes on

pollution or limits on the growth in air travel. On the positive side European governments are anxious to continue to

support increased competition in air travel and to encourage low cost operators competing against the over-staffed

and loss-making national flag carriers.

The signals for future passenger demand are also confused. Much of the increased demand for low cost air travel to

date has come from increased leisure travel by families and retired people. However families are predicted to become

smaller and the population increasingly aged. In addition there are concerns over the ability of countries to support

the increasing number of one-parent families with limited incomes and an ageing population dependent on state

pensions. There is a distinct possibility of the retirement age being increased and governments demanding a higher

level of personal contribution towards an individual’s retirement pension. Such a change will have a significant impact

on an individual’s disposable income and with people working longer reduce the numbers able to enjoy leisure travel.

Finally, air travel will continue to reflect global economic activity and associated economic booms and slumps together

with global political instability in the shape of wars, terrorism and natural disasters.

John is uncertain as to how to take account of these conflicting trends in the development of Airtite’s 10-year strategy

and has asked for your advice.

Required:

(a) Using models where appropriate, provide John with an environmental analysis of the conditions affecting the

low cost air travel industry. (12 marks)

正确答案:
(a) Environmental Analysis
Clearly, both the macro-environment and the industry environment facing Airtite are becoming more challenging and scanning
the environment and understanding the relative significance of the challenges is a key step in developing a future strategy to
deal with it. Many models and tools and techniques are available to assess the size of the competitive threats facing Airtite.
One of the earlier scanning models looks to measure whether the environment an organisation faces is becoming more
complex and more dynamic. Evidence from the scenario suggests both are occurring and this means it is becoming
increasingly difficult to predict the future nature of competition from what has happened in the past. Airtite’s future is linked
to an increasingly global environment and many conflicting and contradictory factors require the company to develop a
process through which these factors are considered on a regular and systematic basis.
Johnson and Scholes suggest there are five steps in terms of environmental analysis:
Step 1 Audit of environmental influences
Step 2 Assessment of the nature of the environment
Step 3 Identification of the key environmental forces
Step 4 Identification of competitive position
Step 5 Identification of the principal opportunities and threats
Systematic consideration of each of these steps leads to an understanding of the strategic position of the firm.
A PESTEL analysis is part of the process of environmental appraisal and it is important for John to recognise those parts of
its environment it can influence. All too often firms can regard themselves as ‘victims’ of the chosen environment, failing to
recognise that through their strategic decisions they can profoundly change the competitive environment for their current or
potential competitors. A good PESTEL analysis inevitably links into an informed SWOT analysis. In both instances it is
necessary to isolate the key forces causing environmental change – simply creating a long list of factors may simply convince
you of your inability to change the situation.
Once having decided which are the critical factors, it is then necessary to decide on the likelihood of a particular
environmental change occurring and the significance of its impact on the firm. Matching the competitive capability of the firm
against the attractiveness of the business sector Airtite is operating in will provide an understanding of the firm’s competitive
position and the options open to it. Many other models and tools and techniques are available, including Porter’s five forces,product life cycle analysis and scenario building to generate alternative strategic responses.


Ms Huang, a shareholder of the Daqing Limited Liability Company (Daqing), found that the general manager, Mr Ding, had accepted bribes from several suppliers, which materially caused losses to Daqing, and adversely affected the interests of all shareholders.

Further examination, through a Certified Public Accountant firm, disclosed that there were a lot of affiliated transactions between Daqing and Everbright Co, which was the majority shareholder of Daqing. Mr Ding was recommended by Everbright Co and appointed by Daqing’s board of directors, which was substantially influenced by Everbright Co. With a series of such transactions Daqing transferred huge profits to Everbright Co and adversely affected Daqing.

Required:

(a) State whether Ms Huang was entitled to take legal action against Mr Ding for his illegal behaviour of accepting bribes which adversely affected all the shareholders. (2 marks)

(b) State TWO different legal actions Ms Huang was entitled to take to protect the rights of Daqing and its shareholders due to the affiliated transactions with Everbright Co. (4 marks)

正确答案:

(a) Mr Ding’s act of accepting bribery violated the criminal law and the relevant rules of the Company Law as well. Besides the criminal charges, he should be liable for his fraudulent behaviour of damaging the interests of Daqing and its shareholders. Therefore, Ms Huang was entitled to bring a law suit against general manager Mr Ding on the ground that his acts caused her loss of interests.

(b) With respect to Daqing’s damage, Ms Huang should first request the board of directors or supervisory board to take legal action against Everbright Co. Where these two bodies refuse to take reasonable actions, Ms Huang might, in her own name but for the interests of the company, bring a shareholder representative litigation against Everbright Co. On the other hand, she might also bring a direct litigation against Everbright Co on the ground that the connected transactions caused indirect damage to the shareholder’s interests.


On 1 April 2009 Pandar purchased 80% of the equity shares in Salva. The acquisition was through a share exchange of three shares in Pandar for every five shares in Salva. The market prices of Pandar’s and Salva’s shares at 1 April

2009 were $6 per share and $3.20 respectively.

On the same date Pandar acquired 40% of the equity shares in Ambra paying $2 per share.

The summarised income statements for the three companies for the year ended 30 September 2009 are:

The following information is relevant:

(i) The fair values of the net assets of Salva at the date of acquisition were equal to their carrying amounts with the exception of an item of plant which had a carrying amount of $12 million and a fair value of $17 million. This plant had a remaining life of five years (straight-line depreciation) at the date of acquisition of Salva. All depreciation is charged to cost of sales.

In addition Salva owns the registration of a popular internet domain name. The registration, which had a

negligible cost, has a five year remaining life (at the date of acquisition); however, it is renewable indefinitely at a nominal cost. At the date of acquisition the domain name was valued by a specialist company at $20 million.

The fair values of the plant and the domain name have not been reflected in Salva’s financial statements.

No fair value adjustments were required on the acquisition of the investment in Ambra.

(ii) Immediately after its acquisition of Salva, Pandar invested $50 million in an 8% loan note from Salva. All interest accruing to 30 September 2009 had been accounted for by both companies. Salva also has other loans in issue at 30 September 2009.

(iii) Pandar has credited the whole of the dividend it received from Salva to investment income.

(iv) After the acquisition, Pandar sold goods to Salva for $15 million on which Pandar made a gross profit of 20%. Salva had one third of these goods still in its inventory at 30 September 2009. There are no intra-group current account balances at 30 September 2009.

(v) The non-controlling interest in Salva is to be valued at its (full) fair value at the date of acquisition. For this

purpose Salva’s share price at that date can be taken to be indicative of the fair value of the shareholding of the non-controlling interest.

(vi) The goodwill of Salva has not suffered any impairment; however, due to its losses, the value of Pandar’s

investment in Ambra has been impaired by $3 million at 30 September 2009.

(vii) All items in the above income statements are deemed to accrue evenly over the year unless otherwise indicated.

Required:

(a) (i) Calculate the goodwill arising on the acquisition of Salva at 1 April 2009; (6 marks)

(ii) Calculate the carrying amount of the investment in Ambra to be included within the consolidated

statement of financial position as at 30 September 2009. (3 marks)

(b) Prepare the consolidated income statement for the Pandar Group for the year ended 30 September 2009.(16 marks)

正确答案:


5 (a) Compare and contrast the responsibilities of management, and of auditors, in relation to the assessment of

going concern. You should include a description of the procedures used in this assessment where relevant.

(7 marks)

正确答案:
5 Dexter Co
(a) Responsibilities of management and auditors
Responsibilities
ISA 570 Going Concern provides a clear framework for the assessment of the going concern status of an entity, and
differentiates between the responsibilities of management and of auditors. Management should assess going concern in order
to decide on the most appropriate basis for the preparation of the financial statements. IAS 1 Presentation of Financial
Statements (revised) requires that where there is significant doubt over an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern, the
uncertainties should be disclosed in a note to the financial statements. Where the directors intend to cease trading, or have
no realistic alternative but to do so, the financial statements should be prepared on a ‘break up’ basis.
Thus the main focus of the management’s assessment of going concern is to ensure that relevant disclosures are made where
necessary, and that the correct basis of preparation is used.
The auditor’s responsibility is to consider the appropriateness of the management’s use of the going concern assumption in
the preparation of the financial statements and to consider whether there are material uncertainties about the entity’s ability
to continue as a going concern that need to be disclosed in a note.
The auditor should also consider the length of the time period that management have looked at in their assessment of going
concern.
The auditor will therefore need to come to an opinion as to the going concern status of an entity but the focus of the auditor’s
evaluation of going concern is to see whether they agree with the assessment made by the management. Therefore whether
they agree with the basis of preparation of the financial statements, or the inclusion in a note to the financial statements, as
required by IAS 1, of any material uncertainty.
Evaluation techniques
In carrying out the going concern assessment, management will evaluate a wide variety of indicators, including operational
and financial. An entity employing good principles of corporate governance should be carrying out such an assessment as
part of the on-going management of the business.
Auditors will use a similar assessment technique in order to come to their own opinion as to the going concern status of an
entity. They will carry out an operational review of the business in order to confirm business understanding, and will conduct
a financial review as part of analytical procedures. Thus both management and auditors will use similar business risk
assessment techniques to discover any threats to the going concern status of the business.
Auditors should not see going concern as a ‘completion issue’, but be alert to issues affecting going concern throughout the
audit. In the same way that management should continually be managing risk (therefore minimising going concern risk),
auditors should be continually be alert to going concern problems throughout the duration of the audit.
However, one difference is that when going concern problems are discovered, the auditor is required by IAS 570 to carry out
additional procedures. Examples of such procedures would include:
– Analysing and discussing cash flow, profit and other relevant forecasts with management
– Analysing and discussing the entity’s latest available interim financial statements
– Reviewing events after the period end to identify those that either mitigate or otherwise affect the entity’s ability to
continue as a going concern, and
– Reading minutes of meetings of shareholders, those charged with governance and relevant committees for reference to
financing difficulties.
Management are not explicitly required to gather specific evidence about going concern, but as part of good governance would
be likely to investigate and react to problems discovered.


Moonstar Co is a property development company which is planning to undertake a $200 million commercial property development. Moonstar Co has had some difficulties over the last few years, with some developments not generating the expected returns and the company has at times struggled to pay its finance costs. As a result Moonstar Co’s credit rating has been lowered, affecting the terms it can obtain for bank finance. Although Moonstar Co is listed on its local stock exchange, 75% of the share capital is held by members of the family who founded the company. The family members who are shareholders do not wish to subscribe for a rights issue and are unwilling to dilute their control over the company by authorising a new issue of equity shares. Moonstar Co’s board is therefore considering other methods of financing the development, which the directors believe will generate higher returns than other recent investments, as the country where Moonstar Co is based appears to be emerging from recession.

Securitisation proposals

One of the non-executive directors of Moonstar Co has proposed that it should raise funds by means of a securitisation process, transferring the rights to the rental income from the commercial property development to a special purpose vehicle. Her proposals assume that the leases will generate an income of 11% per annum to Moonstar Co over a ten-year period. She proposes that Moonstar Co should use 90% of the value of the investment for a collateralised loan obligation which should be structured as follows:

– 60% of the collateral value to support a tranche of A-rated floating rate loan notes offering investors LIBOR plus 150 basis points

– 15% of the collateral value to support a tranche of B-rated fixed rate loan notes offering investors 12%

– 15% of the collateral value to support a tranche of C-rated fixed rate loan notes offering investors 13%

– 10% of the collateral value to support a tranche as subordinated certificates, with the return being the excess of receipts over payments from the securitisation process

The non-executive director believes that there will be sufficient demand for all tranches of the loan notes from investors. Investors will expect that the income stream from the development to be low risk, as they will expect the property market to improve with the recession coming to an end and enough potential lessees to be attracted by the new development.

The non-executive director predicts that there would be annual costs of $200,000 in administering the loan. She acknowledges that there would be interest rate risks associated with the proposal, and proposes a fixed for variable interest rate swap on the A-rated floating rate notes, exchanging LIBOR for 9·5%.

However the finance director believes that the prediction of the income from the development that the non-executive director has made is over-optimistic. He believes that it is most likely that the total value of the rental income will be 5% lower than the non-executive director has forecast. He believes that there is some risk that the returns could be so low as to jeopardise the income for the C-rated fixed rate loan note holders.

Islamic finance

Moonstar Co’s chief executive has wondered whether Sukuk finance would be a better way of funding the development than the securitisation.

Moonstar Co’s chairman has pointed out that a major bank in the country where Moonstar Co is located has begun to offer a range of Islamic financial products. The chairman has suggested that a Mudaraba contract would be the most appropriate method of providing the funds required for the investment.

Required:

(a) Calculate the amounts in $ which each of the tranches can expect to receive from the securitisation arrangement proposed by the non-executive director and discuss how the variability in rental income affects the returns from the securitisation. (11 marks)

(b) Discuss the benefits and risks for Moonstar Co associated with the securitisation arrangement that the non-executive director has proposed. (6 marks)

(c) (i) Discuss the suitability of Sukuk finance to fund the investment, including an assessment of its appeal to potential investors. (4 marks)

(ii) Discuss whether a Mudaraba contract would be an appropriate method of financing the investment and discuss why the bank may have concerns about providing finance by this method. (4 marks)

正确答案:

(a) An annual cash flow account compares the estimated cash flows receivable from the property against the liabilities within the securitisation process. The swap introduces leverage into the arrangement.

The holders of the certificates are expected to receive $3·17million on $18 million, giving them a return of 17·6%. If the cash flows are 5% lower than the non-executive director has predicted, annual revenue received will fall to $20·90 million, reducing the balance available for the subordinated certificates to $2·07 million, giving a return of 11·5% on the subordinated certificates, which is below the returns offered on the B and C-rated loan notes. The point at which the holders of the certificates will receive nothing and below which the holders of the C-rated loan notes will not receive their full income will be an annual income of $18·83 million (a return of 9·4%), which is 14·4% less than the income that the non-executive director has forecast.

(b) Benefits

The finance costs of the securitisation may be lower than the finance costs of ordinary loan capital. The cash flows from the commercial property development may be regarded as lower risk than Moonstar Co’s other revenue streams. This will impact upon the rates that Moonstar Co is able to offer borrowers.

The securitisation matches the assets of the future cash flows to the liabilities to loan note holders. The non-executive director is assuming a steady stream of lease income over the next 10 years, with the development probably being close to being fully occupied over that period.

The securitisation means that Moonstar Co is no longer concerned with the risk that the level of earnings from the properties will be insufficient to pay the finance costs. Risks have effectively been transferred to the loan note holders.

Risks

Not all of the tranches may appeal to investors. The risk-return relationship on the subordinated certificates does not look very appealing, with the return quite likely to be below what is received on the C-rated loan notes. Even the C-rated loan note holders may question the relationship between the risk and return if there is continued uncertainty in the property sector.

If Moonstar Co seeks funding from other sources for other developments, transferring out a lower risk income stream means that the residual risks associated with the rest of Moonstar Co’s portfolio will be higher. This may affect the availability and terms of other borrowing.

It appears that the size of the securitisation should be large enough for the costs to be bearable. However Moonstar Co may face unforeseen costs, possibly unexpected management or legal expenses.

(c) (i) Sukuk finance could be appropriate for the securitisation of the leasing portfolio. An asset-backed Sukuk would be the same kind of arrangement as the securitisation, where assets are transferred to a special purpose vehicle and the returns and repayments are directly financed by the income from the assets. The Sukuk holders would bear the risks and returns of the relationship.

The other type of Sukuk would be more like a sale and leaseback of the development. Here the Sukuk holders would be guaranteed a rental, so it would seem less appropriate for Moonstar Co if there is significant uncertainty about the returns from the development.

The main issue with the asset-backed Sukuk finance is whether it would be as appealing as certainly the A-tranche of the securitisation arrangement which the non-executive director has proposed. The safer income that the securitisation offers A-tranche investors may be more appealing to investors than a marginally better return from the Sukuk. There will also be costs involved in establishing and gaining approval for the Sukuk, although these costs may be less than for the securitisation arrangement described above.

(ii) A Mudaraba contract would involve the bank providing capital for Moonstar Co to invest in the development. Moonstar Co would manage the investment which the capital funded. Profits from the investment would be shared with the bank, but losses would be solely borne by the bank. A Mudaraba contract is essentially an equity partnership, so Moonstar Co might not face the threat to its credit rating which it would if it obtained ordinary loan finance for the development. A Mudaraba contract would also represent a diversification of sources of finance. It would not require the commitment to pay interest that loan finance would involve.

Moonstar Co would maintain control over the running of the project. A Mudaraba contract would offer a method of obtaining equity funding without the dilution of control which an issue of shares to external shareholders would bring. This is likely to make it appealing to Moonstar Co’s directors, given their desire to maintain a dominant influence over the business.

The bank would be concerned about the uncertainties regarding the rental income from the development. Although the lack of involvement by the bank might appeal to Moonstar Co's directors, the bank might not find it so attractive. The bank might be concerned about information asymmetry – that Moonstar Co’s management might be reluctant to supply the bank with the information it needs to judge how well its investment is performing.


(b) Prepare a reasoned explanation of how any capital gains tax arising in the UK on the sale of the paintings

can be minimised. (2 marks)

正确答案:
(b) Minimising capital gains tax on the sale of the paintings
Galileo will become resident and ordinarily resident from the date he arrives in the UK as he intends to stay for more than
three years. Prior to that date he will be neither resident nor ordinarily resident such that he will not be subject to UK capital
gains tax.
Galileo should sell the paintings before he leaves Astronomeria; this will avoid UK capital gains tax completely.
Tutorial note
The gains would be taxable on the remittance basis if the paintings were sold after Galileo’s arrival in the UK. However, this
would not help Galileo to minimise the capital gains tax due as he needs to bring the sales proceeds into the UK in order
to purchase a house.


5 GE Railways plc (GER) operates a passenger train service in Holtland. The directors have always focused solely on

the use of traditional financial measures in order to assess the performance of GER since it commenced operations

in 1992. The Managing Director of GER has asked you, as a management accountant, for assistance with regard to

the adoption of a balanced scorecard approach to performance measurement within GER.

Required:

(a) Prepare a memorandum explaining the potential benefits and limitations that may arise from the adoption of

a balanced scorecard approach to performance measurement within GER. (8 marks)

正确答案:
(a) To: Board of directors
From: Management Accountant
Date: 8 June 2007
The potential benefits of the adoption of a balanced scorecard approach to performance measurement within GER are as
follows:
A broader business perspective
Financial measures invariably have an inward-looking perspective. The balanced scorecard is wider in its scope and
application. It has an external focus and looks at comparisons with competitors in order to establish what constitutes best
practice and ensures that required changes are made in order to achieve it. The use of the balanced scorecard requires a
balance of both financial and non-financial measures and goals.
A greater strategic focus
The use of the balanced scorecard focuses to a much greater extent on the longer term. There is a far greater emphasis on
strategic considerations. It attempts to identify the needs and wants of customers and the new products and markets. Hence
it requires a balance between short term and long term performance measures.
A greater focus on qualitative aspects
The use of the balanced scorecard attempts to overcome the over-emphasis of traditional measures on the quantifiable aspects
of the internal operations of an organisation expressed in purely financial terms. Its use requires a balance between
quantitative and qualitative performance measures. For example, customer satisfaction is a qualitative performance measure
which is given prominence under the balanced scorecard approach.
A greater focus on longer term performance
The use of traditional financial measures is often dominated by financial accounting requirements, for example, the need to
show fixed assets at their historic cost. Also, they are primarily focused on short-term profitability and return on capital
employed in order to gain stakeholder approval of short term financial reports, the longer term or whole life cycle often being
ignored.
The limitations of a balanced scorecard approach to performance measurement may be viewed as follows:
The balanced scorecard attempts to identify the chain of cause and effect relationships which will provide the stimulus for
the future success of an organisation.
Advocates of a balanced scorecard approach to performance measurement suggest that it can constitute a vital component
of the strategic management process.
However, Robert Kaplan and David Norton, the authors of the balanced scorecard concept concede that it may not be suitable
for all firms. Norton suggests that it is most suitable for firms which have a long lead time between management action and
financial benefit and that it will be less suitable for firms with a short-term focus. However, other flaws can be detected in
the balanced scorecard.
The balanced scorecard promises to outline the theory of the firm by clearly linking the driver/outcome measures in a cause
and effect chain, but this will be difficult if not impossible to achieve.
The precise cause and effect relationships between measures for each of the perspectives on the balanced scorecard will be
complex because the driver and outcome measures for the various perspectives are interlinked. For example, customer
satisfaction may be seen to be a function of several drivers, such as employee satisfaction, manufacturing cycle time and
quality. However, employee satisfaction may in turn be partially driven by customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction
may partially drive manufacturing cycle time. A consequence of this non-linearity of the cause and effect chain (i.e., there is
non-linear relationship between an individual driver and a single outcome measure), is that there must be a question mark
as to the accuracy of any calculated correlations between driver and outcome measures. Allied to this point, any calculated
correlations will be historic. This implies that it will only be possible to determine the accuracy of cause and effect linkages
after the event, which could make the use of the balanced scorecard in dynamic industries questionable. If the market is
undergoing rapid evolution, for example, how meaningful are current measures of customer satisfaction or market share?
These criticisms do not necessarily undermine the usefulness of the balanced scorecard in presenting a more comprehensive
picture of organisational performance but they do raise doubts concerning claims that a balanced scorecard can be
constructed which will outline a clear cause and effect chain between driver and outcome measures and the firm’s financial
objectives.


24 Sigma’s bank statement shows an overdrawn balance of $38,600 at 30 June 2005. A check against the company’s cash book revealed the following differences:

1 Bank charges of $200 have not been entered in the cash book.

2 Lodgements recorded on 30 June 2005 but credited by the bank on 2 July $14,700.

3 Cheque payments entered in cash book but not presented for payment at 30 June 2005 $27,800.

4 A cheque payment to a supplier of $4,200 charged to the account in June 2005 recorded in the cash book as a receipt.

Based on this information, what was the cash book balance BEFORE any adjustments?

A $43,100 overdrawn

B $16,900 overdrawn

C $60,300 overdrawn

D $34,100 overdrawn

正确答案:A